Bio-based and Applied Economics <p><em>Bio-based and Applied Economics</em> is a free-access on-line journal promoted by the Italian Association of Agricultural and Applied Economics (AIEAA). Although mainly devoted to scholars and well established researchers BAE also encourages submissions by young researchers, teams involved in ongoing research projects and also relevant actors in the field of bio-economy and related public policies. BAE publishes contributions on the economics of bio-based industries, such as agriculture, forestry, fishery and food, dealing with any related disciplines, such as resource and environmental economics, consumer studies, regional economics, innovation and development economics.</p> en-US <p>Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (<a href="">CC-BY-4.0</a>)</strong>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a></p> (Meri Raggi) (Meri Raggi) Fri, 22 Jul 2022 09:07:38 +0000 OJS 60 Causal inference on the impact of nutrition policies using observational data <p class="p1">We discuss the state-of-the-art in the application of quasi-experimental methods to estimate the impact of nutrition policies based on observational data. This field of application is less mature compared to other settings, especially labour and health policy, as food economists have started to implement widely counterfactual methods only over the last decade. We review the underlying assumptions behind the most prominent methods, when they can be regarded as credible and if/when they can be tested. We especially focus on the problem of dealing with unobserved confounding factors, emphasizing recent evidence on the limitations of propensity score methods, and the hard task of convincing reviewers about the quality of instrumental variables. We discuss the application of Difference-in-Difference, with an emphasis on its potential in consumer panel data applications, and how results from Regression Discontinuity Design studies should be interpreted. Finally, we cover the estimation of counterfactual outcomes using structural methods and provide an overview of recent developments and current gaps.</p> Mario Mazzocchi, Sara Capacci, Beatrice Biondi Copyright (c) 2022 Mario Mazzocchi, Sara Capacci, Beatrice Biondi Wed, 20 Jul 2022 07:35:04 +0000 Italian farms during the COVID-19 pandemic: main problems and future perspectives. A direct analysis through the italian FADN <p class="p1">The spread of the COVID-19 virus in Italy during the first phasis of the pandemic (February-May 2020) has caused a large-scale crisis, with an almost immediate decrease of industrial production and a consequent contraction in domestic consumption and external trade. However, the issue of food security was immediately recognized as one of the most sensitive, so that the Government has decreed the priority role of the food system, which has been included among those considered fundamental services and economically essential, allowing the related activities to be carried out during the lockdown. Agricultural production activities transformation, and commercialization remained fully operative during the lockdown; nevertheless, the sector has faced many difficulties related to the contraction of some of the marketing channels (restaurants, on farm sales, agritourism, problems with the logistics and many other ones). To better understand the effects of the initial phasis of the pandemic on the Italian agricultural sector and provide useful information to the government and decision makers, a survey was carried out with a CAWI (Computer Assisted Web Interviewing) sent to over 10,000 farmers belonging to the sample of the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). The number of respondents has been of 733 farms, which represents around 7% of the Italian FADN sample. The results of the questionnaire have been matched with FADN data on the structure and the economic performance of farms, allowing a more precise evaluation of the condition and effects of the pandemic. The results highlight a relevant effect of the COVID-19 pandemic emergency on the agricultural sector: 37% of the interviewed farmers declared a significant liquidity crisis, while 60% predicted a contraction in turnover. These effects are more relevant for the wine, olives, and horticulture types of farming and more frequent in medium/large farms. A better situation has been found for farms which usually outsource processing and/or marketing/sale of the products.</p> Luca Cesaro, Antonio Giampaolo, Francesca Giarè, Roberta Sardone, Alfonso Scardera, Laura Viganò Copyright (c) 2022 Luca Cesaro, Antonio Giampaolo, Francesca Giarè, Roberta Sardone, Alfonso Scardera, Laura Viganò Wed, 20 Jul 2022 10:20:38 +0000 The Role of Energy on the Price Volatility of Fruits and Vegetables: Evidence from Turkey <p class="p1">In agricultural economics, fluctuations in food prices and the factors affecting these fluctuations have always been an important research topic. From production to delivery to consumers, the supply chain of agricultural products has a dynamic structure with continuous changes. In this dynamic process, analyzing the intensive use of energy at each stage has gained more importance with its deepening effects in comparison to the past. This study will empirically explore the volatility spillovers between energy price index and fruit-vegetables price index in the period of 2007-2020 in Turkey using the Kanas and Diebold-Yilmaz approaches. According to the results obtained from the Kanas approach in the study, it has been observed that there is a statistically significant volatility spillover from the energy price index to the vegetable price index, whereas there is no statistically significant volatility spillover to the fruit price index. This finding was supported by the results obtained from the Diebold-Yilmaz approach showing that there is a volatility spillover of 13.52% to the vegetable price index and 0.86% to the fruit price index from the energy price index.</p> Harun Uçak, Esin Yelgen, Yakup Arı Copyright (c) 2022 Harun Uçak, Esin Yelgen, Yakup Arı Wed, 20 Jul 2022 10:25:21 +0000 Impacts of fertilizer subsidy reform options in Iran: an assessment using a Regional Crop Programming model <p class="p1">The aim of this paper is to assess the potential impacts of different fertilizer subsidy reform options on the performance of the Iranian crops production sector. This is achieved using a Regional Crop Programming (RCP) model, based on Positive Mathematical Programming, which includes in total 14 crop activities and encompasses 31 administrative regions. The RCP model is a collection of micro-economic models, working with exogenous prices, each representing the optimal crop allocation at the regional level. The model is calibrated against observed data on crop acreage, yield responses to nitrogen application, and exogenous supply elasticities. Simulation results show that a total removal of nitrogen fertilizer subsidies would affect the competitiveness of crops with the highest nitrogen application rates and lead to a slight reduction of national agricultural income, at approximately 1%. This effect, which is more pronounced at the regional level, is driven by area reallocation rather than land productivity. The reallocation of nitrogen fertilizer subsidy to only strategic crops boost their production and income but increase disparity among regions and affects negatively welfare compared to the current universal fertilizer program. The transfer efficiency analysis shows that both target and universal simulated options are inefficient with an efficiency score below one.</p> Mona Aghabeygi, Kamel Louhichi, Sergio Gomez y Paloma Copyright (c) 2022 Mona Aghabeygi, Kamel Louhichi, Sergio Gomez y Paloma Wed, 20 Jul 2022 10:29:43 +0000 Land tenure and property rights, and the impacts on adoption of climate-smart practices among smallholder farmers in selected agro-ecologies in Nigeria <p class="p1">This study investigates the effects of land tenure and property rights (LTPRs) on smallholder farmers’ adoption of climate-smart practices (CSPs) among cereal farming households in Nigeria. The data were collected from maize and rice farmers in a Nation-wide Farm Household Survey conducted across the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria. Data collected were analysed within the framework of Multivariate Probit to determine the factors that facilitate and/or impede the adoption of CSPs. The results showed that the adoption of CSPs considered in this study – agroforestry, zero/minimum tillage, farmyard manure, crop rotation and residue retention - were generally low. Empirical analysis showed that farmers with transfer right were more likely to adopt farmyard manure, crop rotation and residue retention while the likelihood of adopting agroforestry reduced with having transfer right. The coefficient of <em>de jure</em> secure increased the likelihood of adopting zero/minimum tillage while the coefficient of control right increased the likelihood of adopting agroforestry. Again, we found that the adoption of zero/minimum tillage reduced with control and transfer rights. The study also contributes to the existing literature on adoption by recognizing the interdependence between different climate-smart practices as well as jointly analyse the decision to adopt multiple CSPs. The study therefore, suggests that governments, in whom the responsibility for land use policy reform lies, review the existing framework to ensure a prompt, fair, and efficient land tenure system.</p> Mojisola O. Kehinde, Adebayo M. Shittu, Maria G. Ogunnaike, Funminiyi P. Oyawole, Oluwakemi E. Fapojuwo Copyright (c) 2022 Mojisola O. Kehinde, Adebayo M. Shittu, Maria G. Ogunnaike, Funminiyi P. Oyawole, Oluwakemi E. Fapojuwo Wed, 20 Jul 2022 10:37:04 +0000 Acknowledgements <p>.</p> Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 22 Jul 2022 08:58:18 +0000