Cambio. Rivista sulle Trasformazioni Sociali <p><strong>CAMBIO</strong>. Rivista sulle trasformazioni sociali is a peer-reviewed and open-access electronic journal now in its nineth year. It aims to promote theoretical and analytical debates at international level arising from contributions focused on processes of change that are affecting present-day individuals and societies at both local and global levels. CAMBIO's main inspiration is sociological, but it has deliberately chosen to place itself in the open field of the social sciences, convinced that there can be no real depth of specialization without acceptance of the challenge of complexity, a challenge that must be faced in any attempt to interpret, understand, explain or comprehend.</p> Firenze University Press en-US Cambio. Rivista sulle Trasformazioni Sociali 2239-1118 <p>Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (<a href="">CC-BY-4.0</a>)</strong>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a></p> La finanza alla prova dell’emergenza sanitaria: continuità e trasformazioni in tempi di crisi. <p>No abstract</p> Joselle Dagnes Valentina Moiso Copyright (c) 2022 Joselle Dagnes, Valentina Moiso 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 12 23 10.36253/cambio-14039 Il Microcredito istituzionale. Un nuovo ruolo per l’azione pubblica <p>In a period of repeated economic crises, access to traditional credit channels for those unable to provide personal or capital guarantees has proved particularly complex. Among the possible ways to limit the damage of the crisis, the Region of Sardinia has identified support for entrepreneurship - and in particular micro-entrepreneurship - as the most important way to foster the creation of new jobs, both in traditional and innovative sectors. The authority has deemed it appropriate to change course in favour of business creation through a special form of interest-free microcredit, which replaces the traditional grant. At the time of its creation in 2009, the ESF Microcredit Fund constituted a radical policy innovation, which entailed a major discontinuity with previous practices. It was an important and courageous decision, taken in a context heavily marked by the unfavourable socio-economic situation. This article presents the main results of the analysis of the ESF Microcredit, describing the mechanisms of genesis and implementation of the policy and finally describing the main effects of the ESF Microcredit on the beneficiaries and the socio-economic context.</p> Antonello Podda Copyright (c) 2022 Antonello Podda 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 12 23 10.36253/cambio-12999 Senza credito <p>Since the 1990s, Italy has undertaken the most intense and prolonged transformation of its intermediation system in Europe. What has proved to be a real upheaval in ownership structures has led to the 'disappearance' of the banking system in the southern regions and the transfer of the 'thinking head' to the central north. This did not happen as a result of <em>market dynamics</em> but thanks to a plan conceived and guided by the Bank of Italy, with the aim of 'saving' the southern banks, increasing their allocation efficiency, management performance and profitability.</p> <p>Thirty years after the beginning of the restructuring process, the data used in this work show that the performance gaps between macro-areas have remained substantially unchanged, to the detriment of households and the productive fabric of the southern regions, which - in fact - continue to suffer from lower credit, with higher costs than those of the central and northern regions, which interface with banks that have their local headquarters in the same areas, enjoying the relative benefits.</p> Marco Zurru Copyright (c) 2022 Marco Zurru 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 12 23 10.36253/cambio-12982 Finanza, welfare e governo dell’incertezza: il caso dell’educazione finanziaria <p>This article focuses on financial education with the aim to explore the relationship between finance, welfare policies and the governance of uncertainties and risks also in the light of the Covid-19 pandemic. The article discusses the normative substratum that lies at the intersection of daily life and changes in the institutional and regulatory structures of welfare policies. In doing so, it shows how financial education turns protection from critical events, including pandemics, into a financial skills issue that vulnerable individuals and families must address through individual and financialised coping strategies, without broader social factors and contexts of vulnerability being taken into account and addressed. Finally, it points out that the pandemic situation does not seem to be a factor of discontinuity in this respect. Rather, the pandemic emergency appears to be used to support the further development of long-term trends, particularly processes of depoliticization and individualisation.</p> Maria Dodaro Lavinia Bifulco Copyright (c) 2022 Maria Dodaro, Lavinia Bifulco 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 12 23 10.36253/cambio-12969 A portata di click. Uno studio sociologico sul trading online in Italia negli anni della pandemia. <p>Questo articolo pone al centro dell’attenzione il fenomeno dell’investimento da remoto in <em>asset </em>finanziari (<em>trading online</em>), ad oggi una delle macro-aree di maggiore successo dell’industria <em>Fintech</em>. L’obiettivo principale della ricerca è identificare i fattori di rilevanza sociologica che ne hanno catalizzato la crescita, con un focus particolare sul caso dell’Italia. In primo luogo, dal lato dell’offerta, l’espansione di tale pratica nel paese è stata alimentata dal progressivo consolidamento di un articolato ecosistema di servizi digitali per l’investimento. D’altra parte, anche dinamiche legate alla domanda hanno rivestito un ruolo di primo piano: per meglio comprenderle abbiamo condotto uno studio qualitativo su un campione di 25 investitori amatoriali italiani; la nostra indagine mostra che l’espansione del <em>trading</em> <em>online</em> si deve soprattutto ad una diffusa necessità di far fronte a questioni cruciali per gli individui, come la gestione della carriera personale o il reperimento delle risorse finanziarie necessarie alla riproduzione sociale. Il materiale raccolto evidenzia inoltre che, soprattutto per i soggetti più fragili, il legame tra finanza e sfera personale tende ulteriormente a intensificarsi nei momenti di crisi, e la rapida crescita registrata dal settore in occasione della recente emergenza pandemica rappresenta un chiaro esempio di questa dinamica.</p> Niccolo' Casnici Copyright (c) 2022 Niccolo' Casnici 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 12 23 10.36253/cambio-12964 Food security and agricultural crises in a “financialized food regime” <p><em>The paper explores the impact of finance's penetration into agriculture and the global food system. The authors analyse the causes of the recent global </em><em>food crises, unveiling the key role played by financial speculation and explaining why this phenomenon is likely to affect food security much more than the problems related to the supply and demand dynamics taking place in the “real economy”. Financial markets, it is argued, are engendering pricing mechanisms and dynamics of wealth distribution that have consequences on agrarian structures, but also on our daily life.</em> <em>While creating new profit opportunities for speculators and the agribusiness, the penetration of finance into food systems increase uncertainty and imply new risks for local actors, to the point of compromising their capability to respond to exogenous shocks, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. To make sense of these phenomena, they must be linked to the broader transformation of our global system and to the long-term trajectories of capitalist development. This operation is here made with the support of the analytical tools provided by some approaches inspired by the world-system analysis, bringing to light the roots of what can be defined as a “financialized food regime” and discussing some of its important ecological and socio-economic contradictions.</em></p> Marco Fama Mauro Conti Copyright (c) 2022 Marco Fama, Mauro Conti 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 12 23 10.36253/cambio-13164 In un diverso Stato? <p>L’articolo si propone di indagare la trasformazione del ruolo dei principali attori filantropico-finanziari italiani - le fondazioni di origine bancaria - nel policy-making nei campi del welfare e della sanità nel contesto emergenziale della pandemia.<br>Per fare questo, l’articolo si apre introducendo le caratteristiche fondamentali delle FOB e del loro rapporto con le politiche pubbliche per come era fino allo scoppio della pandemia.<br>In particolare ne metteremo in risalto i quattro elementi portanti: 1) la capacità di intervenire in modo tempestivo; 2) la capacità innovativa; 3) la cvolontà di partecipare al policy making su un piano paritario con i decisori pubblici; 4) l’idea di essere migliori sul piano della capacità ideativa, dell’efficacia e dell’efficienza rispetto agli attori pubblici<br>Successivamente, appoggiandoci a dati e ad analisi dei discorsi, analizzeremo se e in che modo questi tre elementi si siano modificati durante la pandemia e con quale esito rispetto alla loro legittimazione nel policy-making.</p> Davide Caselli Paola Arrigoni Copyright (c) 2022 Davide Caselli, Paola Arrigoni 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 12 23 10.36253/cambio-13205 Elias e la peste <p>The paper aims to relate the observations of some historians who have dealt with epidemic events in early modern Italy to some central features of Norbert Elias' approach, and to observe some social phenomena related to such events in the perspective of Eliasian sociology. In this way, we will try to suggest that the social implications of great epidemic events that occurred “in the past” can be included among the various fields of investigation in which the Eliasian approach can be tested, and we will attempt to highlight the usefulness of some key concepts of the figurational sociology for the interpretation of what can be observed in that field. With particular reference to seventeenth-century Tuscany, attention will be focused on some dynamics of change that involved - at the same time - both certain institutions engaged in the fight against the plague and certain dimensions of people's attitudes and “sensibilities”. Following Norbert Elias, we will also try to suggest that the role played by the plague in defining the direction of those dynamics of change was part of a broader (civilizing) process.</p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;">&nbsp;</span></span></p> Enrico Brandi Copyright (c) 2022 Enrico Brandi 2022-06-13 2022-06-13 12 23 10.36253/cambio-12047 Elias e il mondo pulsionale. Note sull’importanza del medioevo nella costruzione eliasiana. <p>The paper focuses on one of the most discussed issues in Elias' work, namely the representation of the medieval affective world in The Civilisation Process. Drawing on its ties with Freudian theory, the paper attempts to highlight the ambiguity existing between the accounts of the dynamics of the psyche in Elias and their treatment in the case of the medieval warrior. Then an attempt is made to elucidate some implicit consequences for those who intend, following Elias' path, to question the relations between sociogenesis and psychogenesis.</p> Vincenzo Marasco Copyright (c) 2022 Vincenzo Marasco 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 12 23 10.36253/cambio-13249 Il riconoscimento giuridico del “terzo sesso”: un esempio di inclusione-esclusione? Riflessione socio-giuridiche e culturali sulla condizione intersex <p>L’articolo si propone di riflettere se e come le etichette e le pratiche mediche creino degli standard sesso-anatomici rispetto ai quali chi non vi si allinea è etichettato come “anormale”, legittimando così anche alcune forme di violenza ed emarginazione sociale. Verrà poi approfondito il case study dell’ordinamento tedesco, in cui ha recentemente trovato spazio l’indicazione anagrafica del terzo sesso, per riflettere se le corporeità non normative vengono liberate oppure governate, con annessi contraccolpi normalizzanti, attraverso il loro riconoscimento giuridico.</p> <p>The article aims to discuss if and how medical labels and practices create sex-anatomical standards with respect to which those who do not align with them are labeled as “abnormal”, thus also legitimizing some forms of violence and social marginalization. The case study of the German legal framework, where the third sex registry has recently found space, will then be explored to reflect whether non-normative bodies are liberated or governed, with related normalizing repercussions, through their legal recognition.</p> Cirus Rinaldi Giacomo Viggiani Copyright (c) 2022 Cirus Rinaldi, Giacomo Viggiani 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 12 23 10.36253/cambio-11457 The Role of Professional Competence in Welfare Services Development. A Contribution of Luhmann's System Theory <p>Since some decades professionalism is profoundly changed and traditional approaches have now become insufficient to understand its developments, as mono-dimensional. During the 20th century many professions have been employed within organizational contexts, causing a bureaucratization and standardization of many professional activities. Organizations have become one of the main places in which professional practices take place and professionalism can no longer be considered a «third logic», different from market and bureaucracy (Freidson 2001). Pervasiveness of organizations in professional sphere has also led to the conceptualization of a new kind of «occupational professionalism» (Evetts 2006, 2011, 2014).</p> <p>The paper proposes a systemic perspective to the professions analysis within the organizational contexts, according to which the professional competence plays a pivotal role. The study focuses on social field and particularly on local systems of measures against poverty, providing the findings of a case-study conducted in Italy. Professional competences assumes a key role, as their exercise is currently affecting the redefinition of contents and strategies of social interventions, in the delicate balance between the consolidated settings (locally developed in heterogeneous way) and the orientation towards the administrative re-centralization at national level, within a common community framework.</p> Maria Pia Castro Copyright (c) 2022 Maria Pia Castro 2022-02-15 2022-02-15 12 23 10.36253/cambio-10491 Innovation perspectives in international development cooperation: the case of organised civil society <p>Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are still in the side-lines of the emerging literature on innovation in international development cooperation. Nevertheless, the topic has been gaining prominence since the 2000s, accompanying the wider transformation of the development cooperation field. This paper presents a) a review of recent literature on the topic, to establish the theoretical background of the empirical research; and b) the results of a mixed methods research that involved a broad geographic sample of 20 NGO national co-ordinating bodies through an online survey and semi-structured interviews. The goal was to map and analyse innovation perspectives, culture, and practices in these organisations, understand their relationship with mainstream views of innovation in the field and uncover their potential to promote inclusive innovation. Results suggest that these actors approach innovation from a social innovation lens that is grounded in social theory, presenting potential to promote inclusive innovation practices. The paper also highlights the key role of information and communications technologies, as well as digital tools, as both a reason to innovate and enablers of innovation in these organisations.</p> Ana Luisa Silva Copyright (c) 2022 Ana Luìsa Silva 2022-06-13 2022-06-13 12 23 10.36253/cambio-12283 La luce nell’oblio: illuminismo e massoneria nella Persia cagiara <p>The link between Iran and European cultures has a much older history than recent geopolitical events and, in the decades immediately preceding the Constitutional Revolution of 1906, the contact between Persia and Europe planted the seed in a ground ready for the growth of modern ideas, ambition, aspirations, new values and, consequently, for the birth of a modern class made up of intellectuals inspired by the Enlightenment and Freemasonry. The following essay will address the history of freemasonry in Persia: from the first contacts that occurred with the first trips of Iranian diplomats to Europe, up to the successful attempt to create a recognized lodge in 1908 in Tehran, passing through the history of the controversial “House of oblivion” in the second half of the nineteenth century.</p> Dariush Rahiminia Copyright (c) 2022 Dariush Rahiminia 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 12 23 10.36253/cambio-10642 Representative Samples, Random Sampling <p>Abstract della redazione:</p> <p>In the social sciences literature the expressions&nbsp; ‘random sample’ and ‘representative sample’ are often used improperly and sometimes even interchangeably by students who seem to think that sample is representative in so far, and because, it is random.</p> <p>In this essay I shall discuss the proper use of ‘random’, ‘representative’ and related terms, and I shall argue that no logic nexus exists between the two concepts, nor does any causal relationship between the two sets of phenomena. The analysis begins with the term that raises the most annoying problems, and accordingly&nbsp; is less explored in the literature, viz, ‘representativeness’.</p> Alberto Marradi Copyright (c) 2022 Alberto Marradi 2022-10-22 2022-10-22 12 23 10.36253/cambio-12691 La costruzione dell’utente nel banco alimentare: la cerimonia di degradazione di Garfinkel e il ruolo del lavoro nella rappresentazione del povero <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Abstract</span></em></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This paper focuses on the representation of food bank users through the lens of Garfinkel's degradation ceremony (1956): that is, a communicative work aimed at transforming an individual’s total identity into a lower social identity, by recalling moral indignation, in order to reassert social norms and reinforcing group solidarity.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The aim of this paper is to investigate how representations on users might be put in place in a real life assistance context, as a food bank, and the ways in which this could be framed as a degradation ceremony (Garfinkel 1956): stigmatizing behaviours of the volunteers at the food bank might be framed as a way to reassert the social norm by clearly separating the in-group and the out-group (Goffman 1963): by making the users stay outside waiting, separated from the volunteers, by choosing the food for them without giving space to their desires, by discussing their motives not as contingent and contextual, but as linked to the essence of the individual.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">For this purpose, the paper will discuss the results of a qualitative research held in two food banks in Turin, Italy, conducted using participant observation and qualitative interviews with users and volunteers.</span></p> Costanza Guazzo Copyright (c) 2022 Costanza Guazzo 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 12 23 10.36253/cambio-12054 Huntington, lo scontro di civiltà e la situazione ucraina <p>The article deals with one of the most influential and renowed book of Huntington, <em>The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order</em>. After dwelling on the historical and intellectual background of the book, on its main thesis, and on its reception and criticism, the article focuses on the Huntigton’s analysis of Ukraine, viewed by the author as a cleft country.</p> <p>Embracing a culturalist approach to the international relations, the article tries to deepen the Huntington thesis arguing that the conflict between Russia and Ukraine implies a clash between the different geopolitical representations that these great powers have of themselves.</p> <p>Finally, it raises the question of the current relevance and applicability of &nbsp;the Huntington proposals aimed to avoid the outbreak of catastrophical conflicts on a global scale.</p> Giovanni Barbieri Copyright (c) 2022 Giovanni Barbieri 2022-10-19 2022-10-19 12 23 10.36253/cambio-13034 Camille Schmoll. Le dannate del mare. Donne e frontiere nel Mediterraneo <p>No abstract</p> Magda Bolzoni Copyright (c) 2022 Magda Bolzoni 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 12 23 10.36253/cambio-14040 Camille Schmoll. Le dannate del mare. Donne e frontiere nel Mediterraneo <p>No abstract</p> Monica Massari Copyright (c) 2022 Monica Massari 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 12 23 10.36253/cambio-14041 Marco Romito. First-generation students. Essere i primi in famiglia a frequentare l’università <p>No abstract</p> Fiorenzo Parziale Copyright (c) 2022 Fiorenzo Parziale 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 12 23 10.36253/cambio-14042 Lorenzo Bruni. Solidarietà critica. Patologie neoliberali e nuove forme di socialità <p>No abstract</p> Giacomo Bazzani Copyright (c) 2022 Giacomo Bazzani 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 12 23 10.36253/cambio-14043 Segnalazioni <p>No abstract</p> Editorial Cambio Copyright (c) 2022 Editorial Cambio 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 12 23 10.36253/cambio-14044