Advances in Horticultural Science <p><strong><em>Advances in Horticultural Science&nbsp;</em></strong>aims to provide a forum for original investigations in horticulture, viticulture and oliviculture. The journal publishes fully refereed papers which cover applied and theoretical approaches to the most recent studies of all areas of horticulture - fruit growing, vegetable growing, viticulture, floriculture, medicinal plants, ornamental gardening, garden and landscape architecture, in temperate, subtropical and tropical regions. Papers on horticultural aspects of agronomic, breeding, biotechnology, entomology, irrigation and plant stress physiology, plant nutrition, plant protection, plant pathology, and pre and post harvest physiology, are also welcomed.</p> <p>The journal scope is the promotion of a sustainable increase of the quantity and quality of horticultural products and the transfer of the new knowledge in the field.</p> <p>Papers should report original research, should be methodologically sound and of relevance to the international scientific community.</p> <p>AHS publishes three types of manuscripts: Full-length - short note - review papers. Papers are published in English.</p> en-US <p>Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (<a href="">CC-BY-4.0</a>)</strong>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a></p> (Stefano Mancuso) Fri, 24 Apr 2020 08:01:53 +0000 OJS 60 Development of interspecific hybrids between Habenaria radiata and Habenaria rhodocheila complex <p><strong>Reciprocal crosses between <em>Habenaria radiata</em> and <em>H. rhodocheila</em> complex were investigated to develop new hybrids. The fruit-setting frequency and seed germination in the cross combination of <em>H. radiata </em>× <em>H. rhodocheila</em> complex were higher than those of <em>H. rhodocheila</em> complex × <em>H. radiata.</em> The hybridity of the obtained progenies was confirmed through PCR-RFLP analysis of the rRNA gene. Cross combinations producing true hybrids, apomicts, or both were observed, indicating that both <em>H. radiata</em> and <em>H. rhodocheila</em> complex were facultative apomixis. The obtained hybrids, <em>H. radiata</em> × <em>H. rhodocheila</em> (orange flower), showed the intermediate plant form and flower shape of the parents, and both petals and lip were pale yellow</strong></p> Punpaka Sinumporn , T. Narumi-Kawasaki, S. Fukai Copyright (c) 2020 Punpaka Sinumporn , T. Narumi-Kawasaki, S. Fukai Fri, 28 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of foliar spray of calcium lactate on the growth, yield and biochemical attribute of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) under water deficit stress <p><strong>The field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of foliar spray of calcium lactate (Ca) on fresh yield and biochemical attribute of lettuce (<em>Lactuca sativa</em> L.) under water deficit stress, in a split plot form based on a randomized complete block design with three Irrigation regimes (70, 85 and 100% ETc) and three calcium lactate treatment levels (0, 0.75 and 1.5 g L<sup>-1</sup>) in three replicates. Results revealed that water deficit stress significantly reduced the growth and yield of plant, leaf relative water contents, excised leaf water retention and N, P and Mg absorption while led to increase anthocyanin, phenol and flavonoids contents, antioxidant activity, peroxidase and catalase activity and water use efficiency. The results of our research indicated that the application of CaL 1.5 g L<sup>-1 </sup>is capable of increasing lettuce yield, under field conditions with 30% less than optimal irrigation. CaL treatment showed a clearly protective effect in stressed plants, enhancing their leaf water status, antioxidant capacity and N and Ca contents in comparison to untreated plants. Therefore, feeding leaves by CaL with increasing antioxidant activity and nutrients content especially N led to increase growth and fresh yield of lettuce under normal irrigation and water deficit conditions.</strong></p> A. Khani, Taher Barzegar, J. Nikbakht, Z. Ghahremani Copyright (c) 2020 A. Khani, Taher Barzegar, Z. Ghahremani Fri, 28 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of different colored netting on quantitative and qualitative traits of two foliage plant species (Codiaeum variegatum and Aglaonema commutatum) <p><strong>Photoselective netting is a new group of colored netting developing in the past few decades. The effect of colored (red, green, and yellow) netting was studied on physiological traits of <em>Codiaeum </em>and <em>Aglaonema </em>in a trial in Flowers and Ornamental Plants Research Station of Lahijan, north of Iran. The trial was based on a split-plot experiment with two factors. The first factor was devoted to colored netting at four levels (no netting, green, yellow, and red) and the second factor was devoted to plant species at two levels of <em>Codiaeum </em>and <em>Aglaonema </em>based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed the positive effect of yellow netting on improving the vegetative capability of the plants, so that the highest plant height, shoot and root fresh and dry weight, and leaf area were observed in the plants grown under the yellow netting. Also, the highest anthocyanin, carotenoid contents, and catalase activity were obtained from the red netting and the highest Brix° and total chlorophyll from the red and yellow netting. According to the results, the highest vegetative growth rate was related to <em>Codiaeum</em>. The application of the colored nets provided the plants with more optimal growth conditions. </strong></p> Seyedeh Khadijeh Abbasnia Zare, Shahram Sedaghathoor, Mohammad-Naghi Padasht Dahkaei, Davood Hashemabadi Copyright (c) 2020 Seyedeh Khadijeh Abbasnia Zare, Shahram Sedaghathoor, Mohammad-Naghi Padasht Dahkaei, Davood Hashemabadi Fri, 28 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Different substrates for seedling production of Euterpe Oleracea Mart. <p><strong>The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of substrates involving different combinations of soil, cattle manure, burnt rice husks, sand and commercial substrate on growth in the açai palm (<em>Euterpe oleracea</em>&nbsp;Mart.) under nursery conditions in the State of Roraima. The experiment was conducted in the Fruit-Farming Sector of Embrapa Roraima, located in the district of Boa Vista. The experimental design was completely randomised, with nine treatments and four replications of five plants per replication. The treatments were T1: sand, T2: commercial substrate (OrganoAmazon</strong><strong><sup>©</sup></strong><strong>), T3: 25% T1 + 75% manure, T4: 50% T1 + 50% manure, T5: 75% T1 + 25% manure, T6: 25% T1 + 75% burnt rice husks, T7: 50% T1 + 50% burnt rice husks, T8: 75% T1 + 25% burnt rice husks and T9: 25% soil + 25% sand + 25% manure + 25% burnt rice husks. The morphological characteristics plant height (H), stem diameter (SD) and number of leaves (NF) were evaluated every 30 days from transplanting to the end of the experiment (210 days). The root dry weight (RDW), shoot dry weight (SDW), total dry weight (TDW) and the Dickson quality index (DQI) were obtained at 210 days. The substrates composed of 50% sand + 50% manure and 25% soil + 25% sand + 25% manure + 25% burnt rice husks are indicated for the production of seedlings of </strong><strong><em>Euterpe oleracea</em></strong><strong>&nbsp;Mart., as they provide superior growth in plant height and stem diameter, and improve total dry-weight production in the plants.</strong></p> Oscar José Smiderle, Aline das Graças Souza, Renata Diane Menegatti, Thayane de Jesus Silva Copyright (c) 2020 Oscar José Smiderle, Aline das Graças Souza, Renata Diane Menegatti, Thayane de Jesus Silva Mon, 10 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cefixime manages internal bacterial contamination during tissue culture operation <p><strong>Large-scale propagation of <em>Pyrus communis</em>, which is a difficult-to-root species, is dependent on tissue culture technique. However, internal bacterial contaminations are an obstacle in tissue culture of fruit tree species. For this purpose, this investigation was conducted with several experiments to manage bacterial contamination. First, gram test for bacterial contamination related to <em>Pyrus</em> shoots proliferating was conducted. Gram test revealed that bacteria contaminating pear shoots were negative gram. Then, we investigated the application of cefixime (0, 100, 300 and 500 mg L<sup>-1</sup>) or ampicillin (0, 100, 300 and 500 mg L<sup>-1</sup>) for managing bacterial contaminations. It was found that the contaminated area on medium containing 500 mg L<sup>-1 </sup>cefixime (63.585 mm<sup>2</sup>) was lower than other treatments (803.84 mm<sup>2</sup>). Therefore, cefixime at 500 mg L<sup>-1</sup> was selected to control the bacterial contamination. Next, different procedures were used included shaking with (1: sterile distilled water, 2: 500 mg L<sup>-1</sup> cefixime and culturing in media with 500 mg L<sup>-1</sup> cefixime, 3: 500 mg L<sup>-1</sup> cefixime, culturing and subculturing in media with 500 mg L<sup>-1</sup> cefixime 4: Disinfection). The third procedure was known the best due to the low bacterial contamination percentage and rate also the healthy growth of plants. Finally, the effect of gibberellic acid at 0 and 1 mg L<sup>-1</sup> was investigated to compensate for shoot growth reducing in the presence of cefixime. 1 mg L<sup>-1</sup> gibberellic acid improved the growth indices in the presence of cefixime</strong></p> Atefe Ameri, Golam Hossein Davarynejad, Ali Tehranifar, N. Moshtaghi Copyright (c) 2020 A. Ameri Tue, 03 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Improving water productivity and yield of onion crop by combining early planting and straw mulch under different irrigation levels in dry Mediterranea region <p><strong>&nbsp;In response to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by United Nations, combining using straw mulching, the proper crop planting date, and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is fundamental to adapt to climate change and to promote sustainable agriculture in the dry Mediterranean region. Two-year pot experiment under field conditions (2017 and 2018) was conducted</strong> <strong>in Damascus Countryside, Syria (altitude 600 m), to evaluate the onion crop response to early planting, irrigation level, and straw mulching. Treatments composed of three different planting dates with 28-day intervals (two early dates in February and March, and the traditional date in April), three irrigation levels (100, 80, and 60% of crop evapotranspiration, ETc), and two types of soil cover (with and without wheat straw mulch), with three replicates. Findings revealed that the seasonal ETc decreased from about 900 mm under current practice (planting in April without mulch) to only about 550 mm under both straw mulch and earliness in planting. Large bulb yield increases (more than double) were also obtained. Moreover, early planting using straw mulching significantly enhanced the onion crop response to RDI, even at 60% of ETc.</strong> <strong>Combining early planting in February, straw mulching, and full irrigation represents the best agricultural management.</strong></p> I. Mubarak Copyright (c) 2020 I. Mubarak Wed, 01 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Production of seed-propagated compact potted Corylopsis plant in one year <p><strong>The feasibility to produce compact <em>Corylopsis sinensis</em> var. <em>calvescens</em> and <em>C. coreana</em> plant in a 10 cm pot in one year from transplanting seedlings with maximized number of short shoots and inflorescences was investigated. <em>Corylopsis sinensis</em> var. <em>calvescens </em>was selected as a suitable species to produce compact plant with inflorescences. Slow release fertilizer (SRF) at a rate of 0, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 g per pot was applied to the surface of the growing medium (Expt. 1). Shoots were pinched 2 (Feb. 28), 4, 6, and 8 weeks (May 16) (Expt. 2) after transplanting, and ancymidol, paclobutrazol, chlormequat, and daminozide plant growth retardants were treated (Expt. 3). Application of a SRF at 0.5 g per pot and pinching four times at 2-week intervals before May 16 effectively increased the flowering percentages and the number of stems with inflorescences, to accelerate flowering, and also produced a compact plants. Paclobutrazol at 10-20 mg/L applied as soil drench was effective in inhibiting stem elongation in the first year; however, higher concentrations should be avoided to prevent excessive reduction in the growth of shoots and production of malformed inflorescences.</strong></p> Ji Hee Kim, Jeung Keun Suh, Seong-Tak Yoon, Mark S. Roh Copyright (c) 2020 Ji Hee Kim, Jeung Keun Suh, Seong-Tak Yoon, Mark S. Roh Wed, 01 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Varietal differences in sweetness value and flesh juiciness among persimmon cultivars <p><strong>To promote persimmon breeding project, we analyzed the sugar composition (a ratio of sucrose to hexose sugars, SH ratio) and flesh juiciness of 43 persimmon cultivars (<em>Diospyros kaki </em>Thunb.) consisting of 24 pollination-constant non-astringent (PCNA)-types and 19 non-PCNA-types, together with other fruit quality traits. The cultivar collection includes newly-released cultivars after 1990 and commercially-produced local cultivars in Japan. These cultivars were broadly classified into three types: sucrose accumulators, intermediate accumulators, hexose accumulators. Analysis of variance showed that the genotypic effect on the SH ratio and flesh juiciness is high with negligibly small environmental variance, indicating that SH ratio and flesh juiciness can be determined by a one-year trial without tree replication. Highly varietal diversity in the SH ratio and flesh juiciness was observed within and between persimmon cultivar types. Sweetness value (SSC × SH ratio) of the cultivars/selections seems to be a useful predictor of fruit sweetness. In terms of palatability, however, persimmon cultivar’s improvement should be performed on the sweetness value in association with flesh juiciness.</strong></p> Mikio Shiraishi, Hideaki Asakuma Copyright (c) 2020 Mikio Shiraishi, Hideaki Asakuma Wed, 01 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Salicylic acid effects on some physiochemical properties and secondary metabolite accumulation in Mentha piperita L. under water deficit stress <p><strong>Salicylic acid (SA) play important roles in different physiological processes of plants such as plant growth, stress response, plant adaptation and secondary metabolite accumulation. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of exogenous SA applications on the growthmeasurements such as fresh and dry weight of aerial part and lead dry weight, biochemical properties (membrane permeability, lipid peroxidation, Proline content and ROS scavenger enzymes) and secondary metabolite accumulation(total phenolic and the flavonoid and essential oil content) in peppermint (<em>Mentha piperita</em> L.) plants grown at different levels of water deficit stress (Field capacity: FC). For this aim, three different water deficit stress (no stress (100% FC), mild stress (75% FC) and moderate stress (50% FC)) and four different SA concentrations (0, 1, 2 and 2.5 mM) were applied to peppermint plants. Results showed that all of the measured parameters were affected by the water deficit stress and SA application. By elevating the level of water deficit stress, fresh and dry weights of aerial parts and dry leaf weight decreased. Increasing in the water deficit stress level from mild to moderate stress resulted to reduce the essential oil content while proline, lipid peroxidation, total phenolic contents, flavonoid content, and antioxidant enzyme activities increased depending on water deficit stress. Exogenous application of SA obstructed the negative effects of water deficit stress by decreasing the lipid peroxidation and membrane permeability and improving the antioxidant enzymes activities. Essential oil content increased significantly in plant treated with SA grown under water deficit stress conditions. Application of 2 or 2.5 mM of SA enhanced the plant growth and development without any toxic effects and increased significantly the total phenolic content, dry leaf weight, and the essential oil content in stressed and even in control (100% FC) peppermint plants.</strong></p> Gholamreza Abdi, Lila Karami Copyright (c) 2020 Lila Karami, Gholamreza Abdi Wed, 01 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The toxicity potential of Ag nanoparticles synthesized from Cordia myxa L. <p><strong>Plant-mediated nanoparticles synthesis is considered as one of the appealing options in bio-nanoparticles synthesis, however, there is contradictory information about the positive or negative impacts of nanoparticles on plants. Investigating the toxic effects of Ag NPs on model plants, such as onion, can reveal the probability of damage. Thus, the present study was conducted to compare the germination indices and biochemical parameters of edible onion seeds treated with different concentrations of two types of silver nanoparticles (green synthesized and chemical synthesized) to examine the oxidative stress. Based on our results, the interaction between leaf extract and silver salt resulted in a color change from pale yellow to dark brown, the first sign of the AgNPs formation. The green AgNPs treatment improved the onion germination indices. The green AgNPs-exposed seeds displayed a no-significant reduction in protein content and same protease activity as the control treatment, but chemical AgNPs-treated displayed a significant rise of protease and reduction in protein content in concentration more than 0.06 gL<sup>-1</sup>. In chemical AgNPs-treated seeds both peroxidase and catalase displayed an ascending linear trend and the most activities belonged to chemical AgNPs at 0.05 g L<sup>-1</sup> (315.62 and 51.45 μmol min<sup>-1</sup>g<sup>-1 </sup>FW, respectively). Both nanoparticle types made an increase in MDA, but green AgNPs did not significantly differ with control treatment. It can be concluded that the green synthesis of nanoparticles is a safe and suitable alternative for chemical-synthesized metal nanoparticles.</strong></p> Zahra Akbarnejad-Samani, Mansoore Shamili, Fayezeh Samari Copyright (c) 2020 Zahra Akbarnejad-Samani, Mansoore Shamili, Fayezeh Samari Wed, 01 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Indirect shoot organogenesis and in vitro root formation of Antirrhinum majus L. by using of sodium nitroprusside <p><strong>The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on <em>in vitro</em> shoot organogenesis from hypocotyl explant derived from <em>in vitro</em> grown seedling as well as root formation of <em>Antirrhinum majus </em>L. (Snapdragon). In the first experiment, different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (0, 2.26, 4.52, and 6.79 μM) were used for callus formation. The highest callus fresh weight (1.86 g) as well as callogenesis frequency (93.34%) were observed in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 4.52 μM 2,4-D. In the later experiments, various concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 μM) of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were applied for shoot regeneration from callus that derived from hypocotyl segments. Based on our results, MS medium supplemented with 4.44 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) plus 0.49 μM 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA) along with 30 μM SNP had the highest shoot organogenesis frequency (93.34%) and shoot number (6.33) from callus. In root induction experiment, different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 μM) of SNP were applied and MS medium containing 60 μM SNP was the best treatment for root induction. The survival rate of plantlets was more than 95% in acclimatization stage. The present study describes an efficient regeneration system for Snapdragon.</strong></p> Mohammad Saleh Rezaei Zafarghandi, Mostafa Rahmati-Joneidabad Copyright (c) 2020 Mohammad Saleh Rezaei Zafarghandi, Mostafa Rahmati-Joneidabad Wed, 01 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Determining the main agronomic traits of snake melon (Cucumis melo var. flexuosus L.) fruits as affected by genotypic differences <p><strong>The variability affecting the main agronomic traits of 10 snake melon genotypes (<em>Cucumis melo</em> var. <em>flexuosus </em>L.) (three F1 hybrids, six breeding lines and the widely grown and consumed traditional cultivar Mornagui), grown under greenhouse conditions during 2014 and 2015 seasons, was examined and compared. Their resistance to powdery mildew was also checked. The main production-driving agronomic traits varied significantly (P&lt;0.05) depending on the genotype. The major skin colour determined visually was different among the considered genotypes. The hybrids (H5 and H12) and the breeding lines (L1, L2, L5, L6 and L9) had dark green skin. The fruits of the hybrid H7 were dark and light green and the breeding line L4 has intense and dark green fruits whereas cv. Mornagui was characterized by medium light green fruits. Regarding fruit shape, the hybrids H7 and H5 produced straight fruits whereas the hybrid H12 and the breeding lines; L2, L4, L5, and L9 and the cv Mornagui had elongate fruits. However both breeding lines L1 and L6 were characterized by straight elongate fruits. The F1 hybrid H5 was the most productive (3.6 Kg/plant and ≈ 21 fruits/plant for total yield and number of fruit/plant respectively). These findings are useful for further breeding programs aiming to develop new powdery mildew resistant snake melon cultivars with satisfying agronomic traits. </strong></p> Riadh Ilahy, I. Tlili, H.C. Rouhou, M.W. Siddiqui, P.M. Mishra, V.S. Kuchi, F. Homa, C. Hdider, H. Jebari, Marcello Salvatore Lenucci Copyright (c) 2020 Riadh Ilahy, I. Tlili, H.C. Rouhou, M.W. Siddiqui, P.M. Mishra, V.S. Kuchi, F. Homa, C. Hdider, H. Jebari, Marcello Salvatore Lenucci Fri, 28 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000