Advances in Horticultural Science https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs <p><strong><em>Advances in Horticultural Science&nbsp;</em></strong>aims to provide a forum for original investigations in horticulture, viticulture and oliviculture. The journal publishes fully refereed papers which cover applied and theoretical approaches to the most recent studies of all areas of horticulture - fruit growing, vegetable growing, viticulture, floriculture, medicinal plants, ornamental gardening, garden and landscape architecture, in temperate, subtropical and tropical regions. Papers on horticultural aspects of agronomic, breeding, biotechnology, entomology, irrigation and plant stress physiology, plant nutrition, plant protection, plant pathology, and pre and post harvest physiology, are also welcomed.</p> <p>The journal scope is the promotion of a sustainable increase of the quantity and quality of horticultural products and the transfer of the new knowledge in the field.</p> <p>Papers should report original research, should be methodologically sound and of relevance to the international scientific community.</p> <p>AHS publishes three types of manuscripts: Full-length - short note - review papers. Papers are published in English.</p> en-US <p>Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">CC-BY-4.0</a>)</strong>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication.</p> <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a></p> ahs@dispaa.unifi.it (Stefano Mancuso) Mon, 02 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Economic analysis of crisp lettuce production in different planting spacing and soil cover https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8098 <p>The objective of this study was to estimate and evaluate the economic indicators of lettuce production, cultivated using different soil cover and plant spacing. The experiment was conducted in subdivided parcels, with four replications. The treatments were composed by a combination of three soil cover (uncovered soil, straw and plastic cover) and three planting spaces (0.25 x 0.20, 0.25x0.25 and 0.25x0.30 m). The productivity and economic indicators were evaluated for a production area of 1000 m2. For the different treatments, a total operating cost of USD 781.80 to USD 663.30 1000 m-2 was obtained. It was observed that for the cultivation of lettuce in soil covered by straw, from the rubbing, and spacing of 0.25x0.25 m the economic indicators were raised. With a productivity of 687.70 boxes 1000 m-2, for this treatment was obtained gross revenue of USD 1,828.99, operating profit of USD 1,135.41 and a profitability index of 62.08%. Thus, lettuce cultivation provides positive profitability regardless of the spacing or type of cover used and the combination between the 0.25 x 0.25 m planting spacing and the use of straw as a soil cover culminates in higher monetary gains.</p> Eduardo Prati Vendruscolo, Aliny Heloísa Alcântara Rodrigues, Sávio Rosa Correia, Paulo Ricardo Oliveira, Luiz Fernandes Cardoso Campos, Alexsander Seleguini Copyright (c) 2020 Eduardo Prati Vendruscolo, Aliny Heloísa Alcântara Rodrigues, Sávio Rosa Correia, Paulo Ricardo Oliveira, Luiz Fernandes Cardoso Campos, Alexsander Seleguini https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8098 Mon, 17 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of foliar application of boric acid on fruit quality and yield traits of mango https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8101 <p>Imbalance uptake of boron disturbs the process of pollination that eventually decrease the flowering, fruit setting and yield. Its deficiency also deteriorates the quality of fruit by increasing fruit acidity. Therefore, source, balanced application, method of application and optimum uptake of B is an important aspect and need keen scientific attention. So, a field study was conducted with the hypothesis that foliar application of B would be an effective technique to improve the yield and quality of Mango cv. Summer Bahisht (SB) Chaunsa. The source of B was boric acid (BA) applied twice as foliar spray i.e., 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%. Results confirmed that as compared to control, a significant improvement in fruit weight at ripening and harvesting stages (36.9%), fruit length (21.9%), fruit width (10.1%), flower (22.1%) and fruit terminals m<sup>-2</sup> (40.0%) confirmed the effectiveness of T<sub>4</sub> (BA= 0.3%). A significant improvement in average yield (78.6%) validated the efficacious functioning of boric acid (0.3%). In conclusion, boric acid is an important and effective source of B to improve the quality and yield of Mango cv. SB Chaunsa. Similarly, BA (0.3%) is a better option than 0.2 and 0.1% BA to improve the quality and yield of mango.</p> Zeeshan Haider, Niaz Ahamad, Subhan Danish, Javed Iqbal, Muhammad Arif Ali, Usman Khalid Chaudhry Copyright (c) 2020 Zeeshan Haider, Niaz Ahamad, Subhan Danish, Javed Iqbal, Muhammad Arif Ali, Usman Khalid Chaudhry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8101 Mon, 17 Feb 2020 14:54:40 +0000 Prostrate or upright growth habit in tomato cultivars: contributory roles of stem diameters and fruit weight under fertilizer application https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8110 <p>For increased production of fresh market tomato fruits, identification of cultivars that combine upright growth habit (UGH) and increased fruit weight under increased fertilizer rates is essential. Six tomato cultivars comprising five improved types namely Tropimech, Buffalo, Roma VF, Roma Savana, UC 82 and a local cultivar Kerewa were evaluated to identify cultivars that combined average fruit weight with UGH under different rates of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (0, 30, 50, and 80 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). Aerial and basal stem diameter (ASD and BSD), and weight per fruit (WPF) cumulatively accounted for the largest significant variation (47.17 **) in growth habit of the tomato cultivars with ASD being the most determinant of all. Increased fertilizer rates resulted in increased morphological and yield parameters but promoted prostrate growth habit in tomato cultivars. At 30 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, Roma VF and Roma Savanna combined UGH with ample yield per plant while at 50 and 80 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> of fertilizer, UC 82 consistently maintained the most UGH with higher yield. Growing UC 82 at 50 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> of fertilizer is recommended for better UGH and higher yield. Consideration should be given to ASD, BSD, and WPF in future improvements of tomato for UGH and yield.</p> Solomon Oladimeji Olagunju, O.S. Sosanya, O.A. Oguntade, F.M. Adewusi, O.A. Odusanya, A.L. Nassir, A.O. Joda, A.T. Adegoke, O.B. Banjo Copyright (c) 2020 Solomon Oladimeji Olagunju, O.S. Sosanya, O.A. Oguntade, F.M. Adewusi, O.A. Odusanya, A.L. Nassir, A.O. Joda, A.T. Adegoke, O.B. Banjo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8110 Wed, 19 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Micropropagation of two near threatened orchid. Part 1: Catasetum pileatum cv. Alba https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8112 <p>Many orchid species are threatened. In this study, a reliable and efficient protocol was outlined for in vitro propagation of Catasetum pileatum cv. Alba, a near threatened orchid species with the proper usage of plant growth regulators (PGRs). Protocorms as explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing different concentrations of kinetin (Kn; 0.00, 0.20, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 3.00 and 5.00 mg l<sup>-1</sup>) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA; 0.00, 0.10, 0.20, 0.50 and 1.00 mg l<sup>-1</sup>), either individually or in combination. The frequency of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) regeneration significantly relied on concentrations of PGRs used. A combination of 1.00 mg l<sup>-1</sup> Kn and 1.00 mg l-1 IBA was found to be suitable for maximum PLB regeneration (8.63 per explant) and the largest number of leaf (12.70 per explant). The highest rooting frequency with 7.40 roots per explant was achieved on protocorms grown in medium enriched with 1.00 mg l<sup>-1</sup> Kn and 0.50 mg l<sup>-1</sup> IBA. Plantlets were transplanted to pots filled with a mixture of peat moss, leca and perlite (1:1:1) and transferred to the greenhouse. The plantlets were successfully acclimatized in the greenhouse with a survival rate of 80% exhibiting normal developmental patterns.</p> Sara Zakizadeh, Behzad Kaviani, Davood Hashemabadi Copyright (c) 2020 Sara Zakizadeh, Behzad Kaviani, Davood Hashemabadi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8112 Wed, 19 Feb 2020 11:24:04 +0000 Micropropagation of two near threatened orchid. Part 2: Phalaenopsis amabilis Blume var. Grandiflora https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8115 <p><em>Phalaenopsis</em> is one of the most popular orchids in the world, through the development of many artificial hybrids. In this research, a reliable and efficient protocol is presented for <em>in vitro</em> proliferation of <em>Phalaenopsis amabilis</em> Blume cv. Grandiflora. Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing different concentrations of kinetin (Kn; 0.00, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00 and 3.00 mg l<sup>-1</sup>) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA; 0.00, 0.10, 0.20, 0.50 and 1.00 mg l<sup>-1</sup>), either individually or in combination and activated charcoal (AC; 0.00, 0.50 and 1.00 g l<sup>-1</sup>). A combination of 0.20 mg l<sup>-1</sup> IBA and 2.00 mg l<sup>-1</sup> Kn on medium containing 1.00 g l<sup>-1</sup> AC was found to be suitable for maximum leaf number (6.16±0.503 per explant). The highest rooting frequency with 7.13±0.153 roots per explant was achieved on medium enriched with 0.50 mg l<sup>-1</sup> IBA and 0.50 mg l-1 Kn on medium containing 1.00 g l<sup>-1</sup> AC. The largest number of callus (9.10±0.611) was induced on explants cultured in medium containing 0.20 mg l<sup>-1</sup> IBA and 0.50 mg l<sup>-1</sup> Kn on medium without AC. The plantlets were successfully acclimatized in the greenhouse with a survival rate of 95% exhibiting normal developmental patterns.</p> Mohsen Mohammadi, Behzad Kaviani, Shahram Sedaghathoor Copyright (c) 2020 Mohsen Mohammadi, Behzad Kaviani, Shahram Sedaghathoor https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8115 Thu, 20 Feb 2020 10:00:32 +0000 Effects of foliar application of glycine and glutamine amino acids on growth and quality of sweet basil https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8127 <p>Amino acids have diverse roles in plant metabolism, and recently amino acid based fertilizers have been used largely in crop production systems. Despite most of these new fertilizers are formulated for foliar application; however, morphophysiological responses of crops to amino acids application have not yet been well documented. In the present study, foliar application of glycine or glutamine in different concentrations of 0 (distilled water), 250, 500, 1000 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>, as well as a treatment of 250 mg·L<sup>-1</sup> glycine + 250 mg·L<sup>-1</sup> glutamine were evaluated on growth of sweet basil (<em>Ocimum basilicum</em> L.) plants. The results showed that foliar application of glycine or glutamine at 1000 mg·L<sup>-1</sup> showed no improvement in comparison with control for all traits except for leaf L-ascorbic acid concentration that showed the highest value under these amino acids treatments. However, foliar application of these amino acids at 250 and particularly 500 mg·L<sup>-1</sup> showed promising effect on sweet basil growth. Plant shoot fresh and dry weight, leaf area, leaf SPAD value, and leaf chlorophyll content were improved by foliar application of 500 mg·L<sup>-1</sup> glycine or glutamine in comparison with control plants. Foliar application of amino acids increased leaf nitrogen (glutamine 250 and 500 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>), potassium (glycine 250 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>), magnesium (glutamine 250 or 500 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>, glycine 250 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>, glycine + glutamine; 250 + 250 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>), iron (glycine and glutamine at 500 mg·L<sup>-1</sup> and glutamine at 250 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>), and zinc (glycine and glutamine at 250 or 500 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>), whereas the increase in leaf nutrients caused by other treatments was not significantly different from control plants. Leaf calcium concentration was not changed by amino acid treatments. The results indicate that foliar application of moderate to low concentrations of glutamine or glycine can improve sweet basil growth.</p> Yaghoub Aghaye Noroozlo, Mohammad Kazem Souri, Mojtaba Delshad Copyright (c) 2020 Yaghoub Aghaye Noroozlo, Mohammad Kazem Souri, Mojtaba Delshad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8127 Thu, 20 Feb 2020 15:47:40 +0000 Plant regeneration by organogenesis from bulbous explants in Fritillaria imperialis L., a wild rare ornamental species at the risk of extinction https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8128 <p><em>Fritillaria imperialis</em> L. (Liliaceae) is a rare and endangered ornamental plant grown in mountain regions and Zagros altitudes, Ilam province, Iran. This species is in danger of extinction due to invasive collection. Plant regeneration was done by organogenesis from bulb scales as explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media fortified with different concentrations of kinetin (KIN, 0.00, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mg l<sup>-1</sup>) and α_naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 0.00, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mg l<sup>-1</sup>), either individually or in combination. The largest number of leaf (3.80), root (5.86) and callus (8.16) per explant was regenerated on the medium containing 0.50 mg l<sup>-1</sup> KIN and 1.00 mg l<sup>-1</sup> NAA. Maximum viability percentage (96.66%) was obtained in medium supplemented with 1.00 mg l<sup>-1</sup> KIN. In vitro regenerated plantlets were cultivated in plastic pots containing peat moss and perlite (1:1). The plantlets were successfully acclimatized in an adaptation greenhouse with a survival rate of 95% exhibiting normal developmental patterns.</p> Shima Seydi, Shahram Sedaghathoor, Behzad Kaviani Copyright (c) 2020 Shima Seydi, Shahram Sedaghathoor, Behzad Kaviani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8128 Thu, 20 Feb 2020 16:59:17 +0000 Effect of compost tea and partial root zone drying on tomato productivity and quality https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8129 <p>To evaluate the effect of partial root zone drying in combination with compost tea on growth, morpho-physiological traits, yield and quality attributes of tomato (<em>Lycopersicon esculentum</em> Mill), a greenhouse experiment was conducted. The ultimate aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of partial root zone drying (PRD) and conventional drip irrigation (CDI) incorporated with compost tea (CT) on tomato productivity and quality. The results of this study indicated positive and significant effect of CT in combination with PRD on fruit size, fruit weight, fruit firmness, cluster per plant, fruit per cluster, fruit lycopene content, pH, TSS and TSS/TA. The PRD treated plant’s fruits exhibited better appearance, higher lycopene content, fruit firmness, total soluble solid (TSS), and TSS/titratable acidity (TA) ratio than fruits plants treated with CDI (conventional drip irrigation). Combined treatment with CDI and CT had positive effect on plant height, leaf area, chlorophyll and water content in fruits. But they exhibited the negative effect on fruits blossom end rot, weight loss, chilling injury, and TA content. The results of this study indicated that CT improve more significantly tomato yield and quality under PRD than CDI. Combining PRD and CT led to the maximization of crop water productivity.</p> Abdul Hakim, M. Khatoon, S. Gullo Copyright (c) 2020 Abdul Hakim, M. Khatoon, S. Gullo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8129 Fri, 21 Feb 2020 11:12:33 +0000 Vegetative propagation of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels cuttings: Effects of auxins and genotype https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8131 <p><em>Argania spinosa</em> (L.) is an endemic tree species of south-western Morocco; it plays a very important socio-economic and environmental role. However, the vegetative propagation of the argan tree by traditional cuttings is limited by the difficulty of rooting and survival during transplantation in the field. Considering these facts, this study intended to investigate the rooting ability and growth performance of argan tree cuttings, collected from four élite trees rated ASOC1, ASOC2, ASOC3 and ASOC4, and treated with four concentrations (0, 1000, 3000 and 5000 mgL<sup>-1</sup>) of IBA, NAA and IAA. The results revealed cuttings of ASOC2 and ASOC3 genotypes were relatively less responsive than ASOC1 and ASOC4, this genotype effect was more pronounced in auxin treated cuttings. Treatment of cuttings by IBA was more effective than treatments by either NAA or IAA. Among all the media tested, 3000 mgL<sup>-1</sup> of IBA with ASOC1 resulted in higher sprouting (81.75%), rooting (60.75%) and survival rates (96.25%). However, with the increase of IBA concentration levels (&gt;3000 mgL<sup>-1</sup>), adventitious roots and sprouts performances decreased in all the genotypes. Argania spinosa could be successfully propagated by cuttings from selected élite trees.</p> Abdellah Benbya, Meriem Mdarhri Alaoui, Fatima Gaboun, Fabienne Delporte, Omar Chlyah, Souad Cherkaoui Copyright (c) 2020 Abdellah Benbya, Meriem Mdarhri Alaoui, Fatima Gaboun, Fabienne Delporte, Omar Chlyah, Souad Cherkaoui https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8131 Tue, 25 Feb 2020 15:53:49 +0000 Effect of different nutrient solution and irrigation regimes on growth of Lily (LA Hybrid 'Fangio') https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8178 <p>A better understanding of the effects of nutrients element and irrigation levels on production of Lily (<em>Lilium</em> LA Hybrid <em>Fangio</em>) can lead to optimal uses of nutrients and water. Plant growth is strongly correlated with the amount of irrigation and fertilization. In this regard, a greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different nutrient solution viz. high concentration of elements (S1), medium concentration of elements (S2), and high concentration of elements (S3) under different irrigation regimes (100, 90, 80 and 70 % of field capacity (FC) in soilless culture. In well-watered treatments (100% FC), S3 enhanced the vase life by 17% compared to S1. The maximum leaf number was observed in the interaction of S3 and 90% FC, whereas its minimum was found in the interaction of S1 and 70% FC. Under 70% FC, S3 increased the leaf length by 6% in comparison with S1. Leaf width was altered by simultaneous use of nutrient solution and irrigation, ranging from S2 and 80% FC (13.3 mm) to S1 and 70% FC (9 mm). In S3, 70% FC decreased the bud length by 9% relative to 100% FC. The days until flowering varied from the interaction of S2 and 70% FC (4.1 days) to S1 and 100% FC (6 days). Under S1 treatments, 70% FC decreased the flower number by 18% compared to 100% FC. The highest weight of daughter bulb was observed in interaction of S2 and 80% FC. In contrast, the lowest weight of daughter bulb was found in S2 and 90% FC.</p> Z.S.N. Mohajer, Moazam Hassanpour Asil, J.-A. Olfati, M.R. Kaledian Copyright (c) 2020 Z.S.N. Mohajer, Moazam Hassanpour Asil, J.-A. Olfati, M.R. Kaledian https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8178 Thu, 27 Feb 2020 10:00:27 +0000 Effective pollination period and its influence on fruit characteristics of 'Hayward' Kiwifruit https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8186 <p>Pollination is crucial for producing marketable kiwifruit, and increasing revenue of growers. The objectives of this research were to determine the effective pollination period (EPP) of ‘Hayward’ (<em>A. deliciosa</em> A. Chev. C.F. Liang &amp; A.R. Ferguson) and to determine fruit characteristics in relation to the time of pollination. Hayward kiwifruit showed no significant decrement of fruit set and fruit weight within the 4-day and 2-day period, respectively, however, the mean weight of fruit was ≥ 85 g within 4-day. Fruit set was 100% when pollination was carried out during the first 3 days following anthesis. Fruit set decreased to 20.71% when flowers were pollinated 5 days after anthesis and were practically nil by 6 days after anthesis. Fruit weight and size were the highest on days 1-2 after anthesis and reduced for flowers pollinated 3-4 days after anthesis. The lowest fruit weight and seed weight and number were observed when pollination was done on day 5. Hayward kiwifruit showed no significant drop in fruit set within the 4-day period, and thus, appears to have an EPP equal 4 days after anthesis. Thus, efforts for producing good quality and of marketable size fruit should be concentrated within the first 4 days after anthesis.</p> Ebrahim Abedi Gheshlaghi Copyright (c) 2020 Ebrahim Abedi Gheshlaghi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8186 Wed, 26 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study on relationship between morphological and physiological traits with resistance to rust fungus (Puccinia allii) in Iranian garlic clones https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8187 <p>In the present study we collected 12 clones of garlic from different geographical origin in Iran. The clones were sown in a field trial under natural infection of the rust fungus during two consecutive years. After 210 days, the reactions of the clones to the disease as well as the morphological features of the clones were evaluated. The results of analysis of variance on morphological traits showed a significant difference among the clones in terms of bulb weight, mean clove weight, number of bulb skin, number of cloves in the bulb, leaf temperature and the percentage of clove dry weight, and nutrient uptake for N,P,K, Mn and Zn. The results showed a positive and significant correlation between the leaf temperature, photosynthesis, nitrogen and manganese uptake and percentage of leaf infection at 1% probability level. The results of the infection frequency showed that the clones ‘Gilvan1’ and ‘Lalejin’ had the lowest percentage of infection and were identified as resistant clones to the rust disease. The results also showed that garlic clones reacted differently to the rust fungus and are separated into resistant, semi resistant, semi-susceptible and susceptible clones.</p> Atefeh Anjomshoaa, Hossein Jafary, Mohammed Reza Hassandokht, Mehdi Taheri, Vahid Abdossi Copyright (c) 2020 Atefeh Anjomshoaa, Hossein Jafary, Mohammed Reza Hassandokht, Mehdi Taheri, Vahid Abdossi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8187 Wed, 26 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating the salt tolerance of seven fig cultivars (Ficus carica L.) https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8191 <p>The growing demand for both fresh and dry figs worldwide is due to its richness in mineral compounds (i.e. iron and copper) and polyphenols. Considering the position of Iranian cultivars in global fig market, the present study examined the growth and photosynthetic rate of commercial fig cultivars (i.e. ‘Sabzʼ, ‘Siyahʼ, ‘Shah Anjirʼ, ‘Atabakiʼ, ‘Kashkiʼ, ‘Matiʼ and ‘Bar Anjirʼ) exposed to six salt treatments corresponding to the following electrical conductivities (EC): 0.5, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dSm-1. The results indicated a decrease trend of stem length, stem diameter and leaf number in salt-exposed plants. The electrolyte leakage and protein content in all cultivars followed an ascending trend. The specific leaf area, relative water content, photosynthetic indices and nitrogen content followed a decreasing trend according with increasing salinity. The ‘Siyahʼ and ‘Sabzʼ, as the most salt-tolerant cultivars, had the maximum leaf abscission, the lowest transpiration rate and leaf water content under salt condition, compared to all other tested cultivars. Moreover, they had the most leaf succulence and leaf dry matter content and the lowest specific leaf area, which related to the balance between growth ratio and osmotic regulation under salt conditions. The ‘Shah Anjirʼ, as the most salt-sensitive cultivar, could not balance transpiration rate and leaf water content under salt treatment higher than 4 dSm-1.</p> Allahdad Salimpour, Mansoore Shamili, Ali Dadkhodaie, Hamid Zare, Mehdi Hadadinejad Copyright (c) 2020 Allahdad Salimpour, Mansoore Shamili, Ali Dadkhodaie, Hamid Zare, Mehdi Hadadinejad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8191 Wed, 26 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Optimization of phenolic compounds recovery and in vitro antioxidant activity of Algerian eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8214 <p>The optimum conditions for extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and maintaining the highest antioxidant activity from eggplant were determined. Extraction experiments were carried out by investigating the effects of the solvent nature (acetone, ethanol, methanol, or water), solvent concentration (30-90%), extraction temperature (30-100°C), extraction time (30-120 min), solid to solvent ratio (1/25-1/100 g/mL), and number of extractions (1, 2 and 3) on the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the extracts. The TPC was assessed to determine the polyphenolic component while free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) and ferric-reducing power (FRP) were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of eggplant extracts. All extraction parameters had significant effects (p&lt;0.05) on the TPC extraction and the antioxidant activities. The best conditions were obtained using three extraction steps with aqueous acetone 70% (v/v) at 25°C for 60 min and with 1 g/50 mL solid to solvent ratio. The optimum extraction conditions exhibit the TPC concentrations of 794.94 mg GAE/100 g and antioxidant activities of 737.86 mg TE/g (FRSA) and 28.00 mg TE/g (FRP). The free radical scavenging and ferric-reducing potentials were found to be positively significantly correlated with phenolic content under the influence of all extraction parameters.</p> Lynda Arkoub-Djermoune, F. Benmeziane, K Madani, L. Boulekbache-Makhlouf Copyright (c) 2020 Lynda Arkoub-Djermoune, F. Benmeziane, K Madani, L. Boulekbache-Makhlouf https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8214 Thu, 27 Feb 2020 11:19:39 +0000 Morphological and molecular characterization of ancient pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) accessions in Northern Italy https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/7908 <p>The Italian research on <em>P. granatum</em> L. is still limited, although the study of local germplasm is extremely important in order to preserve the existing biodiversity and to identify potential useful characters for a renewed industry. The study aimed at characterizing for the first time ancient pomegranates, grown in Emilia Romagna (Italy), through 38 quantitative morphometric descriptors related to leaf, flower, fruit and seed, 42 RAPD and 12 SSR markers. Morphological analyses showed large variation of traits among accessions and the descriptors related to fruit and seed had the highest power of discrimination. The considerable variation found was consistent with ANOVA and PCA results. Among all RAPDs tested, 7 were selected for their polymorphism; whereas among selected SSRs, 8 presented differences in the genetic profiles allowing a good discrimination of the local pomegranate accessions. The genetic relationships among pomegranates were studied by UPGMA cluster analysis and the accessions were clearly regrouped in four different genotypes. The study has highlighted significant differences and interesting pomological characteristics in the local pomegranates, which confirmed the good potential of this germplasm for the pomegranate industry.</p> Deborah Beghè, Andrea Fabbri, Raffaella Petruccelli, M. Marieschi, A. Torelli, Tommaso Ganino Copyright (c) 2020 Deborah Beghè, Andrea Fabbri, Raffaella Petruccelli, M. Marieschi, A. Torelli, Tommaso Ganino https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/7908 Fri, 24 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of palm leaf biochar on melon plants (Cucumis melo L.) under drought stress conditions https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8228 <p>In order to investigate the effect of palm leaf biochar on some characteristics of <em>Cucumis melo</em> L. under drought stress, a split plot experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three replications for two consecutive years. The main plot was irrigation level (60, 85, and 100% water requirement) and subplot was biochar in four levels (0, 0.18, 0.24, and 0.36 kg/m<sup>2</sup>). Results showed that treatment of 0.24 kg/m<sup>2</sup> biochar and 100% water requirement increased the characteristics of water use efficiency as 88%, shoot fresh weight as 77%, shoot dry weight as 32%, root fresh weight as 100%, root dry weight as 84%, root length as 54%, and average fruit weight 84% compared to treatment without biochar and 60% water requirement. The highest level of leaf N, Mn and K, shoot length, leaf area, leaf number, fruit diameter and fruit flesh thickness in the treatment of 0.36 kg/m<sup>2</sup> biochar and 100% water requirement were higher 58%, 48%, 65%, 18%, 50%, 95%, 43% and 55%, than to of treatment without biochar and 60% water requirement respectively and had no significant difference with the treatment of 0.24 kg/m<sup>2</sup> biochar and 85% water requirement. The highest rates of Fe, Zn and Cu were related to 0.36 kg/m<sup>2</sup> biochar and 60% water requirement as 60, 44 and 66% respectively compared to treatment without biochar and 100% water requirement. The biochar-free treatment with 60% water requirement accounted for the highest amount of proline due to high stress, and the proline content reduced with increasing biochar and decreasing stress in treatments. Generally, the treatments of 0.24 and 0.36 kg/m<sup>2</sup> of biochar increased most of the characteristics, however no significant difference was observed between these treatments. Moreover, in 85% water requirement the drought stress conditions could compensate with the application of biochar. Thus, using 0.24 kg/m<sup>2</sup> of biochar and 85% of water requirement, recommended for the best result.</p> Sajad Bagheri, Mohammad Reza Hassandokht, Abbas Mirsoleimani, Amir Mousavi Copyright (c) 2020 Sajad Bagheri, Mohammad Reza Hassandokht, Abbas Mirsoleimani, Amir Mousavi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8228 Thu, 27 Feb 2020 15:08:38 +0000 Influence of different ornamental shrubs on the removal of heavy metals in a stormwater bioretention system https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8230 <p>Several laboratory studies have shown the ability of bioretention systems to remove pollutants from stormwater. However, to our knowledge, no existing research has addressed the use of ornamental shrubs for improving water quality in bioretention systems in Italian cities. In this short note, we evaluated the potential of three ornamental shrub species (<em>Lonicera pileata</em> Oliver, <em>Cotoneaster horizontalis</em> Decne., <em>Hypericum hidcoteense</em> ‘Hidcote’) for the removal of heavy metals in a stormwater bioretention system. Pot experiments in “pot prototypes”&nbsp;using an alternative bioretention system filter media have been carried out under controlled conditions. The ornamental shrubs were irrigated with semisynthetic stormwater with known heavy-metal concentrations. Experimental results indicate that the removal of heavy metals by the system is very efficient. However, there was not a significant effect of the plant on the system’s retention efficiency. The removal of lead and cadmium by the system was over 87%. In order to provide accurate information for bioretention design, future research should comparatively assess plant species in a laboratory-scale filter column and in situ.</p> Alessio Russo, Andrew Speak, Claudia Dadea, Alessio Fini, Luigimaria Borruso, Francesco Ferrini, Stefan Zerbe Copyright (c) 2020 Alessio Russo, Andrew Speak, Claudia Dadea, Alessio Fini, Luigimaria Borruso, Francesco Ferrini, Stefan Zerbe https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/ahs/article/view/8230 Thu, 27 Feb 2020 17:13:06 +0000