Advances in Horticultural Science 2021-07-17T13:09:40+00:00 Stefano Mancuso Open Journal Systems <p><strong><em>Advances in Horticultural Science&nbsp;</em></strong>aims to provide a forum for original investigations in horticulture, viticulture and oliviculture. The journal publishes fully refereed papers which cover applied and theoretical approaches to the most recent studies of all areas of horticulture - fruit growing, vegetable growing, viticulture, floriculture, medicinal plants, ornamental gardening, garden and landscape architecture, in temperate, subtropical and tropical regions. Papers on horticultural aspects of agronomic, breeding, biotechnology, entomology, irrigation and plant stress physiology, plant nutrition, plant protection, plant pathology, and pre and post harvest physiology, are also welcomed.</p> <p>The journal scope is the promotion of a sustainable increase of the quantity and quality of horticultural products and the transfer of the new knowledge in the field.</p> <p>Papers should report original research, should be methodologically sound and of relevance to the international scientific community.</p> <p>AHS publishes three types of manuscripts: Full-length - short note - review papers. Papers are published in English.</p> 'Momordica charantia’ introducing a new rootstock for grafted cucumber under low-temperature stress 2021-07-17T13:09:40+00:00 Saber Mohammadnia Maryam Haghighi <p><strong>Cucumber is a sensitive vegetable to low temperatures. Grafting vegetables on different rootstocks can decrease the harmful effects of environmental stresses, including low-temperature stress. An experiment was performed to evaluate grafting cucumbers on different rootstocks at low temperatures. Cucumber growth and yield and photosynthesis traits were examined. Treatments were the optimum temperature (25±2°C), and cold temperature (15±3°C, Ts), and rootstocks, were Momordica charantia (Rmo), Cucurbita maxima (Rma), non-grafted (Rn) and self- grafted (Rs) with 4 replications. Shoot fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll, RWC, transpiration, decreased with temperature stress. The number of female flowers, electrolyte leakage, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance increased with Ts. First fruit emergence per plant, N, P, K, Mg concentration decreased with Ts stress. Transpiration, female flower, RWC, and stomata conductance, N, P, K, Ca, and phenol increased in Rma and Rmo. Mg was at the highest concentration in Rma and Na in Rn. All in all, using Rmo as well as Rma is recommended for rootstock as it causes more reproductive growth.</strong></p> 2021-03-09T10:37:27+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Saber Mohammadnia, Maryam Haghighi Kale seed priming with red seaweed biostimulant 2021-07-17T13:09:35+00:00 Fernando Lemes Ternus Vanessa Neumann Silva Paola Mendes Milanesi Brenda Tortelli <p><strong>Seed priming is a treatment that can contribute to improve seed physiological potential and increase its tolerance to abiotic stresses. Thus, this work evaluated the effect of kale seed priming with red seaweed biostimulant on physiological seed potential, seed health and tolerance to high temperature at germination. The experimental design was completely randomised, with a 2´x4 factorial scheme. Treatments consisted of doses of 0, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 mL L<sup>–1</sup> of red algae <em>Solieria </em>sp. biostimulant, and temperatures of 20 and 30°C. The biostimulant used was subjected to chromatographic analysis to detect bioactive compounds. Seed imbibition curves were used to determine priming duration procedure. Treatments effects were evaluated by seed health, germination, root and shoot length, and dry mass, under ideal (20°C) and stress (30°C) temperatures. The results were submitted to analysis of variance, Tukey’s test (temperatures) and regression (doses). The 22-h imbibition period is adequate for kale seed priming with <em>Solieria</em> sp. biostimulant. Kale seed priming with <em>Solieria</em> sp. does not interfere with seed health. The temperature of 30°C reduces kale seed germination index, as seedling root growth. The use of <em>Solieria</em> sp. biostimulant does not promote kale seed physiological potential.</strong></p> 2021-03-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fernando Lemes Ternus, Vanessa Neumann Silva, Paola Mendes Milanesi, Brenda Tortelli Assessment of pesticide residues level in watermelon fruits [Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg) Matsumura and Nakai] in Lower, Central and Upper Badibou Districts in North Bank Region, of the Gambia 2021-07-17T13:09:32+00:00 Fatou A. Jassey F.E. Babatunde F.D. Manneh <p><strong>Field and laboratory studies were conducted late 2019 in three districts of the Gambia’s North Bank Region; namely, Central Badibou, Lower Badibou and Upper Badibou to ascertain the pesticide residue level in watermelon fruit, determine the insect pest control methods, types of pesticide, frequency of application, and pre-harvest interval observed. Multistage sampling technique was used in selecting the research respondents. Eighty-five (85) farmers were identified; forty-five (45) were randomly selected as research respondents. Data was collected using structured questionnaires. SPSS Software was used to analyse the questionnaires and Gas Chromatograph to determine the pesticide residue level. Data obtained were analysed and compared with the European Union Maximum Residue Limit (MRL). The results of the analysis revealed that the farmers used chemical control method in watermelon production, and applied at frequency of once in every two weeks. Furthermore, the results indicated that the chemical applied at flowering stage and the pre-harvest interval (17-21 days) ranked the highest. The pesticides residues found in the watermelon samples were Dimethoate, Profenophos, Dicofol, Cypermethrin, Lambda-cyhalothrin, Permethrin and Deltamethrin and most were above the MRL. The presence of pesticides residues in the watermelon samples calls for strict regulation on the use of pesticides on watermelon. Further study is recommended in other fruits and vegetables grown in the country especially in the studied region.</strong></p> 2021-03-18T10:01:38+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FATOU A JASSEY Influence of biostimulants and media compositions on growth and yield of Capsicum annuum L. under drought stress conditions 2021-07-17T13:09:28+00:00 Budiyati Ichwan Eliyanti Eliyanti Zulkarnain Zulkarnain <p><strong>The study was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of Agricultural Faculty, University of Jambi, Indonesia, from April through to September 2019. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of biostimulants and media compositions on the growth and yield of chili pepper during restricted soil water content. The study was arranged in a split plot design with 3 replicates (groups). Different types of biostimulants (Citorin®, Hantu®, and a control) were designated as main plot, whereas media compositions (2:2:1, 2:1:1, 1:2:1 and 1:1:2) made of soil+trichocompost+rice husk charcoal were employed as sub plot. At the time of transplanting, soil water content was set to approximately 75% of field capacity to create stress conditions. The results showed that the proper choice of biostimulant and medium composition could increase nutrient status, total sugar and chlorophyll contents, and reduce proline level in plants grown under restricted water availability. Citorin® application on chili plants grown on organic media (soil+trichocompost+rice husk charcoal) with ratio of 2:1:1 could be recommended to support plant growth and production under drought stress conditions.</strong></p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Budiyati Ichwan, Eliyanti Eliyanti, Zulkarnain Zulkarnain Responses of different quality parameters of Chia to arbuscular mycorrhiza and plant growth regulator 2021-07-17T13:09:25+00:00 Hossam Ahmed Ashour Sanaa E.A. Esmail Asmaa El- Attar <p><strong>Field experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) and foliar spray of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and their interaction on vegetative growth, seed yield and yield attributes and some biochemical criteria of chia (<em>Salvia hispanica</em> L.), in a split plot design with three replications. Plants grown in absence or presence of AMF were sprayed every 2 weeks with benzyl adenine (BA), CPPU [N-(2-chloro-4-pyridinyl)-N’-phenylurea], common name forchlorfenuron, and Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 50, 20 and 50 ppm respectively, while control plants were sprayed with tap water. The results revealed that, inoculation with AMF generally caused significant augmentation in all studied growth, yield and yield attributes, total chlorophylls and carbohydrates content in leaves, augmentation in nutritional values of seeds like carbohydrates %, macronutrient, micronutrients, proteins %, total flavonoids, oil % compared to non-inoculated plants. In absence or presence of AMF, application of PGRs generally caused significant increases in the studied parameters compared to control. The interaction between NAA and AMF was more effective since gave higher increases in the studied parameters. It can be concluded that, cultivation of chia plant in presence of mycorrhiza with foliar application of NAA at 50 ppm is recommended for enhancing growth, and nutritional values of seed yield.</strong></p> 2021-03-30T13:46:19+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Hossam Ahmed Ashour Hossam, Sanaa Esmail, Asmaa El- Attar Single and combined effects of Bacillus spp. and brown seaweed (Sargassum vulgare) extracts as bio-stimulants of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) growth 2021-07-17T13:09:21+00:00 Rania AYDI BEN ABDALLAH Nawaim Ammar Fakher Ayed Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine Mejda Daami-Remadi <p><strong><em>Bacillus</em></strong><strong> <em>subtilis</em> SV41, <em>B. amyloliquefaciens </em>subsp. <em>plantarum</em> SV65 and <em>Sargassum vulgare</em> extracts were evaluated for their plant growth-promoting potential on eggplant (<em>Solanum melongena</em><em>&nbsp;</em>L.) plants. Bio-treatments applied singly and/or in combination were further compared to a compost tea and to a commercial bio-fertilizer (Acadian™). Results clearly showed that the combined treatments based on the two <em>Bacillus </em>spp. strains and the aqueous algal extract and the last one mixed with <em>B. amyloliquefaciens </em>subsp. <em>plantarum</em> SV65 induced the highest enhancements in the plant height and the maximum root length which were estimated at 32.4-33.9%, 23.9-25.5% and 23.4-25% and at 36.8-41%, 32.9-37.4% and 36.3-40.5% compared to water, compost tea and Acadian™ based treatments, respectively. Furthermore, the combined treatment based on the aqueous algal extract and <em>B. amyloliquefaciens </em>subsp. <em>plantarum</em> SV65 had significantly improved eggplant growth where the recorded increments in the stem diameter, the aerial part fresh weight, and the root fresh weight varied from 17.5 to 24.6%, 38.4 to 46.1%, and 32.3 to 50% as compared to the three controls, respectively. As for single treatments tested, the aqueous extract had induced a significant improvement in the major growth parameters measured. Developed bio-stimulant was found to be more effective than compost tea and commercial bio-fertilizer based treatments.</strong></p> 2021-04-07T08:40:54+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Rania AYDI BEN ABDALLAH, Nawaim Ammar, Fakher Ayed, Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine, Mejda Daami-Remadi Growth response nitrogen metabolism of grafted cucumber fertilized with different ratios of nitrate: ammonium fertilizer 2021-07-17T13:09:17+00:00 Maryam Haghighi Omid Zamani Lord Abbey LAbbey@Dal.Ca <p><strong>The use of an endemic plant as rootstock has many merits but its application for cucurbits production has not been extensively investigated. The present study determined the growth responses of grafted cucumber using two endemic rootstocks from <em>Cucurbita pepo</em> L. fertilized with different ratios of nitrate (NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>): ammonium (NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>) fertilizer. A greenhouse study was carried out using cucumber (<em>C. sativus</em> ‘Dominos’) grafted on two accessions of <em>Cucurbita pepo</em> L. collected from Babol and Isfahan with the control being ungrafted <em>C. sativus</em> ‘Dominos’. Different ratios of NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>/NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> as follows: 100:0 (NO<sub>3</sub><sup>−</sup> alone), 25/75, 50/50, 75/25 and 0/100 (NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> alone) were applied. It was found that different rootstock has the same physiology but different growth attributes. The growth of the ungrafted cucumber was lower than the grafted ones, and Babol showed better or equal growth compared to the Isfahan rootstock. The NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>/NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> effect on growth of the cucumber shoot and root fresh and dry weights, root and shoot lengths, nodes, and number of leaves were increased in the 75/25 ratio compared to the other treatments. Grafting on the Isfahan and Babol showed the same effect of N metabolism i.e., grafting increased nitrate reductase activity and NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> concentration in the 75/25 and the 100/0. Protein content and amino acids content of leaves increased in the grafted cucumber treated with 50/50 NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>/NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>. The same response of photosynthesis parameters was observed in the different rootstocks. In conclusion, the result suggested that the grafted ‘Dominos’ on Babol endemic rootstock at 50/50 NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>/NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> ratio gave the high growth.</strong></p> 2021-04-07T09:10:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Maryam Haghighi, Omid Zamani, Lord Abbey Effect of harvest time and fruit size on seed germination and seedlings growth of sour orange and Mexican lime under in vitro conditions 2021-07-17T13:09:13+00:00 Sakineh Jokari Akhtar Shekafandeh <p><strong>The aim of this research was to determine the best time to harvest the fruits for seed production which would ultimately lead to the production of citrus rootstocks of optimum quality. The sour orange and Mexican lime fruits were harvested on 7 and 5 occasions, respectively. The very first fruits were harvested 80 days after flowering and subsequent harvests were gathered every 30 days. An <em>in vitro</em> experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, with four replications and 20 seeds in each replication. Based on fruit growth curve the time of fruit harvest affected seed germination (percentage and rate) and seedling growth (stem and root length, fresh and dry weight of stems, roots and leaves).&nbsp; The results showed that the best time to harvest the fruits of sour orange and Mexican lime was 230 and 170 days after flowering, respectively, which led to maximum seed germination (Mexican lime 100% and sour orange 85%) and seedling growth. The highest root, stem and leaf fresh and dry weight was also obtained at 230 and 170 days after flowering in sour orange and Mexican lime respectively.&nbsp; &nbsp;</strong></p> 2021-05-05T13:25:13+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Akhtar Shekafandeh, sakineh Jokari Stem and leaf anatomical and physiological characteristics of ‘Colín V-33’ avocado seedlings 2021-07-17T13:09:09+00:00 Nora Virginia Useche-Carrillo Alejandro Facundo Barrientos-Priego Carlos Alberto Núñez-Colín Eduardo Campos-Rojas Juan Ayala-Arreola <p><strong>The anatomical and physiological structure of the ‘Colín V-33’ avocado stem and leaf is described from samples from plants obtained from seed in order to identify genotypes and early selection parameters in a rootstock improvement program for avocado. Eighty-nine plants of 12 months of age were used, where a total of 25 anatomical variables of the stem, leaf, and physiological of leaf were evaluated. A cluster analysis was conducted that generated a hierarchical dendrogram that suggested six groups of plants. Furthermore, from the 25 variables, eight were selected as discriminant when performing a canonical discriminant analysis, the variables that most discriminated for the first canonical component were: stem diameter and density of xylem vessels, for the second: thickness of the stem epidermis, temperature of the stem leaf and stomata length, while for the third: thickness of the cambium, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance. The genotypes showed a great variation between the groups, the characteristics of these indicated that the genotypes of Group 4 showed some that could be related to small or dwarf plants (smaller stem diameter, high density of xylem vessels, a higher rate of transpiration and stomatal conductance). In contrast to the genotypes of Group 3 which presented opposite characteristics in the previous variables, being able to associate with vigorous plants. The anatomical traits of the stem showed to be highly related to the behavior of the avocado plants. Associating genotypes with physiological and anatomical variables in leaf and stem can have great value for the selection of rootstocks at an early stage of development.</strong></p> 2021-05-06T09:00:41+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Alejandro Facundo Barrientos-Priego, Nora Virginia Useche-Carrillo, Carlos Alberto Núñez-Colín, Eduardo Campos-Rojas, Juan Ayala-Arreola Zucchini squash production in conventional and organic cultivation systems 2021-07-17T13:09:06+00:00 S. Toscano F. Branca Antonio Ferrante D. Romano <p><strong>Organic production must be carried out following the EU regulations and their protocols. On the contrary, conventional cultivation instead can be carried out using the best agronomic approaches available and using the latest innovative resources. Organic cultivation is more widespread in permanent crops (olive and grape crops) than vegetable ones, and even less in protected cultivation systems, due to the high intensity production processes which render the application of organic growing protocols more complex. The comparison between the two systems of cultivation, organic and conventional, is difficult because the two cultivation methods are often carried out in different farms and hence in different environmental conditions. Cultivation using the two methods was conducted in a greenhouse from November to March 2017/2018. Results demonstrated that the total fruit yield zucchini squash in organic cultivation was not significantly different to the conventional one (43.2 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 46.4 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively). The agronomic inputs (fertilizers, fungicides, and insecticides) were higher in the organic cultivation system than conventional one. The water use efficiency was higher in the conventional cultivation system (150.6 kg m<sup>-3</sup> ha<sup>-1</sup>) compared to the organic one (147.6 kg m<sup>-3</sup> ha<sup>-1</sup>). No statistically significant differences were found for the fruit number per plant and for the marketable fruit at the end of the growing period. Significant differences for the harvest period were only detected for fresh weight, shape index, firmness, and titratable acidity. </strong><strong>In conclusion, this work demonstrated that the organic system required higher inputs compared to the conventional cultivation. The extensive experience of the grower allowed for comparable yields between the two systems. </strong></p> 2021-05-21T10:47:05+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Antonio Ferrante Impact of Moroccan Crocus sativus L. tepals, corms, and stigmas extract on growth and photosynthetic pigments in tomato seedling 2021-07-17T13:09:15+00:00 Amine Khoulati E. Saalaoui <p><strong>An experiment was carried out in a greenhouse to study the effect of aqueous extracts of <em>Crocus sativus</em> L. by-products on tomato plants. Three concentrations of tepals and corms were used by fertigation: 1 g/L, 2 g/L, and 3 g/L. The aqueous extract of the stigmas was used as a foliar application at 0.6 g/L. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized block with three repetitions for each concentration. The concentration of tepal extract at 3 g/L significantly (p≤0.05) increased the plants' height, the chlorophyll a, b content. The same results were observed for the foliar treatment with stigmas; however, there was no effect of tepal extract on the carotenoid content. On the other hand, the concentration 2 g/L of the corms extract had a positive impact (p≤0.05) in the chlorophyll b content while the concentration of 3 g/L increased the plant's height, the chlorophyll a (p≤0.05). Current results indicate that <em>Crocus sativus</em> by-products could improve certain physiological aspects of the recipient plants and new and natural biostimulants.</strong></p> 2021-04-09T10:17:04+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 amine khoulati