Quaderni di Linguistica e Studi Orientali 2020-01-09T15:10:31+00:00 M. Rita Manzini, Leonardo M. Savoia Open Journal Systems <p class="Body"><em>Quaderni di Linguistica e Studi Orientali / Working Papers in Linguistics and Oriental Studies</em>&nbsp;(QULSO), is an open-access peer-reviewed journal providing a forum for scholarly debate for Linguistics and Oriental Studies researchers in Italy and abroad. The journal publishes articles relating to the analysis of natural language in its various aspects, paying special attention to the following fields of inquiry: theoretical models of language; the description of linguistic systems; the linguistic continuum in historical, typological and sociolinguistic perspectives; linguistic structures of languages of the Orient and their historical evolution; experimental linguistics (psycholinguistics, neurolinguistics) and applied linguistics; pragmatics and semantics; communication.</p> <p class="Body">The journal, sponsored and funded by the Department of Languages, Literatures and Intercultural Studies of the University of Florence, reflects the interests of its linguist and orientalist members. It is a product of the Open Access Publishing Workshop and is published online by Firenze University Press (FUP).<br>Languages: English, Italian (others by editorial approval).</p> <p class="Body">&nbsp;</p> <div>&nbsp;</div> <p class="Body">&nbsp;</p> <p class="Body"><em>Quaderni di Linguistica e Studi Orientali / Working Papers in Linguistics and Oriental Studies</em>&nbsp;(QULSO), è una rivista open access con revisione anonima tra pari che fornisce una sede di confronto scientifico rivolto alla comunità linguistica e orientalistica italiana e internazionale. La rivista pubblica contributi relativi all’analisi dei diversi aspetti del linguaggio, in riferimento in particolare ai seguenti nuclei tematici:&nbsp; i modelli teorici delle lingue naturali; la descrizione dei sistemi linguistici; il continuum linguistico in prospettiva storica, tipologica, sociolinguistica; le strutture linguistiche dell'area orientale e l’evoluzione storica delle lingue orientali; la dimensione sperimentale (psicolinguistica, neurolinguistica) ed applicata&nbsp; del linguaggio; la semantica e la pragmatica; la comunicazione.</p> <p class="Body">La rivista, finanziata dal Dipartimento di Lingue, Letterature e Studi Interculturali dell’Università di Firenze, riflette gli interessi della sua componente linguistica ed orientalistica; è prodotto dal Laboratorio editoriale Open Access del Dipartimento e pubblicato online da Firenze University Press (FUP).<br>Lingue: inglese, italiano (altre su approvazione del comitato di redazione).</p> <p class="Body"><span style="color: red;"><span style="font-size: 1.2em;"><strong>ANNOUNCEMENT:</strong></span></span><span style="font-size: 1.2em;">&nbsp;QULSO accepted for indexing in&nbsp;<strong>ERIH PLUS</strong></span></p> <div> <p>It is a pleasure to announce that&nbsp;<em>Quaderni di Linguistica e Studi Orientali (QULSO)</em>&nbsp;has been approved for inclusion in&nbsp;<strong>ERIH PLUS</strong>. The European Reference Index for the Humanities and the Social Sciences (ERIH PLUS)&nbsp;is the most important and prestigious reference index in the European Union when it comes to international quality and impact accreditation for scientific journals in the areas of Humanities and Social Sciences.</p> </div> <div><a href=""><img src="/public/site/images/piernoalessandro/banner_erih.png" alt=""></a></div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><strong>ERIH PLUS</strong>&nbsp;was established (only as ‘ERIH’ at first) by the European Science Foundation (ESF) Standing Committee for the Humanities (SCH) in 2002 and has ever since become the most highly valued reference index within the European Union.<strong>&nbsp;ERIH PLUS</strong>&nbsp;can be described as especially demanding both by the width and diversity of requirements considered and by the strictness with which EU experts’ panels have to carry out their task when evaluating the compliance with those requirements. The selection process includes several stages of the evaluation procedure, and it has been coordinated by the no less demanding Norwegian Association of Higher Education Institutions in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers from 2014 onwards.</div> <div>A new call for the rigorous evaluation of scientific journals was published in July 2014.&nbsp;<strong><a href="">QULSO passed this evaluation</a>&nbsp;and was accordingly included in the EU’s prestigious and influential ERIH PLUS index.</strong>&nbsp;This undoubtedly means a great recognition for the persevering, disciplined and rigorous work carried out by this journal</div> <div> <div><strong>ERIH PLUS</strong>&nbsp;was established (only as ‘ERIH’ at first) by the European Science Foundation (ESF) Standing Committee for the Humanities (SCH) in 2002 and has ever since become the most highly valued reference index within the European Union.</div> </div> <p class="Body">&nbsp;</p> Quaderni di Linguistica e Studi Orientali / Working Papers in Linguistics and Oriental Studies, Vol. 5, 2019. Full Issue 2020-01-09T15:07:13+00:00 2019-09-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Cover 2020-01-09T15:10:30+00:00 2019-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Preliminaries 2020-01-09T15:10:27+00:00 2019-09-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) From Phonological Rules to the Person Case Constraint. Monovalent vs. Bivalent Features in Grammar 2020-01-09T15:07:49+00:00 Laura Bafile M. Rita Manzini <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In phonology, segmental content has been predominantly represented in terms of binary features. Although binary features may provide an elegant description of some segmental contrasts, it is far from clear that speaker/hearer’s knowledge about segments is organized in a binary way, as we illustrated with specific reference to vocalic alternations (metaphony etc.). The debate about binarity in phonology has a potential parallel in morphosyntax. While syntactic categories (N, V, v, T etc.) are monovalent, a model like Distributed Morphology depends on standard generative phonology for a number of formal properties, including the adoption of binary features. Thus 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup> persons are [+participant] while 3<sup>rd</sup> person is the absence of such properties, namely [-participant]. We argue that this is not the most economical set of assumptions, specifically in the explanation of the syntactic generalization known as the Person Case Constraint (PCC). For both phonology and morphology, we show that the inherent richness of binary features leads to formal and conceptual problems, such as the fact that atomic segments or lexical items have as complex a feature matrix as non-atomic ones.</span></p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Auxiliary Selection in Italian Dialects: Person Split, OCls and "Raddoppiamento Fonosintattico" 2020-01-09T15:07:46+00:00 Benedetta Baldi Leonardo M. Savoia <p class="p1">This article addresses a classical phenomenon of Differential Subject Marking, i.e. the selection of auxiliary in the perfect in relation to person in some Central and Southern Italian dialects. In these systems <em>be/ have</em> as auxiliaries alternate according to person and, partially, to active, non-active or passive voice. The attested patterns vary but a tendency emerges whereby 3<sup>rd</sup> person requires <em>have</em>, while 1<sup>st</sup>/2<sup>nd</sup> person require <em>be</em>. In the passive <em>be</em> is associated to all persons. We aim at describing the main types of the auxiliary patterns and proposing an analysis of the morpho-syntactic mechanism underlying the distribution of <em>be</em> and <em>have</em>. We connect the <em>be/have</em> alternation with the syntactic representation of the event and its relation with the distinction between deictic import of 1<sup>st</sup>/2<sup>nd</sup> person and the argumental reading of 3<sup>rd</sup> person elements. A core point of our discussion is the sandhi process of Raddoppiamento Fonosintattico in auxiliary contexts that the recent literature considers a cue of the syntactic difference between passive and active voice. Finally, a comparison with the Piedmontese systems selecting <em>be</em> as auxiliary regardless of the verbal voice is proposed as far as they can provide further elements for deepening the syntactic nature of auxiliary selection.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) A Syntactic Interpretation of the Applicative-Causative Syncretism 2020-01-09T15:07:44+00:00 Ludovico Franco <p class="p1">This paper deals with the applicative-causative syncretism, which is a pattern of morpheme polysemy attested in many different natural languages. We basically interpret the causative-applicative syncretism as based on a shared syntactic configuration. Specifically, we argue that the syncretic morpheme under investigation is the ‘applicative’ counterpart of an adpositional/case elementary relator (Manzini &amp; Franco 2016; Franco &amp; Manzini 2017a), attaching instrumental or benefactive obliques (High Applicatives, cf. Pylkkänen 2002, 2008) to the verbal spine. We follow Bellucci (2017), Manzini &amp; Savoia (2018) in assuming that causees in causative constructions can be introduced as obliques, linked to the same structural position as High Appls. The causative reading of the sentence is driven by interpretive means (cf. Franco &amp; Manzini 2017a). This readily explains the possibility of encoding causative and applicatives with the same lexical items.</p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Comparing Patterns of Adjectival Modification in Greek: A Diachronic Approach 2020-01-09T15:07:41+00:00 Cristina Guardiano Melita Stavrou <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This paper investigates the distribution of adjectives in Ancient Greek, with the aim of comparing it to Standard Modern Greek. We use a selection of texts from Classical Attic and New Testament <em>koiné</em>. In Ancient Greek, like in Standard Modern Greek, all types of adjectives are allowed in prenominal position, and there is no evidence of movement of the noun over prenominal adjectives. As far as postnominal adjectives are concerned, in Classical and New Testament Greek they are systematically articulated in definite DPs, in a structure similar to the so-called polydefinite construction, that is typical of Standard Modern Greek. There is little evidence, in the texts explored, of structures of the type <em>Article Adjective Article Noun</em>, which are instead very common in Standard Modern Greek, and have been assumed to result from fronting the constituent [Article+Adjective] from its postnominal position. Finally, in Ancient Greek, there are cases of postnominal articulated non-adjectival modifiers of the noun, which are impossible in Standard Modern Greek. The paper explores these patterns, with particular attention to the mechanisms underlying polydefiniteness.</span></p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The Beginning of the Syllable in Albanian 2020-01-09T15:07:39+00:00 Merita Hysa <p class="p1">Looking at the syllable as a phonological description unit, we can highlight some basic features that characterize the segments that are part of it. The beginning of the syllable boundary is seen as a possible component of the syllable which shows some of the features associated with the way the units, which build it, are organized, and this is considered as the strongest consonantal position. Speakers of a language are able to identify possible consonant phonotactic combinations that may emerge at the beginning of the syllables and they assert that not every consonant sequence can form lasting onsets.<br /> The word-initial clusters in Albanian are various which depend not only on the number of elements, but also on the possibilities of their combination, and sometimes they are regulated by phonological constraints. What is to be noted is that, with regard to the ability to emerge in an onset position, there are no restrictions on the consonants of the Albanian language which can all occupy this position, either as a component or as a branched component. The Albanian language does not show any visible limitations not only in the number of elements that emerge at the beginning of the syllable, but also in their possible combinations to create such syllabic structures.</p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Morphological and Syntactic (non-)finiteness. A Comparison between English and Balkan Languages 2020-01-09T15:07:37+00:00 M. Rita Manzini Anna Roussou <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In English, finiteness has an extremely limited realization in morphology and is almost exclusively defined in syntax. In particular, there are two main morphological forms, the stem and the stem followed by the -<em>ed</em> ending, which function as finite or as non-finite (infinitive, participle) depending on the syntactic context. We propose that the main split of English is aspectual and tense and mood specifications are derived by the syntactico-semantic context. Importantly, there is no necessary connection between the form that non-finite complementation takes in English and the reduced inflectional paradigm of the language. Geg Albanian and Romanian are richly inflected languages. Yet the short infinitive of Romanian coincides with the verb stem; the Geg Albanian verb stem externalizes the infinitive (<em>paskajore</em>) and participle. Therefore in Balkan languages as well, non-finiteness is defined by syntactic context. Specific attention is paid to the role of the subject and of prepositional introducers in disambiguating the relevant verb forms.</span></p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Some Initial Remarks on Non-Prepositional Genitives in the Apulian Variety of San Marco in Lamis 2020-01-09T15:07:34+00:00 Angelapia Massaro <p class="p1">This work aims at an initial description of prepositionless genitives in the Romance variety of San Marco in Lamis, spoken in the Southern Italian region of Apulia. The construction will be compared with other Romance, Semitic, Albanian, and Iranian varieties whereby the expression of possession is connected to the presence of D elements, or to morphology stemming from them. The paper deals, in particular, with the behaviour of the construction with elements such as definite and indefinite articles, demonstratives, proper names, and with how pre-nominal adjectival modification of genitives and post-nominal adjectival modification of heads can only occur in the prepositional kind of the construction. This is also the case with demonstratives preceding heads and genitives in the form raised nominals. It will be seen that genitives are only interpreted as such when they are non-raised, i.e. when they are articled. The pre-genitival article is thus understood to be a pivotal element in the interpretation of the second DP as genitival.</p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Microvariation and Microparameters. Some Quantitative Remarks 2020-01-09T15:07:32+00:00 Diego Pescarini <p>This paper deals with the distribution of subject clitics in northern Italian dialects. Building on quantitative data, I argue that the observed microvariation cannot derive (only) from external linguistic factors such as contact, areal diffusion, sociolinguistic dynamics, etc. Rather, a principled feature-based analysis is needed in order to account for certain patterns of defectivity and syncretism that, although typologically rare, occur systematically in northern dialects.</p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Reduplication as a Strategy for "-ever" Free Relatives: Semantic and Syntactic Observations* 2020-01-09T15:07:30+00:00 Giuseppina Silvestri <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Italo-Romance varieties display a typologically rare strategy to realize the unconditional (or free-choice) free relative clauses, i.e. the reduplication of the verb complex. The semantic entailment of unconditionality is not conveyed through the lexicalization of a morpheme corresponding to -<em>ever</em>. Also, the modal force of the semantic operator does not match the selection of the subjunctive morphology, which is not available in most Italian dialects. The ItaloRomance varieties of our sample resort to structural reduplication as the only strategy to express the unconditionality requirement of this type of free relative clauses. In this contribution, I compare unconditionals across Italian dialects and other Romance varieties on the basis of their morphosyntactic properties. In the analysis of the reduplication structure I link the derivation of unconditional free relatives with the semantic and syntactic aspects of free-choice indefinite pronouns. I finally propose a unifying formal account of two types of reduplication configurations, both corresponding to unconditional free relatives, both available across Italo-Romance.</span></p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Linguistic-functional Analysis of the Biblical Hebrew Lexemes "ʿaṭarâ", "keter" and "nezer" 2020-01-09T15:07:29+00:00 Chiara Stornaiuolo <p class="p1">The article examines three Biblical Hebrew Lexemes. It exerts the method of semantic and structural analysis based on Eugenio Coseriu postulates. First it defines and explains the method used, then it realizes a distributional analysis and a classematic analysis of each lexeme. The second and the third phase proceed according to the functional language with the direct examination of each single occurrence. In the end it summarizes the achieved results. The structural analysis applied to the study of this three lexemes has allowed to develop some theories about the concept of kingship in the Biblical Hebrew and its development through functional languages.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) L’apprendimento linguistico tra parametri e transfer 2020-01-09T15:07:27+00:00 Benedetta Baldi <p class="p1">This article investigates the relation between L1 and L2 in the light of the transfer phenomena. More precisely a revision of the UG notion and parameter is proposed on the basis of the mentalist model proposed within the bio-linguistic program in some recent works by Chomsky. The idea being discussed here is that parameterization is a phenomenon associated with the externalization of linguistic expressions in terms of lexical and morpho-syntactic properties, on the basis of the basic properties of language. The notion of language coincides with a specialized cognitive capability, i.e. the combinatory mechanism (Merge), whereas its application implies the interaction with the external interpretive systems, namely sensory-motor and conceptual-intentional systems. As a consequence, transfer, as depending on the morpho-lexical organization of languages, is a mechanism that does not call into question the cognitive nature of language. On the contrary, we have to look at transfer as the natural solution for the acquisition of L2.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The Importance of the Transfer in Italian-Spanish Learning 2020-01-09T15:07:24+00:00 Deborah Cappelli <p class="p1">This article analyzes the differences and similarities between Italian and Spanish and attempts to identify the most problematic areas. The mistakes appear where they are not expected and it is interesting to investigate the reasons for this. Most of these errors are due to the transfer phenomena which interest all levels of analysis, from lexicon to morphosyntax passing through phonology but in different ways. The continuity does not necessarily facilitate learning, particularly when many elements intervene such as the context, the type of learning and the learner’s motivation. The linguistic transfer is a transfer of the habits that have been consolidated in their native language in the L2, it is also one of the most active mechanisms in the learning of a similar language. Contrastive Analysis is useful, not for a purely predictive purpose as it was in the past, because excluding the use of the L1 from didactics is not sufficient to prevent possible interference. The learner must have the possibility to access their linguistic heritage and activate the comparison. The transfer appears no more as a passive process over the learner but as an active process, or rather as a cognitive and communicative strategy.</p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Reflections on the Study of Italian as an L2 within the Context of Chinese Universities. A Comment on Italian Language Learning in Chinese Universities 2020-01-09T15:07:22+00:00 Feng Ye <p class="p1">The following research aims at investigating the teaching and learn-ing of Italian language in Chinese universities. Starting with the difficulties that Chinese-speaking students face when learning Ital-ian verbal morphology, it will focus on the influence of their moth-er tongue on the acquisition process. Their apparent difficulty in reaching a good knowledge of Italian language will be investigated in relation to the typological distance between the two languages and their morphosyntactic properties. It will highlight how the in-teraction of two strongly different language systems influences L2 acquisition (Bettoni 2001, GiacaleoneRamat 2003<span class="s1">; </span>Banfi 2003). A diagnostic evaluationwill show the sources of difficulties in the learning of Italian verbal morphology and it will highlight how it is necessary, in a learn-ing context traditionally focused on grammar and translation, to pay more attention to pragmatic competence and communication.</p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) On Subject Pronouns in Finnish-Italian Bilinguals: Effects of Cross-linguistic Influence on Discourse-pragmatics Competence 2020-01-09T15:07:20+00:00 Lena Dal Pozzo <p class="p1">The distribution of overt pronouns has been the focus of much interest in the last decades as it is considered a typical phenomenon of the syntax-discourse/pragmatics interface, a locus of variability in different kinds of language acquisition (bilingual, L2 advanced learners, SLI) and it has been investigated in null and non-null subject language. In the present paper we discuss the distribution of null and overt pronouns in bilingual language acquisition in Finnish (a partial null subject language) and Italian (a null subject language). Data has been collected through a storytelling task in Finnish and Italian. Results show some optionality in the use of pronominal forms but unexpectedly little overuse of overt pronouns is attested in the null subject language.</p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Echolalia as a Communicative Strategy: A Kleefstra-syndrome Case Study 2020-01-09T15:07:19+00:00 Greta Mazzaggio <p class="p1">Echolalia – immediate or delayed – is the stereotyped and mechanical repetition of words and phrases produced by others. Experts used to view echolalia as a defect to eliminate; however, current research has shown that often imitation may serve a purpose for children with linguistic deficits. This study’s goal is to assess whether echolalia has communicative value; such purpose is achieved through the analysis of spontaneous speech and delayed echoes uttered by a 13- years-old boy officially diagnosed with Kleefstra Syndrome. Since there are no linguistic studies yet regarding this syndrome, this study may shed new light on a specific linguistic strategy that people with this syndrome might use. Based on the functional categories described by Prizant (1983), we analyzed the echolalic speech produced by this teen with the aim of demonstrating the pragmatic value behind those repetitions.</p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Corporate Storytelling as an Effective Communication Tool 2020-01-09T15:07:17+00:00 Serena Camilla Crocchi <p class="p1">This paper proposes to highlight the effectiveness of storytelling as a powerful and persuasive communication tool in the corporate context. This peculiar kind of communicative approach allows the creation of a symbolic universe potentially shared by the public, with which not only can it recognize itself, but with which it can actually interact. The fundamental theories of narration and their evolution are taken into consideration, as well as the evolution of the consumer into prosumer and the sociological and economic consequences emerged. In the present paper we will discuss two case studies: <em>Wind: Papà</em> – an example of a short film with a strong emotional impact on the audience and a revolutionary message – and <em>Léon Vivien: Facebook 1914</em> – a masterful example of how narrative content can be exploited using different mediums and the potential of social networks.</p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The Italian-English “Cocktail” on Italian Social Networks 2020-01-09T15:07:16+00:00 Vera Gheno <p class="p1">The article deals with anglicisms (integral or partially adapted) in the language of social network users in Italy. Such anglicisms are divided into computer technicalities, pseudotechnicisms linked to the various social networking platforms, luxury loans and terms that lie somewhere between technicality and jargon; the motivation to their use goes from a real necessity to the reinforcement of a sense of belonging to a community, when not simply to give greater expressivity to the text. Some examples taken from social networks of the ongoing debate on anglicisms are analyzed and, in conclusion, the topic of the general distrust of Italians for anglicisms is discussed.</p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) "Arrègulas": Oral Poetry and Minority Language Standardisation 2020-01-09T15:07:15+00:00 Rosangela Lai <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><em>Arrègulas</em> is a proposal for the standardisation of Campidanese Sardinian approved by the Province of Cagliari, in 2009. It began as a reaction to the promotion by the Autonomous Region of Sardinia of one Logudorese-based standard language (<em>Limba Sarda Comuna</em>) to be used across the whole of Sardinia. What is peculiar about <em>Arrègulas</em> is that it is modelled after the <em>koiné</em> language employed by <em>cantadoris</em>, who are extemporaneous poets with a strong following in the Campidanese area. This <em>koiné</em> can be described as a form of Southern Campidanese deprived of its most marked features. The <em>Arrègulas</em> proposal gives this oral language a standard orthography with a comparatively straightforward phoneme-grapheme correspondence. All things considered, the standard has potential for a higher degree of acceptability with respect to <em>Limba Sarda Comuna</em> in the Campidanese area, both among proficient native speakers and among the many heritage speakers of Sardinian.</span></p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) "Terrorism" in German and Italian Press Headlines 2020-01-09T15:07:14+00:00 Silvia Sommella <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This paper illustrates the phenomenon of Islamic terrorism by applying frame semantics and metaphor analysis to German and Italian press headlines of the two online weekly publications <em>Der Spiegel</em> and <em>L’Espresso</em> between 2014 and 2017. The study identifies conceptual metaphors that confirm previous research constituting <em>terrorism as war</em>, <em>terrorism as a criminal organisation</em> both in German and Italian press headlines. The concepts of <em>terrorism as a natural event</em>, <em>as a disease</em> and <em>terrorists as animals</em> are represented in Italian headlines, while the contrasting metaphorical concepts of <em>antiterrorist groups as family and</em> / <em>or friends</em> are present in both publications and languages. The paper shed light to new results constituting <em>terrorism as a dramatic play</em> in the German and Italian languages and <em>terrorism as a game</em> and <em>wares</em> in the Italian language. In addition, the research illustrates how media discourse – through the use of conceptual metaphors – triggers a particular perception of the phenomenon among the general public so that governmental strategies and policies are accepted and terrorists are perceived as evildoers. This implies regarding them as members of an uncivilised group “other” opposed to the civilised group “we”. Media discourse about terrorism produces an intensive emotion of fear that is remarkable in both German and Italian language taking into account all similarities and differences.</span></p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Contents 2020-01-09T15:10:31+00:00 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Contributors 2020-01-09T15:10:29+00:00 2019-09-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)