Bio-based and Applied Economics <p><em>Bio-based and Applied Economics</em> is a free-access on-line journal promoted by the Italian Association of Agricultural and Applied Economics (AIEAA). Although mainly devoted to scholars and well established researchers BAE also encourages submissions by young researchers, teams involved in ongoing research projects and also relevant actors in the field of bio-economy and related public policies. BAE publishes contributions on the economics of bio-based industries, such as agriculture, forestry, fishery and food, dealing with any related disciplines, such as resource and environmental economics, consumer studies, regional economics, innovation and development economics.</p> Firenze University Press en-US Bio-based and Applied Economics 2280-6180 <p>Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (<a href="">CC-BY-4.0</a>)</strong>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a></p> Bio-based Business Models: specific and general learnings from recent good practice cases in different business sectors <p class="p1">Business models can be a perfect tool to meet the challenges in highlighting the competitiveness and sustainability potential of bio-based solutions, and facilitating primary producers to benefit from the opportunities offered by bioeconomy. In this work six concrete bio-based good practices that have succeeded in progressing from early ideas to products on the market were analysed. These examples pose new insights that can be used by a wide range of experts and stakeholders for the analysis of benefits and challenges of value chains in the bio-based economy sectors. It is concluded that the traditional Business Model Canvas needs to be extended with additional factors related to sustainability and business ecosystem. In order to establish a practical framework promoting economic viability of bio-based business cases, the importance is highlighted for adjusting the exclusive focus on Technology Readiness Levels by introducing levels reflecting business or market readiness.</p> Nora Hatvani Martien J.A. van den Oever Kornel Mateffy Akos Koos Copyright (c) 2022 Nora Hatvani, Martien J.A. van den Oever, Kornel Mateffy , Akos Koos 2022-11-04 2022-11-04 11 3 185 205 10.36253/bae-10820 Food loss and waste accounting: the case of the Philippine food supply chain <p class="p1">In recent years, the interest in food loss and waste has been gaining momentum from researchers and policy-makers. Much of the attention on the matter is centered in industrialized countries, creating a knowledge gap within developing countries, among which is the Philippines. This lack of information impedes the country-level response in solving the issue, whose implications extend to food and nutrition security, productivity, and resource use. For this reason, our paper estimates the food loss and waste levels in the Philippine food supply chain of rice, corn, and banana commodities. We were first to identify the percentage accumulation of food loss and waste in each stage of the food supply chain and translated such portions into edible food volumes initially intended for human consumption. Our findings revealed that between one-seventh to one-fifth of edible rice, corn, and banana quantities are lost/wasted in their respective food supply chains. For each of the commodities analyzed, the principal activities responsible for the problem are drying, dehanding, and harvesting, respectively. Our results suggest the following for policy intervention and research: establish an agreed-upon food loss and waste definition; calibrate interventions at the level of the food supply chain; follow a supply chain system approach in reducing the problem; and determine an acceptable level of loss/waste.</p> Anieluz Pastolero Maria Sassi Copyright (c) 2022 Anieluz Pastolero, Maria Sassi 2022-11-04 2022-11-04 11 3 207 218 10.36253/bae-11501 The role of network characteristics of the innovation spreaders in agriculture <p class="p1">The diffusion of innovations is largely influenced by the characteristics of the network of initial adopters (or innovation spreader). We investigate how these characteristics tend to influence the adoption rate and the speed of the diffusion process of a technological innovation in agriculture. The diffusion process is simulated through an Agent Based Model that replicates real-world data. We found that the closeness and the clusterization of the networks are the variables that tend to affect the most the capability of spreading innovations among members. Our findings have direct policy implications: since innovations help advancing the economic development of the agricultural sector, promoting the emergence of networks that have desirable characteristics would enhance growth. Our analysis provides specific insights on how to plan networks with desirable characteristics for the innovation spreaders.</p> Antonio Lopolito Angela Barbuto Fabio Gaetano Santeramo Copyright (c) 2022 Antonio Lopolito, Angela Barbuto, Fabio Gaetano Santeramo 2022-11-04 2022-11-04 11 3 219 230 10.36253/bae-9932 The co-evolution of policy support and farmers behaviour. An investigation on Italian agriculture over the 2008-2019 period <p class="p1">This paper investigates the co-evolution of the CAP expenditure and of the farms’ performance and choices to assess whether and to what extent CAP assessment itself meets the requisites of Causal Inference. In order to identify some regularities in this co-evolution, the analysis is performed on a constant group of professional farms over a long enough time period. The Italian 2008-2019 FADN balanced sample is here considered. Results points to two major empirical implications. First of all, they question whether CAP expenditure is actually accompanied by any significant farmers’ response. An exception may actually concern the support specifically focused on environmental standards. Secondly, they raises some major methodological issues about the applicability of the Treatment Effect logic to CAP assessment.</p> Roberto Esposti Copyright (c) 2022 Roberto Esposti 2022-11-04 2022-11-04 11 3 231 264 10.36253/bae-12912 Price dependence of biofuels and agricultural products on selected examples <p class="p1">The growing demand for raw materials for the production of biofuels may lead to an increase in the prices of these raw materials and, due to the shortage of land, to an increase in the prices of other crops. This is due to the fact that the growing demand for raw materials for the production of methyl esters and bioethanol (the most widely used biofuels), such as rape and corn, is a form of competition on the food and feed markets. It should be mentioned that although the topic is not new, it is still very relevant, taking into account the expansion of energy crops, as well as national, European and world energy policy. Especially due to the fact that, as has already been mentioned, the use of plant products for the production of biofuels has an impact on the regulations of the food market.This study is to analyze the volatility and dependence of ethanol, biodiesel, maize and rapeseed prices in the period of 2016-2019 and aims at assessing the correlation between the agricultural and biofuel markets. In this paper, the investigation regarding co-integration of biofuel and agricultural commodity prices has utilized ethanol and commodity prices with the use of the vector error correction model (VECM). Price dependencies between the prices of biodiesel, rapeseed, maize and ethanol were found, indicating the existence of long-term causality in at least one direction between the analyzed prices. The results indicated that biodiesel prices during the period in question were influenced by the previous week’s prices of biofuel and rapeseed. Moreover, biodiesel prices had an impact on the level of ethanol and rapeseed prices. In the case of rapeseed, the correlation between its prices and those of corn is also noticeable, while prices of corn may also affect prices of ethanol.</p> Wioleta Sobczak Jarosław Gołębiewski Copyright (c) 2022 Wioleta Sobczak, Jarosław Gołębiewski 2022-11-04 2022-11-04 11 3 265 275 10.36253/bae-9753