Restauro Archeologico <p><strong>Restauro Archeologico</strong>&nbsp;(<strong>RA</strong>­) è un periodico scientifico internazionale, semestrale, pubblicato in stampa e modalità Open Access.<br><strong>RA&nbsp;</strong>pubblica articoli sottoposti a peer review – in italiano, inglese, spagnolo, francese e tedesco – sulla&nbsp;<em>conoscenza, conservazione e valorizzazione del patrimonio architettonico d’interesse archeologico e di quello allo stato di rudere</em>&nbsp;e<em>&nbsp;</em>si pone l’obiettivo di focalizzare l’attenzione sulle metodologie di studio e d’intervento su manufatti architettonici riferibili a contesti archeologici o ad essi connessi (pluristratificazioni).<br>Il restauro archeologico può comprendere, per modalità d’intervento e finalità di valorizzazione, oltre ai manufatti riferibili all’antichità, anche tutti i manufatti che, per provenienza, condizioni di utilizzo e stato di manutenzione sono ridotti a rudere; ad esempio, sugli edifici in disuso, o in rovina di epoca moderna, si potrà intervenire con procedure simili a quelle utilizzate per le testimonianze di epoca antica, con la principale finalità di conservarne la memoria, come nel caso dell’archeologia industriale. La rivista ambisce, quindi, a costituire una finestra privilegiata di osservazione dei diversi approcci conservativi in funzione dei molteplici contesti geopolitici e culturali. In quest’ottica, ampio spazio è dato agli aspetti di multidisciplinarietà insiti nella pratica del restauro, con un’attenzione particolare ai progressi metodologici e tecnici della disciplina.</p> en-US Restauro Archeologico 1724-9686 <p>Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (<a href="">CC-BY-4.0</a>)</strong>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a></p> An introduction: the Swat Valley and Florence <p>AAVV</p> Luca Maria Olivieri Simona Pannuzi Copyright (c) 2019 Luca Maria Olivieri, Simona Pannuzi 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 27 1 6 11 Geological overwiew of Gandharan sites and petrographical analysis on Gandharan stucco and clay artefacts <p>The Gandharan archaeological sites are mostly located in the Indus Suture Zone and in the lower Swat. In a recent past, scholars observed the use of local different type of schists to build buildings and sacred artworks. In this new research we highlighted the use of limestone for stucco artefacts and architectural decorations. This limestone is not a local rock in Swat but its main, ex- tended and closer outcrops are located in the mountains northwest of Islamabad. Indeed, through specific analyses carried out by our team, the compatibility of these outcrops with the rocks used for stucco artefacts and stucco decorations of buildings was observed. This stucco was made by a mixture of different kinds of local crushed rocks (i.e. schists and granites).</p> Carlo Rosa Thomas Theye Simona Pannuzi Copyright (c) 2019 Carlo Rosa, Thomas Theye, Simona Pannuzi 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 27 1 12 39 10.13128/RA-25095 Polychromy and gilding in the Gandharan sculptures from Pakistan and Afghanistan: samplings from Museum Guimet in Paris, Civic Archaeological Museum of Milan and Museum of Oriental Art of Turin <p>This paper will discuss the scientific results of a recent sampling of the polychrome and gilded stone, stucco and clay sculptures of Gandharan art not yet published. Four years ago, we had the opportunity to begin an articulated research project focused on the Gandharan polychrome stone and stucco sculptures, and in the last two years, thanks to a very limited grant, offered by the Italian Government to the Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione ed il Restauro (ISCR), we had the opportunity to develop a new research. This allowed us to investigate some important artefacts displayed in these Museums: the Archaeological Museum of Milan, the Museum of Oriental Art of Turin, the Museum Guimet in Paris. Moreover, we had the opportunity to take some archaeological samples from the new excavations of the Italian Archaeological Mission in Pakistan and the Italian Archaeological Mission in Afghanistan.<br>In this new research we analysed the artistic technique of painting and gilding on sculptures of Gandharan art made in different materials (stone, stucco and clay).<br>The results discussed in this paper comes from a notable number of chemical analyses (optical stero-microscope, SEM-EDS, micro-FTIR, micro-XRD and micro-Raman).</p> Simona Pannuzi Fabio Talarico Giuseppe Guida Carlo Rosa Copyright (c) 2019 Simona Pannuzi, Fabio Talarico, Giuseppe Guida, Carlo Rosa 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 27 1 40 81 10.13128/RA-25128 The characterisation of paint binders in the polychromies and gildings of the Gandharan artworks <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>In a polychrome artefact, coloured paint layers are applied on architectural elements or sculptures. Paint layers are made up of the colour, which is most typically an inorganic pigment and, with the exception of frescos, an organic binder, which enables the pigment to be dispersed and applied with a brush. From an analytical point of view the characterisation of organic paint binders is very challenging: the organic matter represents a very small amount of the total weight of the sample which is very small and aged. In this paper we describe the analytical approach applied for the characterisation of samples collected from a selection Gandhara polychromies. The analytical strategies and techniques employed are described and examples of the results obtained are presented.</p> </div> </div> </div> Ilaria Bonaduce Anna Lluveras Tenorio Alessia Andreotti Sibilla Orsini Maria Perla Colombini Marialaura Dilillo Liam Andrew McDonnell Copyright (c) 2019 Ilaria Bonaduce, Anna Lluveras Tenorio, Alessia Andreotti, Sibilla Orsini, Maria Perla Colombini, Marialaura Dilillo, Liam Andrew McDonnell 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 27 1 82 89 10.13128/RA-25130 Investigating gilding techniques on Gandharan stone sculptures and architectural components: a preliminary note <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>A series of samples taken from gilded Gandharan sculpted objects in schist (both portable artifacts and architectural decorative components), coming from different sacred sites of ancient Gandhara and the Swat valley, are in the course of analytical inspection. They are studied by the means of different archaeometric techniques. Although, given the precarious conservation and rarity of the objects available for analysis, our preliminar results cannot be generalized, the emerging evidence is discussed in the light of the gilding technologies so far described in other cultural areas and periods. It is also argued that, in the Gandharan cultual complexes, the surface of sacred images might be covered with diverging procedures, dictated by various technical and/or religious concerns.</p> </div> </div> </div> Marco Zaminga Ivana Angelini Massimo Vidale Luca Maria Olivieri Giuseppe Guida Copyright (c) 2019 Marco Zaminga, Ivana Angelini, Massimo Vidale, Luca Maria Olivieri, Giuseppe Guida 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 27 1 90 99 10.13128/RA-25139 Conservative data on polychrome stucco, stone and clay sculptures and architectonical decoration of Gandharan art <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>the first phase of study on Gandharan artefacts (2014-15), the Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione ed il Restauro (ISCR) was focused on technological and conservative issues of some schist stone and stucco sculptures belonging to the collection of the Museum of Oriental Art of Rome (ex MNAO, now merged into the Museo delle Civiltà). Experts of different disciplines evaluated the conditions of the stone artworks, to define the best conservation approaches and treatments. Chemists and restorers compared cleaning methods and evaluated consolidation and sticking practices.<br>In our further studies we also consider stucco and clay artworks, deepening our research through scientific analyses and observation carried out on both archaeological founds (Afghanistan, Pakistan) and musealized sculptures (Civic Archaeological Museum of Milan, Oriental Art Museum of Turin and Guimet Museum of Paris).<br>This further work allowed, through the characterization of the materials and the observation of the working techniques, to deepen the study of the Gandharan stone, stucco and clay artworks and to formulate operational hypothesis for their conservation.</p> </div> </div> </div> Luciana Festa Simona Pannuzi Copyright (c) 2019 Luciana Festa, Simona Pannuzi 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 27 1 100 111 10.13128/RA-25171 A short note on contexts and chronology of the materials from Saidu Sharif, Amluk-dara, Gumbat and Barikot (Swat) <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The following note is meant to integrate the data of the materials discussed in three contributions published in this issue of «Restauro Archeologico» (Bonaduce et al., this issue; Festa, Pannuzi, this issue; Rosa et al., this issue; Zaminga et al., this issue)). The analysed materials were sampled from three Buddhist cultic complexes in the Swat Valley in the outer Gandharan region (nowadays in Pakistan). The three sites are Saidu Sharif I, Amluk-dara, and Gumbat. Other samples were taken from a votive chapel (Shrine 1023) of the urban settlement of Barikot in the Swat Valley. All the samples belong to the same chronological phase (3rd century CE).</p> </div> </div> </div> Luca Maria Olivieri Copyright (c) 2019 Luca Maria Olivieri 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 27 1 112 129 10.13128/RA-25032 Clays and colours: Tracking technologies and theories of vision in the ancient Buddhist art of Afghanistan <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>New, targeted and comparative studies are under way on clay sculptures recovered in Afghanistan, thanks to a collaborative project between the Italian Archaeological Mission in Afghanistan and the Archaeology Institute of Afghanistan. The specific target of the preliminary analyses are the sculptures from the Buddhist site of Tapa Sardar, which have been excavated between the 1960’s and the 1970’s by the Italian mission in the Ghazni area, and those, only partially published, that have been brought to light at Tepe Narenj, a site in the Kabul area under excavation since 2004 under the aegis of the Archaeology Institute of Afghanistan. Our aim is to analyse their physical, technical, stylistic and iconographic features, in order to identify patterns that might be associated to a coherent aesthetic system. This would be of fundamental importance to the understanding of the ideological frames of reference that shaped the art-making process in a period of great artistic vitality and innovations, which roughly spans the second half of the first millennium A.C.</p> </div> </div> </div> Giulia Forgione Copyright (c) 2019 Giulia Forgione 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 27 1 130 141 10.13128/RA-25112 Collections gandhariennes et afghanes à Paris, Musée national des arts asiatiques-Guimet <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Les collections de Paris occupent une position singulière en Europe parce qu’elles font le lien entre les collections anglaises, ou bien encore allemandes, largement gandhariennes, au sens de Peshawar (Londres, British Museum; Berlin, Museum für Asiatische Kunst), et les collections italiennes, qui, elles, renvoient généralement au Swat (Rome, Museo Nazionale d’Arte Orientale «Giuseppe Tucci», maintenant fusionné dans le Museo delle Civiltà).</p> </div> </div> </div> Pierre Cambon Copyright (c) 2019 Pierre Cambon 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 27 1 142 155 10.13128/RA-25148 The Gandharan Collection of the Civic Archaeological Museum of Milan <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The Civic Archaeological Museum of Milan holds a small but remarkable collection of Gandharan Art, acquired by the former Director Ermanno Arslan, between the 70s and the 90s of the 20th century. Archaeological method, that is to say contextualization, must apply also to objects without provenance. Cultural diversity is the starting point to understand/detect relations, connections, mutual interferences between cultures. Through museum exhibitions, we can transmit the notion that archaeological objects, more than being works of art to be admired for their beauty, are a cluster of various information regarding the ancient culture to which they belong.</p> </div> </div> </div> Anna Provenzali Copyright (c) 2019 Anna Provenzali 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 27 1 156 163 10.13128/RA-25200 Investigating gilding techniques on Gandharan stone sculptures and architectural components: a preliminary note <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Taking into account the reports on archaeological excavation and the resulting successive publications, the present article wants to define the exact place of origin and an accurate dating for a schist bracket showing traces of gilding, currently preserved in the MAO Museo d’Arte Orientale in Turin (Inv. n. IAp/151). The bracket has been unearthed during excavations carried out between 1956 and 1962 by the Missione Archeologica Italiana at the site of Butkara I (Pakistan). In 2016, the conspicuous gilding still present and the bole underneath it have been scientifically analyzed by the ISCR, Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione e il Restauro based in Rome. At present, the ISCR is carrying out important studies at international level on the polychromy and the gilding of stone and stucco elements pertaining to the Buddhist artistic production of the ancient region of Gandhara, an area at present situated between the two nation-states of Pakistan and Afghanistan.</p> </div> </div> </div> Claudia Ramasso Copyright (c) 2019 Claudia Ramasso 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 27 1 164 173 10.13128/RA-25087