Advances in Horticultural Science <p><strong><em>Advances in Horticultural Science&nbsp;</em></strong>aims to provide a forum for original investigations in horticulture, viticulture and oliviculture. The journal publishes fully refereed papers which cover applied and theoretical approaches to the most recent studies of all areas of horticulture - fruit growing, vegetable growing, viticulture, floriculture, medicinal plants, ornamental gardening, garden and landscape architecture, in temperate, subtropical and tropical regions. Papers on horticultural aspects of agronomic, breeding, biotechnology, entomology, irrigation and plant stress physiology, plant nutrition, plant protection, plant pathology, and pre and post harvest physiology, are also welcomed.</p> <p>The journal scope is the promotion of a sustainable increase of the quantity and quality of horticultural products and the transfer of the new knowledge in the field.</p> <p>Papers should report original research, should be methodologically sound and of relevance to the international scientific community.</p> <p>AHS publishes three types of manuscripts: Full-length - short note - review papers. Papers are published in English.</p> en-US <p>Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (<a href="">CC-BY-4.0</a>)</strong>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a></p> (Stefano Mancuso) Fri, 29 Jan 2021 18:38:54 +0000 OJS 60 Management of root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne sp.) and enhancing growth yield of greenhouse produced tomatoes by using fresh plant derived soil amendments <p><strong>Abstract: Production of greenhouse tomato is hampered by myriad of challenges emanating from growth medium in the sub­Saharan Africa (SSA), which has led to instability in the production trend. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of soil amendment with fresh plant biomass from <em>Lippia kituensis</em> Vatke and <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em> L. aimed at managing root knot nematodes (RKN) and enhancing tomatoes yield. The amendments were applied at 0 (soil negative control), <em>Lippia</em> and <em>Ocimum</em>, each at 200 g, 400 g % and 800 g in 10 kg potted soil mixes, singly and in all possible combinations. Azadirachtin (0.3 w/w) was also used as a positive control. The mixtures were treated inoculums carrying 1000 second instar <em>Meloidogyne</em> sp. juveniles. An unbalanced factorial in a Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 replications was used. The parameters measured were nematode populations, root gall numbers, galling index, tomato growth, development and yield. Results indicated that interactive effect of soil amendment at 800 g of both <em>Lippia</em> and <em>Ocimum</em>, significantly (p&lt;0.05) reduced the RKN population by 82.1% compared to the non­amended soil. At same rates, galls were reduced by 95.5% while galling index by 83.3%, compared to non­amended treatment. In plant development same amendment rates demonstrated higher vegetative growth. For fruit number and marketable yield, 76.7% and 82.2% more fruits per plant were recorded from 800 g LK+ OG at 800 g and Azadirachtin respectively, compared to non­amended soil. Based on the results, <em>Lippia</em> and <em>Ocimum</em> may be potential sources for nematicidal plant products for greenhouse tomato production.</strong></p> Peter Caleb Otieno, R.M.S. Mulwa, J. Otieno Ogweno Copyright (c) 2020 Peter Caleb Otieno Mon, 28 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Mechanical rubbing of tomato internode influence stem growth, improve tensile strength but negatively impact flavonoid levels <p><strong>Agricultural crops are exposed to different environmental stress factors on a daily basis. Mechanical induced stress (MIS) caused due to contact rubbing, bending, transplantation and spraying of water results in altered growth in plants (Thigmomorphogenesis). The present study was conducted by inducing mechanical stress (gentle rubbing) on the third internode of tomato </strong><strong>(<em>Lycopersicon esculentum </em>Mill.) </strong><strong>by pressing with thumb and index finger (30 sec) for 14 consecutive days. At the end of the stress period, marked morphological differences included significant reduction in plant height and decreased internodal length of the rubbed third internode as well as the neighboring fourth internode. Histochemical staining of the stem cross section of stressed plants showed intense color indicating lignin deposition. Study of biochemical response post internode stress showed an increase in total phenol content but lower flavonoid contents. Stress induction also resulted in modification of biomechanical characteristics like tensile strength, elastic modulus and breaking force. Studies on the effect of mechanical perturbations in plants has gained attention because of its implication in fundamental processes of organogenesis/morphogenesis and their potential as an innovative means of controlling plant growth.</strong></p> S. Sabina, Mundaya Narayanan Jithesh Copyright (c) 2020 Jithesh Mundaya Narayanan Wed, 23 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Morphological and biochemical classification of Iranian Mango germplasm collection by multivariate analysis: Implications for breeding <p><strong>This study was conducted at southern Iran with the aim to evaluate the phenotypic diversity of 84 mango cultivars by using morphological and biochemical traits. Two other industrial cultivars ‘Longra’ and ‘Senderi’ used as control of the study. Descriptive results indicated that the value of both quantitative and qualitative variables all the cultivars were lower than the ‘Senderi’. The variability among cultivars was highly significant in the measured traits. The fruit weight, fruit length, stone weight, stone length, fruit beak, dry matter, and petiole length showed highly discriminating power. Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed high variability due to the existence of significant positive and negative correlations among traits. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering confirmed remarkable variation in the studied germplasm and identified three major clusters with several sub­clusters. The 80.20, 70.11, and 100% of the quantitative variability was explained by principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA), and liner discriminant function (LDF) where fruit descriptors contributed most of the total variation, respectively. However, multivariate analysis proved that fruit related characters were most powerful to differentiate cultivars. The cultivars displayed distinct grouping by FA and LDF compared to PCA. The results revealed that the Iranian mango germplasm has a high potential for specific breeding project regarding fruit size and quality that should be further completed by a molecular marker analysis.</strong></p> Davood Samsampour , Hashem Kazemzadeh-Beneh, Gholam-Reza Damizadeh, Zahra Mirzaei Copyright (c) 2020 Davood Samsampour , Hashem Kazemzadeh-beneh, Gholam-Reza Damizadeh, Zahra Mirzaei Fri, 09 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) genotypes for resistance to viruses and aphids in Rwanda <p><strong>Hot pepper is an important crop in Rwanda but viral diseases and pests are major constraints to its production. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the resistance of 18 hot pepper genotypes (4 commercials, 5 introduced and 9 local) to natural infection by viruses and aphid infestation, in two agro­ecological zones of Rwanda. Fourteen genotypes were further evaluated for resistance to </strong><em><strong>Cucumber&nbsp;</strong></em><strong><em>mosaic virus</em> (CMV) under screenhouse conditi</strong><strong>ons. Disease incidence and severity were recorded in all experiments while population of aphids was assessed in the field. Diseased leaf samples from each genotype in the field were analysed using polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of viruses, while samples from the screenhouse were analysed using serological assay. Results showed significant (p&lt;0.05) differences in disease incidence and severity among genotypes. Three genotypes namely PBC 462, 00767PPR and 0802PPR were rated as resistant to viral diseases while genotype HP 0117, PP9852­170 and PP9950­5197 were moderately resistant. All commercial and most of the local genotypes were susceptible compared to the introduced lines. There was no difference in genotype infestation by the aphids. The genotypes that are resistant to viruses are recommended for use by growers and in breeding programs.</strong></p> Bancy Waithira Waweru, Dora Chao Kilalo, John Wangai Kimenju, Placide Rukundo, Douglas Watuku Miano Copyright (c) 2020 Bancy Waithira Waweru, Dora Chao Kilalo, John Wangai Kimenju, Placide Rukundo, Douglas Watuku Miano Fri, 23 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Identification and impact of phytoplasmas associated with greenhouse cucumber phyllody in Iran <p><strong>Cucumber phyllody symptoms were observed in greenhouse cucumber plants during 2014­2018 in all surveyed areas of central and west of Iran where the highest disease incidence was up to 82% in Taft (Yazd province). Symptoms exhibited by diseased plants were virescence, phyllody and sterility of the flowers. For verification of phytoplasma presence and identity, total DNAs were extracted from 44 symptomatic and six asymptomatic plants that were subjected to PCR amplifying 16S rRNA genes of phytoplasmas. PCR amplicons of the expected size were obtained only from the symptomatic plants. RFLP analysis of R16F2n/R2 amplicons showed patterns identical to those of the clover proliferation (16SrVI) and “stolbur” (16SrXII) phytoplasma groups. Consensus sequences corresponding to phytoplasma strains from the two localities Taft and Shahrekord showed 99% identity with phytoplasmas enclosed in groups 16SrVI and 16SrXII, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these phytoplasmas cluster with ‘<em>Candidatus</em> Phytoplasma trifolii’ and ‘Ca. P. solani’, respectively. Virtual RFLP provided profiles identical to the patterns of 16SrXII­A and 16SrVI­A phytoplasma subgroups. These phytoplasma subgroups were previously reported in different plant species growing near to the greenhouse cucumber areas in Iran, and play a possible role in the epidemiology of disease for its dissemination. </strong></p> Seyyed Alireza Esmaeilzadeh-Hosseini, G. Babaei, S. Davoodi, Assunta Bertaccini Copyright (c) 2020 Seyyed Alireza Esmaeilzadeh-Hosseini Mon, 26 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Growth and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of Sinningia speciosa under red, blue and white light-emitting diodes and sunlight <p><strong>Determining the most reasonable LED spectral composition wavelengths on Sinningia speciosa transplants was the main focus of present experiment. Seeds were sown in cell trays under chambers with distinct spectral composition including white+blue+red (WBR), blue+red (BR) and white+red (WR) LEDs with equal light quality proportions (70 µmol m­-<sup>2 </sup>s-­<sup>1</sup> photon flux density) and under sunlight (400 µmol m­-<sup>2 </sup>s­-<sup>1</sup> photon flux density) in constant conditions of 14h photoperiod, 70% relative humidity and day/night temperature of 23/18°C for 50 days. In this stage, LED treatments led to higher germination percentage and better results in biomass, canopy width, leaf width and leaf area as well as chlorophyll and carotenoids accumulation were obtained in comparison with sunlight. Extracted and technical parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics and maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (F<sub>v</sub>/F<sub>m</sub>) were decreased by sunlight­grown seedlings. F<sub>v</sub>/F<sub>m</sub> was induced by WBR and BR treatments, correlated with maximum yield of primary photochemistry (jP<sub>0</sub>). Quantum efficiencies (jP<sub>0</sub>, jE<sub>0</sub> and y<sub>0</sub>) and performance index of absorption energy flux (PI<sub>ABS</sub>) were increased in BR­exposed transplants. In pot stage, LED-­treated plants exhibited better results in morphological features with earlier marketable flowering stage especially under WBR, which can compensate costs of production in marketing stage.</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mohammad Moazzeni, Saeed Reezi, Masoud Ghasemi Ghehsareh Copyright (c) 2020 Mohammad Moazzeni, Saeed Reezi, Masoud Ghasemi Ghehsareh Mon, 26 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Climatic and physiological parameters related to the progress and prediction of apple sunburn damage in a neotropical climate <p><strong>Apple production in neotropical climate is affected by sunburn and the high interannual variability in meteorological conditions makes prediction and management of damage difficult. Non-destructive methods associated with physiological variables are keys to monitoring but their development is still incipient. In our study occurrence of sunburn, meteorological conditions and physiological parameters was monitored throughout four crop cycles. Fruit visual assessment and reflectance measures in field, as well as, pigments, proline and hydric potential in laboratory, were accomplished. The results show that the availability of water in the soil was more related to the evolution of sunburn than air temperature. Plant Senescence Reflectance Index (non-destructive predictor) discriminated between healthy and damaged fruits and fruit hydric potential and proline content were good indicators of sunburn, although such variables are determined when damage has already occurred. Our results suggest focusing future research on the water balance of the system and on the physiological indicators of osmotic stress as a way to predict damage.</strong></p> Vivian Severino, Mercedes Arias-Sibillotte, Santiago Dogliotti, Erna Frins, Jaime Gonzalez-Talice, José Antonio Yuri Copyright (c) 2020 Vivian Severino, Mercedes Arias-Sibillotte, Santiago Dogliotti, Erna Frins, Jaime Gonzalez-Talice, José Antonio Yuri Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Variations in tree and fruit characteristics revealed potential dwarfing genotypes within Iran’s pomegranate germplasm <p><strong>This study aimed to explore diversity in dwarfing tendencies, determine the correlation of measured traits with dwarfing, and identify and select promising dwarf candidates as potential scions or rootstock cultivars. Growth habit, vegetative attributes, fruit physicochemical characteristics,and leaf stomatal densityof 19 Iranian pomegranate cultivars, which have been collected across the country and established in the Yazd pomegranate germplasm, were assessed. Results showed that the cultivars differed in almost all measuredtraits. The tree height and canopy width, current year’s shoot, and internode length were within the range of 1.97­4.6 m, 1.53­4 m, 15­41.5 cm 1.96­3.39 cm, respectively. Moreover, a positive correlation was observed between tree height and internode length (r= 0.55), whereas a negative correlation was obtained between stomatal density and tree height (r= ­0.44). Based on characteristics measured for the vegetative growth, ‘Malas No. 1 Saravan’ and ‘Torosh Nar Riz Zirab’ proved dwarfing habit. ‘Rabab Poost Ghermez Neyriz’,a commercial cultivar, showed semi­dwarfing growth and ‘Khajei Ghasrodasht Fars’, ‘Shahsavar Seydan Marvdasht’, ‘Bihaste Ravar’, ‘Bihaste Sangan Khash’, ‘Torosh Goli Naz Behshahr’ and ‘Anar Siah’ resulted in vigorous trees. This preliminary study found promising dwarf and semi­dwarf genotypes at Iran’s pomegranate germplasm.</strong></p> Ali Akbar Ghasemi Soloklui, Ali Gharaghani, Ali Sarkhosh Copyright (c) 2020 Ali Gharaghani, Ali Akbar Ghasemi Soloklui, Ali Sarkhosh Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Stable growth inhibition of potted fig (Ficus carica L.) trees by soil sickness <p><strong>The study was conducted to know a damage progress of soil sickness of fig trees and effect of initial planting conditions on it. Shoot growth of 10liter potted ‘Masui Dauphine’ figs was inhibited with sick soil from the 1st year of planting, and a stable dwarfish growth was maintained form the 2nd to 9th years, with only a few trees dying. The sick soil affected trees planted in 25-­liter pots in June worse than those planted in February, and trees with roots enclosed by non-­woven fabric worse than without it. However, these differences had faded by the 3rd year. The sick soil affected trees in 60­-liter pots in the 1st year of planting worse in smaller rooted cuttings than in larger ones. However, in subsequent years, growth inhibition was not affected by the rooted cutting size. These results suggest that the initial conditions, such as planting timing, physical barriers to rooting, and rooted cutting size, all affect potted fig tree growth in the early growing period, and influence the observed damage caused by sick soil. However in subsequent years, dwarfish growth in sick soil may attain a stable level, which is maintained for many years with very low mortality.</strong> </p> Akihiro Hosomi Copyright (c) 2020 Akihiro Hosomi Fri, 23 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000