Quaderni di Linguistica e Studi Orientali https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/bsfm-qulso <p class="Body"><em>Quaderni di Linguistica e Studi Orientali / Working Papers in Linguistics and Oriental Studies</em>&nbsp;(QULSO), is an open-access peer-reviewed journal providing a forum for scholarly debate for Linguistics and Oriental Studies researchers in Italy and abroad. The journal publishes articles relating to the analysis of natural language in its various aspects, paying special attention to the following fields of inquiry: theoretical models of language; the description of linguistic systems; the linguistic continuum in historical, typological and sociolinguistic perspectives; linguistic structures of languages of the Orient and their historical evolution; experimental linguistics (psycholinguistics, neurolinguistics) and applied linguistics; pragmatics and semantics; communication.</p> <p class="Body">The journal, sponsored and funded by the Department of Languages, Literatures and Intercultural Studies of the University of Florence, reflects the interests of its linguist and orientalist members. It is a product of the Open Access Publishing Workshop and is published online by Firenze University Press (FUP).<br>Languages: English, Italian (others by editorial approval).</p> <p class="Body">&nbsp;</p> <div>&nbsp;</div> <p class="Body">&nbsp;</p> <p class="Body"><em>Quaderni di Linguistica e Studi Orientali / Working Papers in Linguistics and Oriental Studies</em>&nbsp;(QULSO), è una rivista open access con revisione anonima tra pari che fornisce una sede di confronto scientifico rivolto alla comunità linguistica e orientalistica italiana e internazionale. La rivista pubblica contributi relativi all’analisi dei diversi aspetti del linguaggio, in riferimento in particolare ai seguenti nuclei tematici:&nbsp; i modelli teorici delle lingue naturali; la descrizione dei sistemi linguistici; il continuum linguistico in prospettiva storica, tipologica, sociolinguistica; le strutture linguistiche dell'area orientale e l’evoluzione storica delle lingue orientali; la dimensione sperimentale (psicolinguistica, neurolinguistica) ed applicata&nbsp; del linguaggio; la semantica e la pragmatica; la comunicazione.</p> <p class="Body">La rivista, finanziata dal Dipartimento di Lingue, Letterature e Studi Interculturali dell’Università di Firenze, riflette gli interessi della sua componente linguistica ed orientalistica; è prodotto dal Laboratorio editoriale Open Access del Dipartimento e pubblicato online da Firenze University Press (FUP).<br>Lingue: inglese, italiano (altre su approvazione del comitato di redazione).</p> <p class="Body"><span style="color: red;"><span style="font-size: 1.2em;"><strong>ANNOUNCEMENT:</strong></span></span><span style="font-size: 1.2em;">&nbsp;QULSO accepted for indexing in&nbsp;<strong>ERIH PLUS</strong></span></p> <div> <p>It is a pleasure to announce that&nbsp;<em>Quaderni di Linguistica e Studi Orientali (QULSO)</em>&nbsp;has been approved for inclusion in&nbsp;<strong>ERIH PLUS</strong>. The European Reference Index for the Humanities and the Social Sciences (ERIH PLUS)&nbsp;is the most important and prestigious reference index in the European Union when it comes to international quality and impact accreditation for scientific journals in the areas of Humanities and Social Sciences.</p> </div> <div><a href="https://dbh.nsd.uib.no/publiseringskanaler/erihplus/"><img src="/public/site/images/piernoalessandro/banner_erih.png" alt=""></a></div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><strong>ERIH PLUS</strong>&nbsp;was established (only as ‘ERIH’ at first) by the European Science Foundation (ESF) Standing Committee for the Humanities (SCH) in 2002 and has ever since become the most highly valued reference index within the European Union.<strong>&nbsp;ERIH PLUS</strong>&nbsp;can be described as especially demanding both by the width and diversity of requirements considered and by the strictness with which EU experts’ panels have to carry out their task when evaluating the compliance with those requirements. The selection process includes several stages of the evaluation procedure, and it has been coordinated by the no less demanding Norwegian Association of Higher Education Institutions in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers from 2014 onwards.</div> <div>A new call for the rigorous evaluation of scientific journals was published in July 2014.&nbsp;<strong><a href="https://dbh.nsd.uib.no/publiseringskanaler/erihplus/periodical/info?id=489590">QULSO passed this evaluation</a>&nbsp;and was accordingly included in the EU’s prestigious and influential ERIH PLUS index.</strong>&nbsp;This undoubtedly means a great recognition for the persevering, disciplined and rigorous work carried out by this journal</div> <div> <div><strong>ERIH PLUS</strong>&nbsp;was established (only as ‘ERIH’ at first) by the European Science Foundation (ESF) Standing Committee for the Humanities (SCH) in 2002 and has ever since become the most highly valued reference index within the European Union.</div> </div> <p class="Body">&nbsp;</p> Firenze University Press en-US Quaderni di Linguistica e Studi Orientali 2421-7220 <h4>License for Published Contents</h4> <p><img src="http://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/3.0/88x31.png" alt="Licenza Creative Commons"><br>You are free to copy, distribute and transmit the work, and to adapt the work. You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work).</p> <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/">Licence scheme</a> | <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode">Legal code</a></p> <h4>License for Metadata</h4> <p><img src="https://www.jlis.it/public/journals/1/cc0.png" alt="Licenza Creative Commons"><br>QULSO published articles metadata are dedicated to the public domain by waiving all publisher's rights to the work worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.<br>You can copy, modify, distribute and perform the work, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.</p> <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/">Licence scheme</a> | <a href="http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/legalcode">Legal code</a></p> Quaderni di Linguistica e Studi Orientali / Working Papers in Linguistics and Oriental Studies, Vol. 7, 2021. Full Issue https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/bsfm-qulso/article/view/12097 <p>Abstract</p> Maria Rita Manzini Leonardo Maria Savoia Copyright (c) 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 7 10.13128/qulso-2421-7220-12097 Subject clitics in nominal copular sentences: some insight from a North Eastern variety of Italian https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/bsfm-qulso/article/view/12000 <p class="p1">In this paper we describe the distribution of subject clitics in nominal copular constructions in the Veneto variety of Este (Padova province). In nominal copular sentences in a <em>pro-drop </em>language like Italian, the copula always agrees with the subject of the small clause both in canonical (preverbal NP subject) and in inverse (postverbal NP subject) structures. Since Veneto varieties are partial <em>pro-drop</em> languages, on the one side, the subject NP always agrees with the copula as in Italian. On the other side, the inflectional paradigm of both verbs and subject clitics interacts with the informational structure of the sentence. Namely, the allowance for subject proclitics and overt postverbal subjects in inverse copular sentences (which is not found in other constructions involving postverbal subjects) allows us to account for the preverbal position of the predicative DP in terms of informational structure: the preverbal predicative DP is a topic intensional element that instantiates the description of the subject of the sentence. The predicative DP, as in Italian, can cliticize onto an invariant pro-predicative clitic: the resulting clustering with the subject clearly confirms the reduced structure involved by copular constructions (as in Moro 1997). The present descriptive considerations allow us to update the analysis of Moro (1997). We characterize inverse copular sentences as involving some restriction on the topic-comment structure, showing a clear morphological counterpart (the inflected subject proclitics) in the operation of AGREE in a partial <em>pro-drop</em> language like the variety of Este (Padova province).</p> Linda Badan Paolo Lorusso Copyright (c) 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 7 9 32 10.13128/qulso-2421-7220-12000 Object clitics for subject clitics and DOM phenomena in the Franco-Provençal dialects of Apulia https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/bsfm-qulso/article/view/12001 <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The relation between auxiliaries and argumental properties of the lexical verbs is the question raised by the facts we will investigate. Other issues are posed by the role and the behavior of deictic clitic pronouns in different contexts and in the clitic string. The data examined in this contribution come mainly from the Franco-Provençal dialects spoken in the villages of Celle San Vito and Faeto in North Apulia; these dialects are the heritage linguistic use of ancient minorities dating back to the thirteenth century. We will briefly compare these data with the related data of the Franco-Provençal varieties of West Piedmont. The analysis we propose relies on the idea that auxiliary verbs are not functional elements but preserve their lexical properties, as shown by the identic syntactic behavior of <em>be</em> in its different occurrences. The theoretical frame we follow is the formulation proposed in Chomsky (2020a, b), based on the merge operation and the Labeling Algorithm, leading to a more appropriate treatment of “head movement” and agreeing syntactic structures.</span></p> Benedetta Baldi Leonardo M. Savoia Copyright (c) 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 7 33 49 10.13128/qulso-2421-7220-12001 Bilingualism and (outward) over-explicitness in the choice of subject anaphoric devices https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/bsfm-qulso/article/view/12002 <p class="p1">In this work we propose an explanation (the Decreased Activation Hypothesis) for some <em>prima facie</em> conflicting findings concerning the choice/interpretation of subject anaphoric devices in late bilinguals (LBs). While some studies report an overuse of overt pronouns (often claimed to be a default form employed by LBs), other studies report an overuse of lexical DPs (interpreted as a sign of LBs’ over-explicitness). Our proposal is that over-explicitness in bilinguals is just outward and the use of seemingly over-explicit forms (overt pronouns or lexical DPs) stems from LBs difficulty to cope with referents’ activation. Then, starting from the observation that whenever overuse of overt pronouns is reported a null subject language is at least involved, and whenever overuse of lexical DPs is reported a non-null subject language is at least involved, we explore the way in which subject anaphoric devices are employed in (some) null subject languages and in (some) non-null subject languages, finally arguing that LBs of a null and a non-null subject language may choose to be seemingly overexplicit in two different ways.</p> Elisa Di Domenico Copyright (c) 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 7 51 73 10.13128/qulso-2421-7220-12002 The morphosyntactic interaction of kinship terms with evaluative morphemes in Italian https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/bsfm-qulso/article/view/12003 <p class="p1">I<span class="s1">n this brief paper, we address the interaction between evaluative morphology and kinship terms introduced by possessives in Italian, showing that the application of evaluative affixes influences the syntactic context in which kinship terms can be employed: they cannot be introduced by a bare determiner when evaluative morphemes attach to the lexical root. We argue that this (trivial) empirical observation has some clear consequences from a theoretical viewpoint: the fact that derivational morphemes, such as evaluatives, alter the syntactic environment in which a noun is couched supports the theory of grammar advanced in Manzini and Savoia (2007, 2011), who assume that Merge takes morphemes as its input and single morphemes are fully visible to the syntactic computation.</span></p> Ludovico Franco Copyright (c) 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 7 75 88 10.13128/qulso-2421-7220-12003 Chomsky’s (2020) Links and linker phenomena https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/bsfm-qulso/article/view/12004 <p class="p1">In Section 1, I present a recent formalisation of modification and conjunction structures by Chomsky (2020), in terms of sequences of Pair-Merge units, each including a Link element identified with the nominaliser/verbaliser <em>n/v</em>. In Sections 2-3, I argue that the Link element is overtly visible in many languages in the form of (adnominal) linkers. In Section 4, I suggest that Case stacking, and Concord may also be viewed as externalizations of Links.</p> M. Rita Manzini Copyright (c) 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 7 89 102 10.13128/qulso-2421-7220-12004 N-merge systems in adult and child grammars: a quantitative study on external arguments https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/bsfm-qulso/article/view/12005 <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This paper explores quantitative results based on theoretical assumptions related to the predictions on N-merge systems (Rizzi 2016) ranked from minimum to a maximum of complexity in terms of the computational devices and derivational operations they require. We investigate the nature of external arguments focussing on 2-merge systems (two elements of the lexicon merge and the created unit is again merged with a further element directly extracted from the lexicon) and 3-merge systems (merge two elements created by previous operations of merge). We add a quantitative dimension to the established qualitative dimension discussed in the theory (Rizzi 2016) by investigating large-scale corpora representative of three populations of speakers: adult grammar (102 treebanks/101 languages), typically developing children (2 corpora/English and Chinese) and children with atypical development (1 corpus). The results confirm the predictions in Rizzi (2016): every language in our data set exploits 3-merge systems and less complex systems are the preferred options in early grammars.</span></p> Giuseppe Samo Copyright (c) 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 7 103 130 10.13128/qulso-2421-7220-12005 Gender and number morphology in Ethio-Eritrean semitic languages https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/bsfm-qulso/article/view/12006 <p class="p1">The vowel -ā can be identified as a marker of nominal and verbal plurality in different Semitic and Afroasiatic languages. The vowels -ā (feminine plural) and -ū (masculine plural) which are used for both internal and external plurals are, according to Hasselbach (2007), derived from a verbal system and a predicative adjective. In Semitic languages, ā, ū and <em>at</em> (&lt; <em>a</em>+<em>t</em>) mark gender and/or number. They are interdependent and can be used as classifiers. Based on the analysis of data from the languages in question, this article argues the Semitic gender and/or number markers indicated above and their reflexes <em>-ačč</em>,<em> -očč</em>, <em>-o </em>and -<em>ot</em> can be used as gender and/or number markers in Ethio-Eritrean Semitic languages. As in other Semitic languages, gender and number markers can function as classifiers in EES languages too. Even though there is interdependence of gender with number, the use of the former on verbal and nominal forms may be regarded as more original than the latter. However, more research is also needed to explore the diachronic relationship between them.</p> Tesfay Tewolde Johannes Copyright (c) 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 7 131 154 10.13128/qulso-2421-7220-12006 "Wh"-phrases and "wh"-in-situ in Late Archaic Chinese https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/bsfm-qulso/article/view/12008 <p class="p1">In this paper I explore <em>wh</em>-phrases and <em>wh</em>-in-situ in Late Archaic Chinese (LAC). Simplex and complex <em>wh</em>-phrases in LAC can be divided into eleven semantic categories. Since LAC is a <em>wh</em>-fronting language, <em>wh</em>-items undergo obligatory preposing, unless being subjects. Nonetheless, there are exceptions to the raising of non-subject <em>wh</em>-phrases, namely, obligatory and optional <em>wh</em>-in-situ. When <em>wh</em>-DPs function as the second complement of ditransitive verbs <em>nai</em>/<em>ruo</em>/<em>ru</em> ‘to treat’, or the second complement of the ditransitive verb <em>wei </em>‘to call’, they must stay in their postverbal base position. In terms of optional <em>wh</em>-in-situ, there are two situations, i.e. <em>wh</em>-predicates and <em>wh</em>-complement of manner adverbials. When <em>wh</em>-DPs act as predicates indicating object/activity, person or reason, they normally do not move, yet they can move under special circumstances; when <em>wh</em>-VPs act as manner adjuncts, they can be base-generated pre- or postverbally, and the <em>wh</em>-elements in both positions undergo optional movement. Finally, I propose that <em>wh</em>-in-situ is correlated with ditransitive verbs per se.</p> Aiqing Wang Copyright (c) 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 7 155 179 10.13128/qulso-2421-7220-12008 Struttura X-barra nei segmenti: la rappresentazione della lenizione https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/bsfm-qulso/article/view/12058 <p class="p1">The article concerns some developments of Element Theory that extend X-bar theory to the realm of phonology in order to represent the internal structure of segments. While maintaining some fundamental assumptions of Element Theory concerning the nature of melodic primes, these models propose a radically different conception of the segment and of larger phonological domains compared to autosegmentalist approaches. The article discusses some issues emerging from the adoption of X-bar theory and notation with regard to the representation of lenition phenomena, and suggests that the complex hierarchical structure that according to these theories corresponds to a segment poses problems of descriptive adequacy and raises a general question about learnability.</p> Laura Bafile Copyright (c) 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 7 183 203 10.13128/qulso-2421-7220-12058 Noema fondato 2: schemi cinestetici e architettura categoriale della semantica https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/bsfm-qulso/article/view/12009 <p class="p1">The paper describes the path of my research towards a <em>kinaesthetic theory of meaning</em> within which some of the main issues in 20th century’s semantics and philosophy of language are approached from the perspective of a naturalized phenomenology centered on spatiality. The core issue lies in the <em>grounding</em> of cognitive structure, as expressed in supposedly “atomic” sentences, and the solution proposed rests on the existence of a finite set of basic schemata of objects-and-actions which, suitably combined, allow for the constitution of any possible act of reference. The steps which led to the <em>kinaesthetic</em> <em>theory </em>are presented here in retrospect, from the roots in Husserl’s phenomenology to the essential debt toward cognitive grammar, particularly for what concerns the theory of metaphor. The emphasis is on one characteristic feature of the resulting approach, namely, the tools provided by category theory are argued to be indispensable in order to set up a model of the way human cognition and particularly logical architecture are grounded on basic schemata</p> Alberto Peruzzi Copyright (c) 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 7 207 231 10.13128/qulso-2421-7220-12009 From polysemy to semantic change: remarks on the lexeme "miṣwà" in Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/bsfm-qulso/article/view/12010 <p class="p1">The paper discusses the semantic shifts of the lexeme <em>mi</em><span class="s1"><em>ṣ</em></span><em>wà</em> from Biblical Hebrew to Mishnaic Hebrew. This lexeme encodes some crucial notions of the Hebrew and Jewish value system, as those of commandment and duty. The linguistic data presented will offer a clear example of how the study of the late stratum of the biblical language can shed light on the diachronic semantic shift of the noun. Namely, Late Biblical Hebrew displays some significant semantic innovations, in the form of synchronic contextual variants, that will be fully developed in the post-biblical strata of the Hebrew language to the point of becoming the core meaning of the lexeme.</p> Romina Vergari Copyright (c) 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 7 233 262 10.13128/qulso-2421-7220-12010 Dyslexia in L2 learning: comparison between languages and linguistic anxiety https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/bsfm-qulso/article/view/12011 <p class="p1">In contemporary society, multilingualism is an increasing reality, and the study of foreign languages has a primary role in the educational policies of many countries. Furthermore, in the last years there has been a particular interest in specific learning disorders, so multilingual competence in subjects with dyslexia is an extremely interesting aspect to investigate. After a short introduction on learning disorders, this article examines the definition of dyslexia, both acquired and developmental type, and analyzes the neurophysical, neuropsychological and cognitive matrix hypotheses on the origin of the disorder. Given that learning to read and write is a fundamental stage in a child’s life, reading and writing skills are explored in this work, together with the related disorders. In addition, the most problematic topics in learning a foreign language for dyslexics have been identified as well as the different impact that the characteristics of a language may have on the expression of the disorder, carrying out a short comparison between Italian and some foreign languages studied in school. Looking back over the main theories that have been dealing with this subject, it has been argued about the barriers that learners with dyslexia may find in learning a foreign language.</p> Deborah Cappelli Copyright (c) 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 7 265 288 10.13128/qulso-2421-7220-12011 Negotiation in Chinese as a foreign language: Italian learners’ signal strategies in a tandem-learning context https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/bsfm-qulso/article/view/12012 <p class="p1">Negotiation of meaning, the process through which the speakers go to clearly comprehend one another, is believed to facilitate acquisition as it provides learners with situated comprehensible input as well as opportunities to produce pushed output. Nevertheless, negotiation is still an under-researched area in Chinese as a second or foreign language. This study analysed the strategies used by learners to signal non-understanding and the linguistic resources they exploit to achieve this goal. The participants were 13 Italian learners who took part in a three-month face-to-face tandem language learning program with 6 native speakers of Chinese. The interactions were recorded and transcribed, and the produced signals were classified according to strategy, form, and language type. The sequential position of strategies in the negotiation routines was also annotated. Empirical evidence shows a strong preference for repetitions and a frequent code-switching to Italian. A clear preference in the sequential distribution of clarification requests and confirmation checks also emerged, the former being mainly used to initiate negotiations routines, and the latter mostly occurring in routine reiterations.</p> Sergio Conti Copyright (c) 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 7 289 313 10.13128/qulso-2421-7220-12012 Framing Covid-19: A comparative analysis between institutional and press communication in Finland and Italy in 2020 https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/bsfm-qulso/article/view/12013 <p class="p1">In the present work we focus on institutional communication in a period of crisis. In particular we are interested in the communications of the Italian and Finnish governments during the health emergency raised by the COVID-19 pandemic. We analyse and compare two press releases given by the Italian and Finnish Prime Ministers at the very beginning and at the end of the so-called first stage of the pandemic. The analysis aims at i) describing the effectiveness of the speeches applying six parameters that we previously identified as crucial for efficient communication, and ii) exploring the lexical choice of the Prime Ministers in relation to it.</p> Serena Camilla Crocchi Lena Dal Pozzo Copyright (c) 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 7 317 343 10.13128/qulso-2421-7220-12013 Contributors https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/bsfm-qulso/article/view/12059 <p>AAVV</p> Ed. Copyright (c) 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 7 345 352 10.13128/qulso-2421-7220-12059