Advances in Horticultural Science https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs <p><strong><em>Advances in Horticultural Science&nbsp;</em></strong>aims to provide a forum for original investigations in horticulture, viticulture and oliviculture. The journal publishes fully refereed papers which cover applied and theoretical approaches to the most recent studies of all areas of horticulture - fruit growing, vegetable growing, viticulture, floriculture, medicinal plants, ornamental gardening, garden and landscape architecture, in temperate, subtropical and tropical regions. Papers on horticultural aspects of agronomic, breeding, biotechnology, entomology, irrigation and plant stress physiology, plant nutrition, plant protection, plant pathology, and pre and post harvest physiology, are also welcomed.</p> <p>The journal scope is the promotion of a sustainable increase of the quantity and quality of horticultural products and the transfer of the new knowledge in the field.</p> <p>Papers should report original research, should be methodologically sound and of relevance to the international scientific community.</p> <p>AHS publishes three types of manuscripts: Full-length - short note - review papers. Papers are published in English.</p> en-US <p>Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">CC-BY-4.0</a>)</strong>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication.</p> <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a></p> ahs@dispaa.unifi.it (Stefano Mancuso) Fri, 23 Oct 2020 07:56:26 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Growth, production and water use efficiency of chicory (Cichorium endivia L.) in hydroponic systems using brackish waters https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8855 <p><strong>Plants response to the same level of salinity can be increased in hydroponic cultivation compared to under soil conditions. The study aimed at evaluating the chicory growth in DFT (Deep Flow Technique) hydroponic system using brackish water, comparing the results with those obtained in NFT (Nutrient Film Technique) system. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with eight replicates. Each plot (replicate) was represented by a hydroponic channel with 15 plants. Four treatments were used, consisting of plants grown in the DFT system submitted to three levels of electrical conductivity of nutrient solution - ECsol (2.57, 3.43 and 4.75 dS/m) and in the NFT system under ECsol of 2.57 dS/m. Plant height, number of leaves, fresh and dry matter of shoot, water consumption, water use efficiency and water content in shoot at 20 and 25 days after transplanting (DAT) were evaluated. In each harvest, a mean value was obtained per plot through of the harvest collection of five plants. At 25 DAT, the largest reductions in production and water use efficiency of chicory were observed under higher salinity (ECsol 4.75 dS/m). In the DFT system no symptoms of toxicity that could be attributed to salinity were observed.</strong></p> Mairton Gomes da Silva, Lucylia Suzart Alves, Tales Miler Soares, Hans Raj Gheyi, Maria Augusta Amorim Bione Copyright (c) 2020 Mairton Gomes da Silva, Lucylia Suzart Alves, Tales Miler Soares, Hans Raj Gheyi, Maria Augusta Amorim Bione https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8855 Wed, 20 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Enhancement of Pentacyclic Triterpenoids (Betulinic and Oleanolic acids) Production from Callus Cultures of Lantana camara L. https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/7767 <p><strong><em>Lantana camara</em> L. is an ornamental plant with high medicinal value. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of enhancing the production of betulinic and oleanolic acids in <em>Lantana</em> callus by adding different types and levels of chemical elicitors (NaCl, sugars, growth regulators and heavy metals) to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Data revealed that, adding NaCl to the culture medium affected callus fresh weight and color negatively, but it increased the extracted amounts of oleanolic and betulinic acids significantly to reach maximum levels of 0.702 and 0.051 mg/g DW at 120 mM NaCl compared to 0.659 mg/g DW and 0.014 mg/g DW obtained in the control</strong>. <strong>Meanwhile, increasing glucose level to 36.02 g/l in the medium maximized </strong><strong>oleanolic acid accumulation to 0.829 mg/g DW, while betulinic acid accumulation reached 0.038 mg/g DW at 54.03 g/l glucose. In growth regulators experiment, highest callus fresh weight was observed in the control medium, while it declined to the minimum at 0.50 mg/l of Thiadiazuron (TDZ). Maximum values of both acids (0.685 and 0.033 mg/g DW) were recorded in MS medium plus 1.0 mg/l TDZ. Callus fresh weight decreased significantly in response to heavy metals addition, while</strong> <strong>adding chromium at 0.08 mg/l improved production of </strong><strong>oleanolic acid to reach the maximum of 0.676 mg/g DW.</strong> <strong>Meanwhile betulinic acid was maximized at 0.057</strong><strong> mg/g DW in callus cultures exposed to 0.08 mg/l cobalt.</strong></p> Anfal Al-Ashoush, Rida Shibli, Reham Tahtamouni, Tamara Al-Qudah, Bashaer Abu-Irarmaileh Copyright (c) 2020 Anfal AL-Ashoush, Rida Shibli, Reham Tahtamouni, Tamara Al-Qudah, Bashaer Aburmaileh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/7767 Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Seasonal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant responses in seven Iranian pomegranate cultivars https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8283 <p><strong>The present study was carried out as bifactorial in a completely randomized block design to compare seasonal changes of antioxidant response (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) in seven Iranian pomegranate cultivars (‘Malas Mommtaz Saveh’, ‘Shishe Kab’, ‘Zagh Aghda’, ‘Naderi Badroud’, ‘Malas Daneh Ghermez’, ‘Shirin Shahvar Fars’ and ‘Zard Anar Arsenjan’) for a deeper understanding of their physiological differences and selecting probable more tolerant and adaptable cultivars to environmental conditions. Uniform and healthy rooted (one-year) plants of seven Iranian commercial pomegranate cultivars were purchased from a commercial nursery and planted in an orchard site in Arsenjan region (one of the main hubs of pomegranate growing), Fars province, Iran. After full establishment of the trees, three rounds of sampling (fresh leaves) were conducted in spring, summer and fall. Results indicated that in summer, activity of enzymatic antioxidants and leaf content of non-enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione, α-tocopherol and total polyphenols) rose in comparison to the contents measured in the other seasons in all studied cultivars. Significant differences were observed among pomegranate cultivars for these parameters and also content of leaf pigments. ‘Shishe Kab’ was evaluated as a potential tolerant cultivar with high accumulation to changing environmental conditions, since this cultivar demonstrated the highest leaf content of non-enzymatic antioxidants, chlorophyll a/b ratio and lowest level of lipid peroxidation in warmest days of summer. Similarly, ‘Zard Anar Arsenjan’, ‘Shirin Shahvar Fars’ and ‘Malas Daneh Ghermez’ were evaluated as adaptable cultivars to regional conditions.</strong></p> Ali Reza Bonyanpour, Babak Jamali Copyright (c) 2020 ALIREZA BONYANPOUR, Babak Jamali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8283 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phenolic fingerprint in wild growing pomegranate fruits from Azerbaijan https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8961 <p><strong>The demand for pomegranate (<em>Punica granatum</em> L.) juice is increasing worldwide due to its documented health-promoting effects which likely derive from phenolic compounds. This study&nbsp; reports the phenolic composition of the juices obtained from eight wild-growing pomegranate accessions collected in eight areas of Azerbaijan, characterized by different climate and soil composition. The anthocyanins found in all the accessions were cyaniding derivatives and pelargonidin derivatives, while only two accessions contained also delphinidin-3,5-O-diglucoside. The main hydrolysable tannins contained in the juices were punicalagin and ellagic acid derivatives. These bio-active metabolites found in the juices varied qualitatively and quantitatively among the eight accessions, thus constituting specific traits for selecting promising accessions that can be used as a nutritious food source. The different phenolic profiles might be determined both by genotype and the growing environmental conditions, or by their interaction. Our results suggest that some of the studied &nbsp;wild-growing pomegranate accessions might have a commercial value because of their richness in bioactive metabolites and might constitute a suitable source of genes for breedin programs.</strong></p> Aydan Zeynalova, Eldar Novruzov, Paola Bartolini, Cecilia Brunetti, Biancaelena Maserti Copyright (c) 2020 Cecilia Brunetti, Eldar Novruzov, Paola Bartolini, Aydan Zeynalova, Biancaelena Maserti https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8961 Fri, 05 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Genetic diversity, population structure, and relationships among wild and domesticated almond (Prunus spp.) germplasms revealed by ISSR markers https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/7415 <p><strong>The use of diverse almond genetic resources to expand the genetic bases of commercial cultivars is important for almond breeders. Iran is within the center of origin for almond and enjoys a huge diversity of wild species and local cultivars of this important nut crop. Despite some reports, there is still a critical need to collect comprehensive information on the genetic diversity of almond germplasm in Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate the genetic diversity, structure, and relationships among a total of 75 individuals from 10 populations of 4 wild and cultivated almond species by using 12 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primer pairs. A total number of 353 DNA fragments were obtained of which 352 were polymorphic (99.69%). The average of polymorphism information content (PIC), marker index (MI), and resolving power (Rp) were 0.932, 27.211, and 7.882, respectively which indicated high discriminatory power of markers. Gene flow between wild and cultivated gene pools is shown to be moderate to high (Nm = 2.7607), which verifies the hypothesis of low genetic differentiation among populations. Cluster analysis based on unweighted pair-group, classified individuals into 7 major gene pools which showed the entire provenances were divided into 7 main groups. Overall high levels of genetic diversity were confirmed and useful information obtained on the differentiation and genetic structure of the studied almond germplasms. Future evaluation on morphological and physiological aspects, is necessary to identify the most promising individuals to be used directly in afforestation, landscape development as well as nut and oil production or indirectly in future almond and stone fruits breeding programs.</strong></p> Sama Rahimi Dvin, Ali Gharaghani, Ali Pourkhaloee Copyright (c) 2020 Sama Rahimi Devin, Ali Gharaghani, Ali Pourkhaloee https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/7415 Thu, 25 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Genetic parameters, correlations and path analysis in cowpea genotypes for yield and agronomic traits grown in Cerrado/Amazon Rainforest ecotone https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8103 <p>The development of superior genotypes is the main objective of all plant breeding programs. To determine the genetic variability, heritability and correlations, 20 cowpea genotypes were grown in a randomized block design with four replications in <em>Cerrado</em>/Amazon Rainforest ecotone region. The data recorded were plant height, pod length, pod mass, pod grain mass, grain index, pod grain number and yield. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences between genotypes for all traits studied. The genotypic determination coefficient was high for all traits evaluated. Similarly, the accuracy parameter presented high estimates (&gt;0.90). The magnitudes of the genotypic correlation coefficients were higher than the environmental and phenotypic correlations for most correlations, showing a greater influence of the genetic factor than the environmental factors. The direct and indirect effects provided greater reliability in the cause and effect interpretations between the studied traits, indicating that yield can be explained through the effects of the analyzed traits. The traits pod mass (0.9628) and pod grain mass (0.7835) showed the greatest favorable direct effect, showing a strong association between the analyzed characters and can be used in direct or indirect selection for yield in cowpea.</p> Deurimar Herênio Gonçalves Júnior, Lohaynne De Melo Rodrigues, José Alves de Santana Filho, Wallysson Nascimento Lima, Anatércia Ferreira Alves Copyright (c) 2020 Deurimar Herênio Gonçalves Júnior, Lohaynne De Melo Rodrigues, José Alves de Santana Filho, Wallysson Nascimento Lima, Anatércia Ferreira Alves https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8103 Tue, 30 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Optimization of biosolids as a substrate for tomato transplant production https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8118 <p><strong>The need to recycle waste and increasing pressure against peat extraction and importation, have led to increasing interest in substituting peat with organic wastes. Use of biosolids substrate would be a low cost alternative substrate to peat for commercial production of transplants. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of biosolids-forest soil mixture ratios on tomato ‘Maxim F1’, transplants emergence and growth. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used in this study. The treatments were: biosolids (BS) mixed with forest soil (FS) at rates of 0% 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% (v/v), tea compost (TC) and coco peat (CP). Five tomato seeds were planted in four 250 cm3 pots, grouped into four to form an experimental unit. Results showed that biosolids (BS) at rate of 30% registered significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher seedling emergence (94%), leaf numbers (4.5), height (16.5 cm), collar diameter (6.3 mm), chlorophyll content (25 index units), root volume (2.0 cm3) and root/shoot dry matter (10.2 % and 16.3%, respectively) than the rest of the substrates except tea compost (TC). Sodium was significantly (p &lt; 0.05) higher in BS at rates of 50% (350 mg kg-1) and 60% (376 mg kg-1) and this raised EC (4.5) and lowered pH of the media to 4.4. At 30% BS enhanced tomato transplant production to similar level as tea compost, hence recommended for commercial use.</strong></p> Peter Caleb Otieno, S. Nyalala, J. Wolukau Copyright (c) 2020 Peter Caleb Otieno https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8118 Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The salinity tolerance of pomegranate cultivars: Effects of salt stress on root and leaf mineral content https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/7411 <p>&nbsp;<strong>In this study, the effect of irrigation water salinity on rooted cuttings of eight pomegranate cultivars namely ‘Malase Saveh’ (‘M­Saveh’), ‘Malase Isfahan’ (‘M­Isfahan’), ‘Robabe Ghermeze Shiraz’ (‘Robab’), ‘Gabrie Yazd’ (‘GYazd’), Gabrie Torshe Yazd’ (‘GT­Yazd’), ‘Zaghe Sefide Yazd’ (‘ZS­Yazd’), ‘Zaghe Torshe Yazd’ (‘ZT­Yazd’) and ‘Malase Torshe Pishva’ (‘M­Pishva’) was studied. Sodium chloride was added to irrigation water to get final concentrations of 3, 6, 9 and 12 dS/m. Leaf and root mineral content, leaf abscission and root characteristics were determined at the end of the experiment. The results showed that the salinity reduced significantly fresh and dry weight of root in all pomegranate cultivars. Water salinity up to 3 dS/m increased slightly roots fresh and dry weight of all cultivars and thereafter decreased. With increasing water salinity to 12 dS/m, accumulation of sodium and chloride both in roots and leaves increased, but nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium and calcium contents decreased. The change of leaf potassium content was dependent to pomegranate cultivar. The lowest sodium and chloride accumulation in root was observed in ‘ZT­Yazd’, but ‘M­Pishva’ translocated the lowest sodium and chloride to leaf. The low ability of nitrogen absorption was found in ‘M­Saveh’, whereas ‘M­Pishva’ maintained the highest leaf nitrogen under salt stress conditions. The most potassium content of root was observed in GT­Yazd’, while ‘ZS­Yazd’ and ‘G­Yazd’ translocated the highest potassium to leaves. Generally, the responses of pomegranate to absorption and translocation of elements to leaves under salinity conditions were completely dependent to cultivar. ‘MPishva’ and Yazd cultivars showed higher tolerance to salinity stress.</strong></p> Esmaeil Jadidi, Maryam Tatari, Mahmoud Ghasemnezhad, Hamid Reza Salemi Copyright (c) 2020 Esmaeil Jadidi, Maryam Tatari, Mahmoud Ghasemnezhad, Hamid Reza Salemi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/7411 Tue, 14 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Identification of promising tomato breeding lines with determinate growth by selection index https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/7814 <p><strong>Source of important vitamins, fibers, and minerals, the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) stands out in the world agricultural scenario for its economic and social relevance and versatility. The Brazilian market is dominated by multinationals companies, and this market segment obtains cultivars from other countries, with genetics accurate to climatic conditions and cultivation method very different from those used in Brazil. As a result, the local cultivation of tomatoes plants becomes dependent on market variations and has required a material that has limited production efficiency. This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters from agronomic traits and to select industrial tomato lines using the selection index. A randomized block experimental design with three replications was used. Eighty­five industrial tomato lines from the germplasm bank of the Vivati Plant Breeding Ltda were evaluated. Each plot had 12 plants. The two central plants of each plot were evaluated. The evaluations were carried out using adapted morphological descriptors described in the guidelines for carrying out the distinguishability, homogeneity, and stability (DHE) tests of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Supply of Brazil (MAPA). The genotypic determination coefficient (H2) of the traits related to fruit pericarp thickness, fruit firmness, fruit yield, average cycle, average number of fruits per plant, and soluble solids was high. The base index and the classic index presented the largest gain from selection for the fruit yield trait. Rank summation index and genotype­ideotype distance index had the highest total selection gain values. The tomato lines PXT­601 and PXT­610 stood out as superior genotypes by the methods of direct selection and by selection indexes. </strong></p> M. Vieira Nascimento, Mylla Crysthyan Ribeiro Ávila; Monita Fiori de Abreu-Tarazi; Ana Paula Oliveira Nogueira, Luiz Fernandes Cardoso Campos, Abadia dos Reis Nascimento Copyright (c) 2020 Mariana Vieira Nascimento, Mylla Crysthyan Ribeiro Ávila; Monita Fiori de Abreu-Tarazi; Ana Paula Oliveira Nogueira, Luiz Fernandes Cardoso Campos, Abadia dos Reis Nascimento https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/7814 Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Improvement of in vitro germination of Cycas revoluta zygotic embryos using gelrite as gelling agent https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8462 <p><strong>An efficient <em>in vitro</em> germination protocol for <em>Cycas revoluta</em>, a widespread ornamental tree, has been established using zygotic embryos as explants with a focus on mineral composition of the culture media, the gelling agent and cytokinine type. A high percentage of germination, 73% was obtained with SH medium instead of 27% with MS medium. A 100% of germination was obtained with the combination of SH medium and gelrite as gelling agent. The addition of cytokinines prompt shoot formation. An optimum shoot induction occurred using 0.5 mg/l of BAP where an average of 14.1 shoot were produced per explants while 2.2 shoots were formed in the presence of 2iP. A 100% of rooting was observed in the presence of 0.5 mg/l of 2iP whereas only 30% of shoots obtained on the SH medium with 0.5 mg/l of BAP were able to develop roots.</strong></p> Jalila Benjelloun, Aida Taoufyq, Zine El Abidine Triqui, Qamar Lahlimi Alami, Rajaa Layachi, Abdelaziz Smouni, Sarah Bouzroud, Abdelkarim Guedira Copyright (c) 2020 Jalila Benjelloun, aida Taoufyq, Zine El Abidine Triqui, Qamar Lahlimi, Rajaa Layachi, Abdelaziz Smouni, Sarah Bouzroud, Abdelkarim Guedira https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8462 Tue, 18 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000