Advances in Horticultural Science <p><strong><em>Advances in Horticultural Science&nbsp;</em></strong>aims to provide a forum for original investigations in horticulture, viticulture and oliviculture. The journal publishes fully refereed papers which cover applied and theoretical approaches to the most recent studies of all areas of horticulture - fruit growing, vegetable growing, viticulture, floriculture, medicinal plants, ornamental gardening, garden and landscape architecture, in temperate, subtropical and tropical regions. Papers on horticultural aspects of agronomic, breeding, biotechnology, entomology, irrigation and plant stress physiology, plant nutrition, plant protection, plant pathology, and pre and post harvest physiology, are also welcomed.</p> <p>The journal scope is the promotion of a sustainable increase of the quantity and quality of horticultural products and the transfer of the new knowledge in the field.</p> <p>Papers should report original research, should be methodologically sound and of relevance to the international scientific community.</p> <p>AHS publishes three types of manuscripts: Full-length - short note - review papers. Papers are published in English.</p> en-US <p>Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (<a href="">CC-BY-4.0</a>)</strong>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a></p> (Stefano Mancuso) Fri, 04 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Watercore in ‘Pomella Genovese’ apples: quality characteristics and antioxidants <p><strong>The study aimed to evaluate apple fruit affected by watercore by a physical and biochemical point of view and, at the same time, to gain an insight into the mechanisms of the watercore-related oxidative stress and browning. Fruit of the cv. Pomella Genovese (<em>Malus x domestica</em> Borkh.) were harvested in three different orchards and stored at 1°C (85-90% RH) for 4 months. The following analysis were performed on the fruit flesh: density, mechanical (firmness and stiffness) and acoustic (crispness) parameters, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity, ascorbic acid (AA), dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), total phenols and antioxidant activity (DPPH). In all the three orchards, fruit affected by watercore (W-Fruit) had a higher density and SSC than watercore-free ones (WF-fruit), probably because of the sugar-rich liquid that accumulates in the intercellular spaces. The peel colour of the W-fruit was darker, their flesh was firmer and crispier and the content in total phenols increased with respect to the WF samples. Watercore led to a decrease of AA and to an increase of DHA, probably caused by an imbalance of the ascorbic-glutathione cycle. The altered AA/DHA ratio can indicate an oxidative stress status of the fruit. DPPH was higher in W fruit and was related to the phenol content (r=0.83) but not with AA.</strong></p> Marina Buccheri, Rosita Caramanico, Virginia Ughini, Maurizio Grassi, Maristella Vanoli Copyright (c) 2020 Marina Buccheri, Rosita Caramanico, Virginia Ughini, Maurizio Grassi, Maristella Vanoli Wed, 26 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Postharvest aptitude of Begonia semperflorens and Viola cornuta edible flowers <p><strong>The edible flowers are sold as pot plants or fresh cut produce and are attracting interest recently thanks not only to their organoleptic characteristics but also to their content in bioactive molecules. However, there is little information about the variations that these characteristics undergo during postharvest. In this study, the productivity and longevity of <em>Begonia x semperflorens-cultorum</em> Hort. and <em>Viola cornuta</em> L. pot plants were evaluated in an interior environment simulating the house conditions. Besides, the effect of cold storage (4°C) was evaluated on the aesthetic quality and the bioactive compounds content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins, antioxidant activity through FRAP assay) of <em>B. semperflorens</em> and <em>V. cornuta</em> fresh cut flowers, using two different packaging, modelling a plastic box or a flowpack. The results suggest that <em>V. cornuta</em> could be a better choice for retailers because of its longer shelf life and better maintenance of its content in bioactive compounds, especially in the flowpack packaging. Conversely, <em>B. semperflorens</em> could be more suitable as pot plant, showing more adaptability and flower production in a domestic environment.</strong></p> Sonia Demasi, Nicole Melanie Falla, Matteo Caser, Valentina Scariot Copyright (c) 2020 Sonia Demasi, Nicole Melanie Falla, Matteo Caser, Valentina Scariot Mon, 04 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Modified atmosphere packaging to improve the shelf-life of Goji berries during cold storage <p><strong>This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the quality parameters and the shelf-life of fresh goji berries. Fruits, placed in trays, were closed in passive modified atmosphere packaging (pMAP) using polypropylene bags or kept in open polyethylene bags (AIR) as control. Samples were analyzed just after harvest and during storage (5, 13 days) at 7°C for visual quality (VQ), color parameters, weight loss, dry weight, total soluble solids (TSS), antioxidant activity (AA) and total phenols (TP), while respiration rate (RR) was evaluated only after 5 days. Changes in gas composition in pMAP samples was measured daily. The use of pMAP allowed to reduce the RR of about 26% compared to fresh sample, to preserve the berries weight loss during storage and their marketability until 13 day at 7°C, while AIR samples were not edible after 5 days due to mold growth on the berries surfaces. No changes of color parameters, dry weight, TSS, AA and TP were observed during storage comparing treatments. In conclusion, the use of pMAP was able to extend the shelf-life of goji berries for 13 days at 7°C, 8 days more than berries stored in AIR.</strong></p> Michela Palumbo, Imperatrice Capotorto, Maria Cefola, Salvatore Burbaci, Bernardo Pace Copyright (c) 2020 Michela Palumbo, Imperatrice Capotorto, Maria Cefola, Salvatore Burbaci, Bernardo Pace Tue, 21 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Short-term low temperature treatments of harvested wine grapes (cv. Vermentino) affect the volatile organic compound profile of the berries <p><strong>In the recent years, due to the climate change and the effects of greenhouse gases average temperatures are increasing. Grapes cultivated in Mediterranean areas are exposed to high temperatures especially during the late growing season and at harvest. This may induce undesirable biochemical processes (e.g. aroma losses and oxidative reactions) with negative effects on the berry composition and specific quality traits of the resulting wine. In the present study the effect of short-term low temperature treatments on harvested grapes before vinification have been evaluated. Bunches of wine grapes cv.Vermentino have been hand-harvested and then refrigerated at 4°C and 10°C for 24 and 48 hours, while 22°C has been used as a control temperature. Grapes were analysed in terms of technological parameters (weight loss, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH and total polyphenols) and volatile organic compound profile by HS-SPME GC-MS. Low-temperature post-harvest treatments affect total polyphenols content of the berries and appear to reduce the heat-related aroma loss, increase the content of four volatile terpenoids and decrease the accumulation of ethyl acetate.</strong></p> Margherita Modesti, Ron Shmulevitz, Stefano Brizzolara, Pietro Tonutti Copyright (c) 2020 Margherita Modesti, Ron Shmulevitz, Stefano Brizzolara, Pietro Tonutti Mon, 04 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The residues of fruit and vegetable processing: from "waste" to "resource" of natural phytochemical compounds <p><strong>The project of Sant’Anna School, in line with the Italian legislation on limiting waste and promoting the redistribution of surpluses and unused goods, aimed to study the potential healthy value of residues obtained from the transformation of fruit and vegetable products that represent a cost, as they must be handled, stored and disposed according to stringent actual regulations. Two “model” species (potato and apple) were considered to test the possibility of using industrial processing waste for food applications. The extracts, obtained with “green” methods from potato and apple peels, were evaluated as natural antioxidants in the preparation of minimally processed fresh-cut apple. Results suggest the possibility to use these novel byproduct extracts as valuable alternative treatments to traditional chemical additives employed for minimally processed apples.</strong></p> Susanna Bartolini, M. Orlando, Alice Trivellini, F. Venturi, C. Sanmartin, I. Taglieri, M. Macaluso, A. Zinnai, Anna Mensuali-Sodi Copyright (c) 2020 Anna Mensuali Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Non-destructive detection of potato tubers internal defects: critical insight on the use of time-resolved spectroscopy <p><strong>Aiming at investigating the feasibility of time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy (TRS) for the non-destructive detection of internal brown spot (IBS) and other defects in ‘El Beida’ potatoes, 90 tubers were measured in 8 points by TRS for the absorption coefficient at 730 nm (<em>µ</em><sub>a</sub>730) and then transversally cut open for recording presence and position of internal defects and IBS severity. The <em>µ</em><sub>a</sub>730 was lower in healthy tissue than in defected ones and increased with increasing IBS severity with no difference between healthy and slightly IBS tissues. Tubers having at least one out of the eight <em>µ</em><sub>a</sub>730 measures ≥ 0.04262 cm<sup>-1</sup> were considered “defected”. Therefore, TRS tubers classification performance were: defected, 73.5%; healthy, 45.5%; slightly IBS, 57.1%; moderate IBS, 60%; and severe IBS, 100% of the cases. Misclassification could be due to the high variability in flesh color of ‘El Beida’ potatoes, as some healthy tubers showed <em>L</em>*, <em>b</em>* and <em>C</em>* color parameters very similar to that of defected ones, especially when IBS severity was slight or moderate, resulting in <em>µ</em><sub>a</sub>730 values not significantly different between healthy and IBS tissues. The feasibility of TRS in detecting internal disorders in potatoes must be investigated in other susceptible cultivar to see if flesh color can represent a real problem in the detection of defects linked to browning development.</strong></p> Ayman Ibrahim, Maurizio Grassi, Fabio Lovati, Bruno Parisi, Lorenzo Spinelli, Alessandro Torricelli, Anna Rizzolo, Maristella Vanoli Copyright (c) 2020 Maristella Vanoli, Ayman Ibrahim, Maurizio Grassi, Fabio Lovati, Bruno Parisi, Lorenzo Spinelli, Alessandro Torricelli, Anna Rizzolo Mon, 04 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 New active packaging for improving the shelf life and quality of tomato <p><strong>Packaging materials play an important role in the quality preservation during postharvest storage and shelf life of fruits and vegetables. </strong><strong>The properties of film can affect the gas composition and indirectly the physiology of the products. Nowadays, several additives can be used for improving the film permeability or reducing certain gases such as ethylene. The Group Research Labs of SAES Getters S.p.A. have developed, in collaboration with its affiliate company SAES Coated Films S.p.A. a highly selective packaging system for ethylene, including an integrated absorber in the form of a coating (1-2 µm), with good transparency and an additional anti-fog function, which can be deposited on various plastic films. The objective of the work was the evaluation of this new active packaging on 'cherry' type tomato berries (<em>Solanum lycopersicum</em> L.) during storage. The control consisted of a macro-perforated polypropylene film used for flow-pack packaging. Two experimental tests were conducted, the first during cold storage (10 ± 2 ° C) and the second at room temperature (22 ± 2 ° C). The analyses carried out included visual appearance, weight loss, gas exchanges, relative humidity, volatile organic compounds (VOC), colour, titratable acidity, refractometric index (° Brix) and the concentration of lycopene and </strong><strong>β</strong><strong>-carotene.</strong></p> <p><strong>The use of the innovative packaging did not alter the main quality indicators of the tomato (° Brix, acidity, colour). In general, the parameter that had the greatest impact on the product metabolism was the storage temperature. The VOC concentration was influenced by packaging film, with a greater accumulation in the samples packed with active packaging compared to the control. Moreover, the same material determined a reduction in weight loss, a greater accumulation of CO<sub>2</sub> and a significant reduction in O<sub>2</sub>, especially at 22 °C. At the end of the storage, the berries stored in the active packaging showed higher levels of lycopene, compared to controls, and a reduction in </strong><strong>β</strong><strong>-carotene, indicating an active role of the packaging in modulating the content of bioactive compounds in the fruits. It can be concluded that the use of this innovative material can represent an effective tool for improving the postharvest management of tomato berries.</strong></p> Giacomo Cocetta, M. Riva, G. Castelli, Antonio Ferrante Copyright (c) 2020 Giacomo Cocetta Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Different growing conditions can modulate metabolites content during post-harvest of Viola cornuta L. edible flowers <p><strong>Edible flowers are inflorescences traditionally used in various part of the world to enrich sweet and savoury recipes. The flowers of <em>Viola</em> spp. were appreciated since the Romans, and today the fresh products are n</strong><strong>ow incorporated as ingredients in different culinary preparations</strong><strong>. In this work, cultivation of potted <em>Viola cornuta</em> L. cv. Penny Lane was performed in greenhouse with different environmental conditions (basal heating, additional LED lighting and moisture management) and therefore the biomass production (number of flowers per square meter and plant dimension per pot) was assessed. The plants are characterised by flowers with dark purple and orange petals in the same corolla. The shelf-life of detached flowers was studied in post-harvest conditions at 0 and 4 days of cold storage at 4°C (polyethylene boxes, 12/12 h light/dark condition) to simulate the condition of I gamma products. Sugars and secondary metabolites were analysed. Basal heating seems not to increase flower number but could contribute to reach a well-balanced simultaneous presence of different antioxidant molecules (polyphenols, anthocyanins, carotenoids). Our data highlight that the short cold storage under light condition lead to an increase in the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity, although a general reduction in pigments and sugars is observed. </strong></p> Ilaria Marchioni, Lisaura Colla, Laura Pistelli, Barbara Ruffoni, Federico Tinivella, Giovanni Minuto Copyright (c) 2020 LAURA PISTELLI, Ilaria MARCHIONI, Lisaura Colla, BArbara Ruffoni, Federico Tinivella, Giovanni Minuto Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Anthocyanin and carotenoid contents assessed by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) with different flesh colors <p><strong>This work aimed at studying the relationships between the absorption spectra acquired by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy (TRS) and the carotenoid (CAR) and/or the anthocyanin (ANT) contents in 9 potato genotypes with different flesh color (white, yellow, red, purple). Fifty whole and intact tubers/genotype were non-destructively measured by TRS in the 540-980 nm range; white- and yellow-fleshed were ranked according to increasing <em>µ</em><sub>a</sub>540, the red ones according to <em>µ</em><sub>a</sub>670 and the purple ones according to <em>µ</em><sub>a</sub>780. Then, 5 tubers/genotype, corresponding to the highest, the lowest and 3 intermediate values of each </strong><strong><em>μ</em></strong><strong><sub>a</sub></strong><strong> range, were analyzed for flesh color and CAR and ANT contents. In white- and yellow-fleshed genotypes, <em>µ</em><sub>a</sub>540 ranged from 0.078 to 0.207 cm<sup>-1</sup>, showing the highest value in ‘Melrose’ and in ‘ISCI 133/12-1’ and the lowest ones in ‘Romantica’ and in ‘CN 07.16.3’. In red-fleshed tubers, <em>µ</em><sub>a</sub>670 ranged from 0.049 to 0.146 with no significant differences between genotypes; in purple genotypes, <em>µ</em><sub>a</sub>780 ranged from 0.147 to 0.473, showing the highest values in ‘Bleuet’. CAR content ranged between 0.071 to 5.937 mg kg</strong><strong><sup>-</sup></strong><strong><sup>1</sup></strong><strong> FW, displaying the highest amounts in the deep yellow genotypes ‘Melrose’ and ‘ISCI 133/12-1’ and the lowest ones in the white ‘CN 07.16.3’ and in the dark purple ‘Bleuet’ tubers. ANT content ranged from 31.63 to 798.44 mg kg</strong><strong><sup>-</sup></strong><strong><sup>1 </sup></strong><strong>FW in red-purple genotypes, having the highest values in ‘Bleuet’. By using TRS spectra and PLS analysis, it was possible to predict CAR (R<sup>2</sup><sub>CV</sub>=0.79, RMSECV=0.89) and ANT (R<sup>2</sup><sub>CV</sub> =0.81, RMSECV=95.53) contents and flesh color (<em>h°</em>) in yellow-fleshed genotypes (R<sup>2</sup><sub>CV</sub> =0.93, RMSECV=0.67) and purple genotypes (R<sup>2</sup><sub>CV</sub> =0.82, RMSECV=1.63).</strong></p> Maristella Vanoli, Lorenzo Spinelli, Alessandro Torricelli, Ayman Ibrahim, Bruno Parisi, Roberto Lo Scalzo, Anna Rizzolo Copyright (c) 2020 Maristella Vanoli, Lorenzo Spinelli, Alessandro Torricelli, Ayman Ibrahim, Bruno Parisi, Roberto Lo Scalzo, Anna Rizzolo Thu, 18 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of kaolin-based particle film on physiological, nutritional, nutraceuticals parameters and Ceratitis capitata infestations in peach fruit at harvest and after storage <p><strong>The Mediterranean fruit fly (<em>Ceratitis capitata</em> Wiedemann) is a worldwide pest of economi importance because&nbsp; attacks a large number of agricultural crops and for the extent of the damage it causes. Among the alternative control strategies to the use of sprays with synthetic insecticides, a very important role can be played by powders obtained from rocks whose activity arise from the ability to form a film of white powder, which acts as a repellent and irritant to insects. This film can also interfere with plants’ physiology and affect quality of fruit. In this study the efficacy of a commercial kaolin-based formulation to control medfly infestations was compared to synthetic insecticides commonly used against this pest (phosmet, alfa-cypermethrin, deltamethrin). The results showed a significant reduction of medfly attacks in fruits treated with insecticides (1.5% damaged fruit) or with kaolin (0.5% damaged fruits) compared to the untreated sample (10% damaged fruits), while physiological and quality parameters ded not show relevant differences between treatments and control fruit. Overall results highlight how the use of kaolin represents a valid alternative to treatments with synthetic insecticides to control <em>C. Capitata</em> attacks on peaches, while not affecting fruits’ quality.</strong></p> Amedeo Palma, A.M. Cicilloni, D. Satta, L. De Pau, Salvatore D'Aquino Copyright (c) 2020 Amedeo Palma Sat, 11 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of 1-MCP and ethylene on preservation of quality and vase life of Alstroemeria (cvs. Hercules and Mayfair) cut flowers <p><strong>In order to improve the vase life characteristics and postharvest quality of Alstroemeria cut flowers cv. Hercules and Mayfair, the effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and ethylene have been investigated in a completely randomized design with three replications. First, cut flowers were fumigated at 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 µL L<sup>-1</sup> of 1-MCP concentrations for 24 h and then exposed to 1 µL L<sup>-1</sup> of ethylene for 18 h. This experiment was conducted at 20 ± 2°C, 60-65% RH, and a 12/12 h light/dark photoperiod. The results showed that 1-MCP treatment significantly increased postharvest durability in both cultivars, compared to the control. Also, results of 1-MCP treatment on leaf chlorophyll index in both cultivars, confirmed the role of 1-MCP in preventing external ethylene action as the main factor of Alstroemeria leaf yellowness. Based on data, Mayfair cultivar was more sensitive to ethylene in comparing to Hercules cultivar, although 1-MCP treatment reduced the active oxygen species in both cultivars by reducing biosynthesis and ethylene action or by direct increase in antioxidant enzyme activity.</strong></p> Amin Nasiri, N. Ahmadi, G. Movahed Copyright (c) 2020 Amin Nasiri Mon, 13 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Volatile compound and gene expression profiles associated with the storage of two peach fruit varieties differently sensitive to chilling injuries <p><strong>The patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission and the expression of genes associated with the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway have been studied in harvested peach fruit of two cultivars ('Flaminia', FL, and 'Red Haven', RH) during and after cold storage. Two temperature storage conditions have been applied for two weeks: 0.5 and 5.5°C, the latter recognized to be an inducer factor of chilling injury (CI) of the flesh. Fruit were also monitored during 3 days of shelf-life (SL) at room temperature after removing from the cold storage. A different behaviour between cultivars has been observed in terms of internal browning (more evident in FL after 2 weeks) and extractable juice (already reduced in RH at the end of 1 week of storage at 5.5°C). Although some common responses have been observed (e.g. a general increase of 2-hexenal and 2-hexenal-E at the end of both cold storage conditions), LOX pathway-associated volatiles (aldehydes, alcohols, esters) showed different trends in relation to the genotype and the applied stress, with apparently no specific correlations with the incidence of CI. The expression level of five LOX pathway-associated genes (<em>PpLOX1, PpLOX4, PpHPL1, PpADH1, PpAAT1</em>) have been analysed and the results point out that a genotype-dependent behaviour is present, but specific responses (up-regulation of <em>Pp</em><em>LOX1</em> and <em>Pp</em><em>AAT1</em> during SL) appear to be present in both cultivars. In addition, the expression of two <em>C-repeat-binding factors </em>(<em>PpCBF1 </em>and<em> PpCBF6</em>), recognized to be involved in the responses of plant tissues to low temperature stress, showed marked changes in relation to the applied temperature, suggesting that these genes might play a regulatory role in the overall metabolism of cold stored peaches.</strong></p> Stefano Brizzolara, Margherita Modesti, Xiangyi Rong, Pietro Tonutti Copyright (c) 2020 Stefano Brizzolara, Margherita Modesti, Xiangyi Rong, Pietro Tonutti Mon, 13 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Physio-chemical quality attributes of ‘Italia’ grapes from organic and conventional farming at harvest and during storage <p><strong>This study was aimed to investigate the quality at harvest and during storage of organically and conventionally grown ‘Italia’ grapes, collected from 2 different locations in Southern Italy. Four vineyards were chosen in order to have an organic and a conventional farm in each location. Before harvest, six plants per vineyard were randomly selected and considered as treatment replicate. Three bunches were harvested and labelled from each plant. In laboratory each bunch was weighed and thirty berries per bunch were detached and used for initial determination which included morphological (berry weight and dimension, peel thickness) and physical (berry color and firmness) attributes, maturity indices (respiration rate, soluble solids content and titratable acidity), and nutritional composition (phenol content, antioxidant activity, sugar and organic acid composition, ascorbic acid content). Then, the bunches from each replicate were kept in individual 15-L jars at 0°C and connected to a humidified air flow throughout the whole experiment. After 7 and 14 days of storage, respiration rate, weight loss, physical and nutritional attributes were also monitored on 20 berries per bunch. Location and agricultural practices affected to a different extent several grapes quality attributes, both at harvest and during storage. Maturity stage, sugar content and berry color were significantly affected by the location, while antioxidant-related compounds were significantly higher in organic grapes. Plant production and bunch weight were significantly higher for conventionally grown grapes, which also received the highest evaluation of external appearance, in terms of stalk dehydration and berry general aspect.&nbsp; Differences among conventional and organic grapes were maintained, for each location, during storage at 0°C. Conventional grapes maintained a higher visual quality during storage, resulting after 14 days below the limit of marketability (score 3) but above the edibility limit (score 2); whereas in one location organic grapes were judged not edible. Results showed a higher nutritional value in grapes obtained with the organic farming system although in terms of visual quality, storability and yield, conventional fruit had a better performance.</strong></p> Maria Luisa Amodio, Giancarlo Colelli Copyright (c) 2020 Amodio Maria Luisa, Colelli Giancarlo Mon, 24 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000