Advances in Horticultural Science <p><strong><em>Advances in Horticultural Science&nbsp;</em></strong>aims to provide a forum for original investigations in horticulture, viticulture and oliviculture. The journal publishes fully refereed papers which cover applied and theoretical approaches to the most recent studies of all areas of horticulture - fruit growing, vegetable growing, viticulture, floriculture, medicinal plants, ornamental gardening, garden and landscape architecture, in temperate, subtropical and tropical regions. Papers on horticultural aspects of agronomic, breeding, biotechnology, entomology, irrigation and plant stress physiology, plant nutrition, plant protection, plant pathology, and pre and post harvest physiology, are also welcomed.</p> <p>The journal scope is the promotion of a sustainable increase of the quantity and quality of horticultural products and the transfer of the new knowledge in the field.</p> <p>Papers should report original research, should be methodologically sound and of relevance to the international scientific community.</p> <p>AHS publishes three types of manuscripts: Full-length - short note - review papers. Papers are published in English.</p> en-US <p>Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (<a href="">CC-BY-4.0</a>)</strong>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a></p> (Stefano Mancuso) Tue, 29 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Descriptions of okra seed longevity loss behavior using nonlinear regression models <p>Seeds longevity loss is an inevitable problem of seed storage. Applications of nonlinear regression models to describe and predict the aging damages to seed germination would be reliable and helpful for understanding the relationship between seed quality and storage condition. In this study, various nonlinear models, including logistic, Hill, Weibull, Sigmoid, Gompertz and Probit, were applied on seed germination data, obtained from the accelerated aging test of three Iranian okra landraces. Results revealed that the Weibull 4 parameter and Probit 4 parameter functions failed to describe cumulative germination of Ahwaz ecotype in contrast to sigmoid models. The best three parameters sigmoid model to describe germination data of Isfahan ecotype was Hill 3p (AICc=26.89) while there was a failure to fit germination data using Weibull 4p and Probit 4p. Mashhad germination and vigor was well described using Hill 3p (AICc=33.72 and 32.22). It is suggested that the use of the Hill, Gompertz and Weibull parameters provided more information of viability and vigor loss of okra seeds during deterioration conditions.</p> Ghasem Parmoon, Seyed Amir Moosavi, Seyed Ataollah Siadat Copyright (c) 2019 Ghasem Parmoon, Seyed Amir Moosavi, Seyed Ataollah Siadat Tue, 29 Oct 2019 13:44:00 +0000 Influence of two training systems on growth, yield and fruit attributes of four apple cultivars grafted onto ‘M.9’ rootstock <p>This research was carried out to compare several attributes pertaining to the growth, fruit and yield of four apple cultivars, i.e. ‘Golab-kohans’, ‘Fuji’, ‘Starking’ and ‘Delbar estival’. These cultivars were grafted onto M.9 rootstocks trained into ‘Guttingen V-slender-spindle (or V-system) and ‘Geneva Y-trellis (or Y-system) systems. Compared to the Y-system, it was observed that the V-system caused the trees to yield more fruits, dry matter, ash and total soluble solids (TSS). In contrast, the Y-system caused the trees to have broader trunk cross sectional areas (TCSA), along with higher yield, fruit weight, fruit diameter, fruit length and fruit firmness, compared to trees trained with the V-system. In summary, these results showed that both systems can be employed as promising approaches, but the ‘Y-system’ appears to be more productive than the ‘V-system’. In addition, among the studied cultivars, it seems that the ‘Delbar estival’ and ‘Fuji’ were more adaptive to these intensive training systems, especially when considering the fruit traits.</p> Ahmad Dadashpour, A.R. Talaie, M.A. Askari-Sarcheshmeh, A. Gharaghani Copyright (c) 2019 Ahmad Dadashpour, A.R. Talaie, M.A. Askari-Sarcheshmeh, A. Gharaghani Tue, 29 Oct 2019 13:44:19 +0000 Efficiency of AFLP markers to detect genetic variation in Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) offspring irradiated males <p>AFLP technique was used to evaluate the genetic variation among normal and partially sterilized potato tuber moth males. Mating experiments were carried out to obtain partially sterilized males and their descending offspring. Then, 316 AFLP bands were amplified using eight primer combinations of which 33.8 were polymorphic 85.5%, which varied from 68.57% to 100%. The UPGMA dendrogram generated for the AFLP data revealed that irradiated and unirradiated male samples were clustered into two groups, and the offspring of F1 and F2 of unirradiated parents were clustered into one group. Moreover, the progeny of F1 and F2 of irradiated parents clustered into three groups. No specific DNA marker could identify the irradiated males; however, there was a clear genetic variability between examined individuals. Thus, the AFLP technique could be utilized to study genetic variations among individuals of the same line. The AFLP markers could enhance the monitoring system of mass-released insects program when inherited sterility technique is applied against potato tuber moth.</p> I. Idris, A. Shoaib Copyright (c) 2019 I. Idris, A. Shoaib Tue, 29 Oct 2019 13:44:37 +0000 Long-time storage of Pochota fendleri seeds with different packaging <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the vigour and physiological quality of seeds of <em>Pochota</em> <em>fendleri</em> in two weight classes, stored in different types of packaging over a period of 28 months. The experimental design was completely randomised, with treatments arranged in a 2 x 3 x 4 factorial scheme (2 seed sizes x 3 types of packaging x 4 storage periods), with four replications. The stored seeds were evaluated for germination percentage and germination speed index every six months up to 28 months. At 28 months, the percentage incidence of fungi on the seeds was also determined. The seeds of Pochota fendleri remain viable and of high quality for a period of 28 months storage. A PET bottle kept in the refrigerator is recommended to store Pochota fendleri seeds.</p> Aline das Souza, Oscar Jose Smiderle, Cassia Angela Pedrozo Copyright (c) 2019 Aline das Souza, Oscar Jose Smiderle, Cassia Angela Pedrozo Tue, 29 Oct 2019 13:44:52 +0000 Preliminary screening of agricultural feedstocks for anaerobic digestion <p>The aim of this study is to evaluate the performances in the early stages of biogas production of various unconventional and low inputs crops, such as: kenaf (<em>Hibiscus cannabinus</em> L.), amaranthus (<em>Amarathus cruentus</em> L.), sorghum (<em>Sorghum</em> <em>bicolor</em> L.), and sunflower (<em>Helianthus</em> <em>annuus</em> L.). Moreover, according to a circular economy approach, that foreseen the re-use of all the materials, a wide range of agro-industrial residues were tested such as: pomace, olive oil cake, cow milk whey, ewe milk whey, beer residues, jatropha (<em>Jatropha</em> <em>curcas</em> L.) oil cake and pelargonium (<em>Pelargonium</em> <em>graveolens</em> L.) residues after essential oil extraction. The biogas production was estimated starting from the chemical composition of the substrates as well as through tests in bench’s static reactors. The results showed that the use of silage from crops with reduced agronomic requests (kenaf and amaranthus) versus a conventional crop (corn) led to comparable, or even better, biogas production performances during the initial stages. Moreover, the performance of some residues from the milk industry allowed to conclude that the ewe milk whey can be considered a booster feedstock for the first phase of digestion. All the tested substrates produced a digestate suitable, according to the Italian rules, for soil fertilization or amendment.</p> Enrico Palchetti, Alessandro Calamai, Leonardo Verdi, Alberto Masoni, Lorenzo Marini, David Chiaramonti Copyright (c) 2019 Enrico Palchetti, Alessandro Calamai, Leonardo Verdi, Alberto Masoni, Lorenzo Marini, David Chiaramonti Tue, 29 Oct 2019 13:45:10 +0000 Effect of vermicompost on morphological and physiological performances of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) under salinity conditions <p>A greenhouse study was conducted in order to evaluate the interactions of vermicompost and salinity effects on morphology and physiology of pot marigold. The experiment was conducted with vermicompost treatments at five levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) and salinity treatments at five levels (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl) in a completely randomized factorial design arrangement with four replications. Results showed that increasing levels of salinity led to decline in leaf area, fresh and dry weights of flower, shoot, and root, N, P, K, Fe, Mg and Zn concentrations, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, while proline content increased in the plants. APX, SOD, POD and CTA enzyme activities significantly increased with increasing salinity from 0 to 150 mM NaCl, then declined in 200 mM treatment in the plants. Application of vermicompost increased the morpho-physiological indices and mineral nutrient uptake in the plants and could increase the plant yield by alleviating the harmful effects of salinity.</p> Nader Adamipour, Morteza Khosh-Khui, Hassan Salehi, Hyungmin Rho Copyright (c) 2019 Nader Adamipour, Morteza Khosh-Khui, Hassan Salehi, Hyungmin Rho Tue, 29 Oct 2019 13:45:29 +0000 Biometry and vigor of seeds of Myrciaria dubia (kunth) McVaugh <p>Camu-camu has aroused the interest of various industries like natural preservatives, ice creams, juices, jellies, wines, natural dyes, but there is little technical information about the seeds. The objective of this work was to determine the biometric, physical and vigor characteristics of camu-camu seeds. Seeds originating from native populations of Roraima were used. The biometry was determined and the data were analyzed in Excel spreadsheet and calculated the mean, median, variance, standard deviation and seeds classified as small, medium and large, based on mass. The vigor was determined by electrical conductivity, seedling emergence, emergence velocity, plant height, stem diameter, in a completely causal design, with four replicates of 25 seeds. The average results for width, thickness, length, individual mass, volume, weight of one thousand seeds and number of seeds per kilogram showed large variability. The size of the seed has direct correlation with vigor, large seeds have greater vigor.</p> Cassia Rejane do Nascimento, Edvan Alves Chagas, Oscar Jose Smiderle, Ataiza De Andrade Sousa, Pollyana Cardoso Chagas Copyright (c) 2019 Cassia Rejane do Nascimento, Edvan Alves Chagas, Oscar Jose Smiderle, Ataiza De Andrade Sousa, Pollyana Cardoso Chagas Tue, 29 Oct 2019 13:45:50 +0000 Impact of aerobic rice-leafy vegetables intercropping systems on weed management <p>Field experiments were carried out in summer 2017 and 2018 at Zonal Agricultural Research Station (ZARS), University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bengaluru, India on red sandy loam soil. The main objective was to evaluate the impact of rice grown in aerobic conditions intercropped with leafy vegetables on weed management, wherein the sole rice and intercrops of four leafy vegetables: palak (<em>Spinacia oleracea</em> L.), coriander (<em>Coriandrum sativum</em> L.), amaranth (<em>Amaranthus</em> spp L.), methi (<em>Trigonella</em> <em>foenum</em>-<em>graecum</em> L.) were designed in randomized complete block design (RCBD) of 9 treatments replicated four times. The results revealed that the greater the crop biomass, the higher the weed suppression achieved. Sole rice was densely populated by weeds and also had higher weed biomass compared to the intercrops. However, intercrops suppressed efficiently the weeds, increased growth and rice equivalent yield over the sole rice crop. The intercropping systems with leafy palak (spinach) were the most suppressive of weeds. The rice + leafy vegetable palak recorded significantly lower weed density (138.4 no. m-²), dry weight at harvest (148.04 g m-²), higher rice grain, rice straw and palak leaf yield (7651; 9687 and 25508 kg ha-¹, respectively)&nbsp; and higher net monetary return (₹ 156269 ha-¹) over the sole rice.</p> Sylvestre Habimana, K.N. Kalyan Murthy, Y.A. Nanja Reddy, Mudalagiriyappa Mudalagiriyappa, R. Vasantha Kumari, D.C. Hanumanthappa Copyright (c) 2019 Sylvestre Habimana, K.N. Kalyan Murthy, Y.A. Nanja Reddy, Mudalagiriyappa Mudalagiriyappa, R. Vasantha Kumari, D.C. Hanumanthappa Tue, 29 Oct 2019 13:46:16 +0000 Direct shoot regeneration of three Petunia cultivars <p>A tissue culture system for acquiring high efficiency regeneration of Petunia was optimized. Leaf explants of Alvan, Large Flower Alvan (LF Alvan) and Mahalat cultivars of <em>Petunia hybrida</em> were cultured separately on MS medium including various concentrations of TDZ and BA without auxin in order to assess direct shoot regeneration. Alvan showed the highest frequency of shoot regeneration (100%) and the highest mean number of shoots per explant (25.33) on MS containing 2 mg/l TDZ. For LF Alvan cultivar the highest percentage of shoot organogenesis (100%) and the highest mean number of shoots per explant (18.20) were observed when MS medium containing 1 mg/l BA was used. With the Mahalat cultivar the maximum rate of direct regeneration was obtained on MS supplemented with 0.5 and 1 mg/l BA (80%). The mean number of shoots per explant (9.63) was obtained when 2 mg/l TDZ was used. Regenerated shoots were successfully elongated (2 to 3 cm in length) and transferred into half-strength MS as the rooting medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l NAA. The shoots were successfully rooted, acclimatized and transferred to the greenhouse.&nbsp;</p> A.N. Vakili, Hedayat Bagheri, P. Azadi Copyright (c) 2019 A.N. Vakili, Hedayat Bagheri, P. Azadi Tue, 29 Oct 2019 13:46:41 +0000 The physiological responses of four turfgrass species to drought stress <p>Drought stress is one of the most important factors which reduce turfgrass growth and quality in the area with restricted rainfall or irrigation water supply. Using resistant species and varieties can be a useful management program for reducing irrigation requirement in turfgrass. The present study was carried out to examine the physiological changes of four species turfgrass in response to drought stress conditions. The rhizomes of bermudagrass, and seeds of tall fescue, perennial ryegrass and kentucky bluegrass were cultivated at the greenhouse in PVC pots (20 cm in diam., 20 cm long). After four months, when the seedlings well established, drought stress was applied in 100% field capacity (FC), 75% FC, 50% FC and 25% FC. Proline, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxides (POD) was measured. All species showed an ability to tolerate drought stress, but tall fescue exhibited more tolerance, with a higher RWC and proline content. Tall fescue also revealed higher CAT, SOD, POD activities and lowest MDA, EL. This study found that kentucky bluegrass was more vulnerable to severe water stress, and displayed the highest MDA and EL as compared to the other examined species.</p> Zohre Gholamian Jazi, Nematollah Etemadi, Hamed Aalipour Copyright (c) 2019 Zohre Gholamian Jazi, Nematollah Etemadi, Hamed Aalipour Tue, 29 Oct 2019 13:47:00 +0000 Effect of salicylic acid on growth, nodulation and N2-fixation in water stressed chickpeas using 15N and 13C <p>A pot experiment was conducted to determine the impact of foliar spraying of salicylic acid (SA) on dry matter (DM), carbon isotope discrimination (Δ<sup>13</sup>C), nitrogen uptake (NY) and N<sub>2</sub>-fixation (using <sup>15</sup>N) by chickpea plants subjected to three soil moisture regimes (high stress FC1, mild stress FC2 and well-watered FC3). Water stress drastically affected nodulation, DM, NY, N<sub>2</sub>-fixation. However, plants responded positively to SA as a means of enhancing growth and overcoming the stress conditions, particularly under FC2 where the measured growth criteria (DM and NY) were relatively similar to those of the FC3. Salicylic acid significantly enhanced amounts of fixed N<sub>2</sub> by 32, 30 and 19% in FC1, FC2 and FC3, respectively. Water stress caused a decrease in Δ<sup>13</sup>C values. However, SA increased Δ<sup>13</sup>C in water stress treatments, implying that a maximization of DM may occur via an enhancement of CO<sub>2</sub> uptake due to stomatal opening and carboxylation activity. In conclusion, the beneficial effect of SA in enhancing plant performance (growth, N-uptake and N<sub>2</sub>-fixation) was affected by soil water content. SA application may be considered an important agricultural practice for the better symbiotic performance in water stressed as well as in well watered chickpeas plants.</p> M. Al-Chammaa, F. Al-Ain, Fawaz Kurdali Copyright (c) 2019 M. Al-Chammaa, F. Al-Ain, Fawaz Kurdali Tue, 29 Oct 2019 13:47:20 +0000 Barcoding assessment of the Citrus species cultivated in the eastern Afghanistan <p>The establishment of a modern fruit culture in developing countries requests an accurate evaluation of the preexisting germplasm and its health status. This to prevent the possibility to introduce new germplasm which can be easily prey of the endemic diseases carried by asymptomathic host plants. Therefore, after the identification of cases of citrus plants affected by Tristeza virus, a survey of the germplasm cultivated in the Nangarhar valley and some nearby regions was run. The survey was focussed on the identification of the main <em>Citrus</em> species widely cultivated using barcoding analysis of conserved sequences located in the plastid DNA. The sequences of <em>matK</em> and <em>rbcl</em> genes did not show any discriminatory ability while the analysis of the the non-coding <em>psb</em>A-<em>trnH</em> intergenic spacer (<em>psbA-trnH)</em> showed a robust single nucleotide polymorphism (sNP) discriminating <em>C. aurantium</em> from <em>C. sinensis</em> in all analysed samples. These non-coding regions have no known function; thus, much of the variation may result from the spread of mutations unconstrained by selection. Because nucleotide variation in the <em>psbA-trnH</em> spacer region is high, mutational hot spots may be useful to detect species-level variations. According to our study, the afghan citrus germplasm belong to the <em>C. aurantium</em> species which is commonly used in citrus culture as a rootstock. In Afghanistan it is widely cultivated for fresh consumption, without topworking with selected varieties and this may be the reason why symptoms are often mild and cultivation can be anyhow carried on.</p> Massimo Gori, Simona Pecchioli, Edgardo Giordani, Mohammad Aziz Saeedi, Fazal Haq Wafa, Stefano Biricolti Copyright (c) 2019 Massimo Gori, Simona Pecchioli, Edgardo Giordani, Mohammad Aziz Saeedi, Fazal Haq Wafa, Stefano Biricolti Tue, 29 Oct 2019 13:47:43 +0000 Alleviation of salinity stress by hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in tomato plants <p>Salinity is one of the major abiotic stress factors limiting plant growth and productivity, particularly in arid and semi-arid climates. Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) and Nitric Oxide (NO) are important signaling molecules in plant response to abiotic stress. In this research the effects of foliar sprays with H2O2 (10 mM) and NO (0.1 mM sodium nitroprusside, as a NO donor) on alleviation of Salinity stress (0, 25, 50 and 100 mM NaCl) were investigated in Tomato (<em>Solanum lycopersicum</em> L. cv. Falat). Photosynthetic attributes, plant-water relations, membrane stability index and growth parameters were decreased by NaCl treatments. Exogenous H2O2 and NO application enhanced salt stress tolerance in tomato plants by improving the photosynthetic efficiency and plant water status as measured by relative water content and membrane stability index. These results were positively reflected by the increase in plant growth under salinity stress conditions. The results of this study described that under the adverse conditions of salinity stress, H2O2 and NO could activate the photosynthetic system and improve the physiological attributes in plant growth.</p> Bahareh Hajivar, Mohammad Reza Zare-Bavani Copyright (c) 2019 Bahareh Hajivar, Mohammad Reza Zare-Bavani Tue, 29 Oct 2019 13:48:05 +0000 Climate change effect on the bud break and flowering dates of the apple trees in mountainous and plain regions of Algeria <p>Global warming is a strongly felt reality in recent years in Algeria. The fruit trees crop is particularly exposed to the impact of this warming, especially apple trees. A comparative study has been realized between a chronological daily temperature series from 1980 to 2016, and phenological data series (budburst and flowering) from 2000 to 2016, regarding the apple tree variety of <em>Golden Delicious</em> in two zones of Northern Algeria, Sidi Lakhdar (town of Ain Defla, in an altitude of 211 m) and Benchicao (town of Médéa, in an altitude of 1133 m). Some contrasting tendencies according to sites and periods have been demonstrated: very significant warming at Sidi Lakhdar site in autumn and spring, in particular in October and April, disturbing thus the entrance of the buds in the endodormancy and ecodormancy. The result is a late action of the cold until February, which proved to be insufficient. However, no average warming has been demonstrated at the Benchicao site, where the temperatures between November and January were cold enough to satisfy the need of cold units and raise the endodormancy. It seems that the failure to fulfill the need of cold units at Sidi Lakhdar site has strongly affected the goodness of fit of the classic phenological models, confirming indirectly the existence of more complex physiological processes (not taken in consideration by models), which manifest themselves in limited zones such as Sidi Lakhdar site.</p> Aicha Abed,  M. Bonhomme, G. Lacointe, G. Bourgeois Copyright (c) 2019 Aicha Abed,  M. Bonhomme, G. Lacointe, G. Bourgeois Tue, 29 Oct 2019 13:48:22 +0000 Efficient and easy micropropagation of Morus nigra and the influence of natural light on acclimatization <p>Micropropagation, which employs various plant growth regulators (PGRs) in the culture medium for the induction of multiple shoots as well as adventitious roots, is a widely-used technique for the propagation of the genus Morus. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of PGR-free culture medium on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the micropropagation of <em>Morus nigra</em> under the growth room and greenhouse environmental conditions. Although a higher rate of multiplication (4.7-5.2 shoots/explant) was obtained from the treatments using Benzyladenine (BA) as the PGR, the PGR-free culture medium also exhibited comparable multiplication rate (4.1 shoots/explant) with a higher quality of shoots and without any symptoms of hyperhydricity. Furthermore, the use of PGR-free culture of <em>M. nigra</em> for <em>in vitro</em> propagation combined the steps of shoot multiplication and rooting phase using the same culture medium, further simplifying the process. In this study, the micro-shoots were also assessed for their <em>in-vitro</em> rooting and acclimatization potential. The incubation of an <em>in-vitro</em> culture of nodal explants in a controlled growth room for 28 days exhibited optimum response with about 90% rooting and 100% plantlet survival during the acclimatization phase. These results were better than those incubated under greenhouse conditions.</p> Willian Naves Duarte, Cesar Augusto Zanello, Jean Carlos Cardoso Copyright (c) 2019 Willian Naves Duarte, Cesar Augusto Zanello, Jean Carlos Cardoso Tue, 29 Oct 2019 13:48:43 +0000 Pollen viability and in vitro germination of six pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivars grown in northern Jordan <p>This study was conducted on six pistachio cultivars (Lazaourdi, Nab-El Jamal, Boundiki, Batouri, Marawhi and Aschouri) to investigate the percentage of pollen viability and <em>in vitro</em> pollen germination under stored and non-stored (fresh) conditions. The results indicated that there was a significant interaction between pollen viability of pistachio cultivars and storage period. This study showed that the non-stored (fresh) pollen of cultivars Batouri and Lazaourdi had significantly the highest viability (87%) and <em>in vitro</em> pollen germination (69.7%), respectively; indicating that such cultivars could be used as best pollinators. On the other hand, cultivar Nab-El Jamal had the lowest viability (43.7%) and <em>in vitro</em> pollen germination (40.3%). It was found that pollen viability for all stored pollen cultivars were significantly reduced by 30% when compared with non-stored (fresh) pollen. However, stored pollen germination for one month was zero for all pistachio cultivars. In addition, the results of viability for all fresh pollen cultivars were poorly linearly correlated (r2=0.149) with the results of <em>in vitro</em> germination of fresh pollen. Further research is required to examine both pollen viability and <em>in vitro</em> pollen germination under different short and long-term storage periods and methods.&nbsp;</p> Abdallah M. Aldahadha, Khaldoun Al Sane, Ahmed Bataineh, Asem Abu Alloush, Zayed Hammouri Copyright (c) 2019 Abdallah M. Aldahadha, Khaldoun Al Sane, Ahmed Bataineh, Asem Abu Alloush, Zayed Hammouri Tue, 29 Oct 2019 13:49:04 +0000