Studi Slavistici <div><em>Studi Slavistici</em> is the <strong>Open Access</strong> journal of the Italian Association of Slavists (A.I.S.). It publishes academic articles, research and book reviews and informative essays. Its main aim is to foster specialized Slavic research and to make quality information available to a broader public of readers and Internet users. The journal also acts as a bridge between the academic tradition of Italian and European Slavic studies and the latest cultural trends in various Slavic subjects. Special attention is devoted to the literature, languages, culture and various art forms of all Slavic countries, but also to interdisciplinary approaches in methodology, inter-Slavic and Slavic-European literary, linguistic and cultural relationships.<em><br></em> <div class="grammarly-disable-indicator">&nbsp;</div> </div> en-US <p>Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (<a href="">CC-BY-4.0</a>)</strong>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a></p> (Nicoletta Marcialis) (Alessandro Pierno) Thu, 27 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Kazane na pogrebe (Trebnik, Vilnius 1621) in the Context of the Catholic Funeral Sample Sermons Tradition <p>The article discusses hypotheses for the possible sources of two funeral sample sermons written in <em>prostaja mova</em>, which were addressed to the laity and attached to the <em>Ritual</em> edition by the Orthodox Brotherhood of Vilnius in 1621. The author suggests that the very combination of homiletic material in vernacular language with the traditional ecclesiastical rites goes back to the Catholics <em>Ritual </em>рublished in 1551 in Mainz and was later followed in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by Stanisław Karnkowski, Marcin Kromer and Hieronim Powodowski. </p><p>The two funeral sample sermons attached to the Vilnius <em>Ritual</em> used as a main source a homiletic work of Georg Barthold Pontanus (1550-1614), <em>Incineratio Funebres</em> (1611). The first sermon used as a model a fragment entitled <em>Consolatoria super omnes charissimos, et habet decem rationes</em>, composed by Pontanus on the basis of the medieval consolation, which goes back to the English Dominican Robert Holсot (1290-1349). This text of consolation, sometimes called as <em>Fatuitates immoderate lugentiam</em>, was widely available in different published editions in the 15<sup>th</sup>, 16<sup>th</sup> and 17<sup>th</sup> centuries: in liturgical sermons, books on rhetoric, dialogs ‘<em>pompa funebris</em>’, and manuals for Jesuits Sodalities of the Blessed Virgin Mary. This consolation was also translated in Polish at the beginning of the 17<sup>th </sup>century.</p><p>The second funeral sermon of the Vilnius <em>Ritual</em> used a fragment from Pontanus, which goes back to the <em>Summa de Abstinentia</em> by Nicolaus de Byard (died 1261). The chapter of this work (entitled <em>Mors</em> or <em>De Mortis</em>) was found in the Middle Ages in <em>Speculum morale</em>, attributed to Vincent of Beauvais (ca. 1190-ca. 1264), and in the 16<sup>th</sup> century was included in <em>Dictionarium pauperum</em> by Franciscan Petrus Ridolfi (1536-1601).</p><p>Although the funeral sample sermons from 1621 were not republished in other Vilnius <em>Rituals</em>, they served as an example for the later Orthodox hierarchs, who expanded their <em>Rituals</em> editions with instructive sermons in vernacular language. </p><div> </div> Margarita Korzo Copyright (c) Sat, 13 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Religious Identification through the Calendar: Kyivan and Moscow Great Feasts in the Late 18th Century <p>The Author analyzes some liturgical short Calendars printed in Moscow and Kyiv in the 18th century. Generally, by the end of the century, the efforts of the Holy Synod succeeded in unifying Orthodox doctrine and celebrations in all the regions of the Russian Empire. Here the Author specifically focalizes on the level of solemnity of some non-mobile feasts. The analyzis of two Calendars printed resp. in Moscow in 1795 and in Kyiv in 1798 shows that the level of solemnity of the feasts of some saints or icons in several cases diverged in Kyiv and Moscow. This indicates that there still were differences between the ecclesiastical practice of the Russian Church and the Kyivan Metropolia. The paper suggests the historical, political and cultural&nbsp; roots of such differences.</p> Maksym Yaremenko Copyright (c) Thu, 11 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Solženicyn and Wisdom <p>The article starts by considering one of the main features of Solženicyn’s prose, the presence of proverbs. The author analyzes this attribute in&nbsp;<em>One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovič</em>,&nbsp;<em>Matryona’s Home&nbsp;</em>and, especially regarding&nbsp;<em>The Oak and the Calf</em>, discusses these works as part of&nbsp;<em>wisdom liter­ature</em>. Proverbs in Solženicyn’s works are not mere expression of Russian folklore; they reveal God’s order of the world and God’s guidance of human lives. The Gulag is not only a Soviet form of punishment, but also an extraordinary school of life and of wisdom. Experiences teach ultimate truths. The trained&nbsp;<em>zek&nbsp;</em>is not only a good buddy, but is presented as the wise man, the prudent and skilled&nbsp;<em>saddiq&nbsp;</em>who knows how to behave in the extreme Gulag conditions. He is the&nbsp;<em>saddiq&nbsp;</em>who tries to decipher God’s plan for his life. In the end, Solženicyn’s characters must be interpreted in light of wisdom literature, within which they are not heroic, but virile, prudent, slow-moving, meek, thrifty, experts of life and people.&nbsp;</p> Giuseppe Ghini Copyright (c) Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Fissuring into Existence. The Visceral, Sculptural, and Textile-Textual in the Poetry of Maggie O’Sullivan and Nóra Ružičková <p>The paper, written in the spirit of Badiouian <em>comparatisme quand même</em> (Apter 2006), concentrates on establishing a detailed comparative basis between the poetry of a uk-based poet, Maggie O’Sullivan, and a Slovak author Nóra Ružičková, written at approximately the same time. Despite belonging to different generations and being part of different culturally and geopolitically literary landscapes, the two poets treat the language and other media in an uncannily similar fashion. Their poetries come together not only in images of writing through the wounded body, but also in the way they carve the language to make it voice what it had been suppressing as well as in their explorations of the relationship between the text and textile.</p> Ivana Hostová Copyright (c) Wed, 05 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A.A. Potebnja’s Inner Form. An Excursus Starting from the Origins of Language <p>The aim of the present article is to offer an orderly exposition of the various definitions and functions that the concept of inner form plays in the theory of the Ukrainian linguist A.A. Potebnja. The article mainly deals with <em>Mysl’ i jazyk</em>, however, other later and earlier publications by Potebnja are taken into consideration. Because the concept of <em>inner form </em>is so broad, three main spheres of interest have been defined in the analysis: word formation (i.e, Potebnja’s conception of the origins of language), cognitive and linguistic development, and, finally, the prose/poetry dichotomy. The article concludes with some suggestions regarding possible areas of further study of Potebnja’s theory.</p> Lidia Tripiccione Copyright (c) Sat, 13 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Сурядно-підрядні складні речення як репрезентанти внутрішньорангового різнокатегорійного синкретизму <p>The article is devoted to the research of the representatives of inner-grade multi-category syncretism in the system of a composite conjunctive sentence. The expediency of the selection of coordinate-subordinate composite sentences, marked by inner-grade multi-category syncretism, is substantiated. Composite sentences revealing signs of coordinate and subordinate constructions are interpreted as representatives of inner-grade multi-category syncretism since they combine the differential features of composite sentences of various categories – complex and compound. The differentiation of transitional coordinate-subordinate structures to types, subtypes and varieties based on the syncretism of form, syncretism of meaning and syncretism of form and meaning at the same time, is motivated. There are four structural and semantic types of composite sentences, transitioned between coordination and subordination: 1)&nbsp;composite sentences, coordinate in form and subordinate in meaning; 2)&nbsp;composite sentences, subordinate in form and coordinate in meaning; 3)&nbsp;composite sentences, coordinate-subordinate in form and meaning; 4)&nbsp;partially phraseologized subordinate-coordinate composite sentences. The first three types are analyzed thoroughly as partially phraseologized sentences and represent not only the inner-level syncretism, but also the inter-level syncretism, combining the feature of phraseological and syntactic levels.&nbsp;</p> <p>Within the composite sentences, coordinate in form and subordinate in meaning, the subtypes are differentiated: causal and consequential, conditional and consequential and also of temporal sequence. Within the composite sentences, subordinate in form and coordinate in meaning, comparable, connecting and explanatory constructions are differentiated. Composite sentences, coordinate-subordinate in form and meaning, are differentiated on admitting-contradictory, quantitative-admitting-contradictory, dividing-admitting-contradictory and contradictory-admitting subtypes.</p> Liudmyla Shytyk Copyright (c) Sat, 13 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 “На кратере вулкана”. В.А. Жуковский и революция 1848 г. <p>The topic of the Poet and Revolution, which has long been classical in Russian studies, usually considers the creative work of the authors who lived in the era of the revolutionary disturbances of the 20<sup>th</sup> century. However, this is not the only way to approach this issue: the revolution of 1917 cast a long shadow into the past, and it was already in the 1840s and 1850s that many thought that they lived ‘on the eve of’. The European upheaval of 1848 was experienced as a precursor to the coming Russian storms, as a prologue to the drama, which had yet to be played out on the stage of Russian history. One of the writers of the 19<sup>th</sup> century who had a chance to face the revolution was Vasilij Žukovskij. Žukovskij’s experience with revolution is even more interesting, given that his personal mythopoesis and ‘theo-political’ visions of the immediately preceding years (i.e., the early 1840s) were modeling – and indeed were seeing – a genuine approaching of Eden on Earth. The present paper examines the eve and the aftermath of the dramatic turn in Žukovskij’s life experience, through an analysis of his journalism, his relationship with the royal family, and mythopoesis in his poems <em>Zaviduju portretu moemu</em>, <em>K russkomu velikanu</em> etc.</p> Dmitry Dolgushin Copyright (c) Sat, 13 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Clerk or Heretic? The Problem of ‘Profession’ and ‘Life-Creation’ in the Nonfiction of Evgenij Zamjatin After 1917 <p>The article explores the literary and self-described worldview of Evgenij Zamjatin after the October Revolution. In three ‘autobiographies’ from the 1920s he stressed the crucial role of the 1917 events in his destiny. Post-revolutionary years witnessed an explosion of Zamjatin’s nonfiction, whereby the issue of self-determining in the face of a new Russia was pervasive. His articles and interviews from the 1920s and 1930s, at first sight, give two mutually contradictory definitions of his ‘job’ or, rather, ‘profession’ prior to emigration in 1931: a literary clerk in state service and a fundamentally opposed ‘heretic’. He entered world culture, first of all, as the author of the dystopian novel <em>We</em> and a ‘heretic’. However, his self-identification was far more complex and complicated, a case in point being the fact that in 1934, already apparently an emigrant, he applied for membership in the Union of Soviet Writers. </p><p>This article tries to solve the contradiction, examining the storyline of an inner conflict – between an actor and a dreamer, a believer and a heretic, an officer of the state and a sceptic – that is recurrent in his nonfiction writing. Moreover, the author suggests that the ambivalence of Zamjatin resists definite evaluation. It is possible to view his ambivalence not only as a psychological or worldview peculiarity but as a manifestation of a ‘life-creation’ strategy.</p> Svetlana Efimova Copyright (c) Sat, 13 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Russian Catastrophe of 1917 and Bachtin’s ‘Great Time’ (M. Prišvin, V. Rozanov, A. Blok) <div> <p>This article is devoted to the perception of the social catastrophe of 1917 in the historical and cultural perspective of ‘great time’ (M. Bachtin) represented in the texts of Michail Prišvin, Vasilij Rozanov and Aleksandr Blok. The author analyzes nonfiction and diary texts, primarily published for the first time only in the post-Soviet period – Prišvin’s&nbsp;<em>Diary</em>&nbsp;(1917-1920, first published in 1991) and his book&nbsp;<em>Color and Cross</em>&nbsp;(1917-1918, first published in 2004);&nbsp;<em>The Apocalypse of Our Time</em>&nbsp;by Rozanov (1917-1918, full text published in 2000) and his book&nbsp;<em>The Black Fire</em>&nbsp;(1917, first published in the Paris publishing house ymca-Press in 1991); Blok’s<em>&nbsp;Articles, Diary</em>,&nbsp;<em>Notebooks</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Letters&nbsp;</em>(1917-1921, including recently published uncensored texts). The author considers the dialogue of two strategies or discourses in the perception of 1917: the Christian discourse (Prišvin and Rozanov) and the discourse of the&nbsp;<em>Narodnik</em>&nbsp;movement (Blok). The perception of the revolution in these authors’ texts is revealed in the context of the French Revolution, Time of Troubles, national nihilism, Dostoevskij, Ostrovskij, Gor’kij, ‘<em>neo-narodničestvo</em>’, neo-slavophilism, sectarianism and the ideology of the Bolševiks. The author reveals the intertextual Gogolian layer in Rozanov’s, Prišvin’s and Blok’s texts, which becomes a key factor in their understanding of national nihilism as the cause of the social catastrophe of 1917. The ‘life-creation’ strategies of these three authors are also considered, who, despite their opposite attitudes towards October 1917, somehow or other ended up in the overall sacrificial situation of the ‘catacomb’ culture.</p> </div> Alexander Medvedev Copyright (c) Thu, 11 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 “Задыхание истории” в русской поэзии 1910-начала 20-х гг. К вопросу о семантике филологической метафоры Р. Якобсона <p>The article observes the literary, biographical and scientific context of the pneumatological metaphor that Roman Jakobson applied to rationalize the tragic fate of Russian poets after the October Revolution. The author traces Romantic and mythological sources in the motif of‘a poet’s suffocation’ and discovers how a symbolic image transforms into a social fact. The article also outlines the reasons why Jakobson united five ‘mutually antagonistic’ poets into a synchronic poetic circle, at the center of which was the art of Vladimir Majakovskij. Besides the obvious motif of predicted death under the conditions of the establishment of the Soviet revolutionary <em>byt </em>(lifestyle), the poets are united by the culture of their language. Majakovskij’s language correlates with the paradigm of how A. Blok, N. Gumilëv, S. Esenin and V. Chlebnikov arranged their lives. In their own way, each of these poets fills the hypothetical ‘air of the epoch’ with particular olfactory markers and creates their variant of the artistic pneumatology. Every persona in the article on Majakovskij’s death is characterized by sways between the comic and tragic modes of the poetic device. According to Jakobson, the union of the generation of poets was preconditioned by the sense and sound of the poetic speech. His article about Majakovskij helps to trace one of the most stable plots in Jakobson’s output. Throughout his life, starting from the early works about the modern poetry (1921) until the last works on language that establish a direct connection between the lifespan of a poetic device and the structure of the national language, Jakobson addresses questions concerning the meaning of ‘the place of development’ in poetics.</p> Natalia Rogacheva Copyright (c) Sat, 13 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Lev Šestov: ‘Duality’ in Life and Thought at the Time of the Rift of the Socio-cultural Paradigm <p>Russian-Jewish religious thinker Lev Šestov (1866-1938) is often regarded as a precursor of European existentialism. At the same time, his “philosophy of tragedy” is also assigned to Irrationalism, and Albert Camus characterised Šestov as a “new man of the Absurd”. Since perestrojka, Šestov’s writings, within the legacy of the Russian Silver Age more generally, have come back from obscurity, and their popularity continues to rise. This is due in particular to a prophetic, supertemporal character of Šestov’s thought. However, with all the tragic nature of his philosophy, focused on the border-line situations between life and death (typical for the Silver Age as a whole), one cannot help noticing a border-line of a different kind, both in Šestov’s life and thought. He was always torn between diverse, often incompatible spheres: his humanities studies on the one hand, and the need to be closely involved in his father’s textile business, on the other; between his belonging to Russian culture, and his Jewish roots; between literary criticism, and philosophy per se. His very thought can be regarded as operating on two different levels (what Viktor Erofeev labelled as ‘night-time’ and ‘day-time’ sight of the philosopher). In the socio-political sphere, Šestov quickly realised the incompatibility of his aspirations as a philosopher and the Bolševiks’ agenda, and emigrated. In 1920, at the dawn of his émigré life, he produced a prophetic anti-Soviet brochure&nbsp;<em>What is (Russian) Bolševism?</em>, and yet, later on in the 1930s, he displayed a certain myopia, not having recognised the rising threat of fascism in Europe. In this article, the above duality in Šestov’s life and thought is analysed in the context of the socio-political and cultural rift of 1917. In particular, the author investigates in which way Šestov’s perception of the era of revolutionary changes is predicated on this duality, and attempts to see if there is a reverse connection here. This is to say, the article endeavors to clarify the impact, if any, the shift in the socio-cultural paradigm had on Šestov’s life and thought.</p> Olga Tabachnikova Copyright (c) Sat, 13 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 “You Won’t Make It, Poet...”. Some Notes on Michelangelo’s Seven Sonnets, Translated by Vjačeslav Ivanov <p>The article examines a recent bilingual illustrated edition of <em>Seven Sonnets</em> by Michelangelo translated by Vjačeslav Ivanov. Placing the interest in Michelangelo in the context of the European cultural scene at the beginning of the 20<sup>th</sup> century, the author observes that Ivanov changed his attitude towards the Italian poet when he was translating the sonnets, thanks to the influence of Simmel’s thought, which Ivanov likely began to consider because of Ol’ga Šor. She was connected with the State Academy of Artistic Sciences (gakhn), where the authority of the German philosopher was profound, in particular for his seminal works about Goethe, Michelangelo and Rembrandt. During the process of translating Michelangelo (1925-1926), Ivanov and Šor exchanged several letters on the subject, in which Michelangelo’s tragic nature is no longer seen in a demoniac dimension, typical of the Symbolist vision of the turn of the century, but is articulated in a more neo-Platonic perspective, in a re-evaluation of the Renaissance, no longer opposed to the medieval religious vision. This shift in point of view also substantially influences the practice of Ivanov’s translation, as Šor astutely recognizes.</p> Maria Ghidini Copyright (c) Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Ora e Sempre, или о современном состоянии иванововедения <p>The article provides an overview of publications about Vjačeslav Ivanov from the last three years in the context of a panoramic review of all Ivanov studies. This overview is based on a review of literary criticism from 1903 to 1995 undertaken by P. Davidson, who distinguished the main stages of mastering the poet’s many-sided legacy in the 20<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;century: the development of his literary reputation; inclusion into the literary canon of Russian modernism; the period of oblivion and, finally, the return of the poet’s name to the realm of Russian and European literary studies. The main subject under consideration is the development of Russian Ivanov studies, and the identification of existing methodological approaches to Ivanov’s heritage. The criterion base of this taxonomy is the distinction between the history of literature and literary history as a distinction between the integral, conceptualizing and empirical fields of philology science. An analysis of contemporary Ivanov studies allows us to make a conclusion about the prevalence of empirical approaches (studying the facts of Ivanov’s life and work) and the existence of a conceptual deficiency connected with the crisis of the humanities in general.</p> Svetlana Fedotova Copyright (c) Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Veselovskiana 2016. The Contribution of “Rossijskie Propilei” <p>In the last few decades both in Russia and abroad the interest in Aleksandr Veselovskij, the ‘father of historical poetics’, has been increasing. In 2016 alone the Russian editorial series “Rossijskie Propilei” dedicated four publications to this important 19<sup>th</sup> century Russian scholar, one monograph and three collections of works, articles and book excerpts. The four books deal with, respectively: Vasilij Žukovskij, the most important Russian poet before Puškin, discussing his role between Sentimentalism and Romanticism; the Renaissance, focusing especially on the peculiarity of the Italian context; methodology of the humanities, on the basis of carefully selected reviews; and the Holy Grail, proposing many interesting and still useful theories on the origins and development of this legend. Despite some flaws (inaccurate form and questionable statements), “Rossijskie Propilei” has provided new tools to better understand the legacy of one of the most important figures in literary studies.</p> Sergio Mazzanti Copyright (c) Thu, 11 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Renaissance and Russian Modernism: Florence in the Artistic Experience of the Founders of the “World of Art” <p>The article discusses the cultural phenomenon of the Florentine Renaissance in relation to the aesthetic program of the art association “Mir Iskusstva” (“World of Art”). As Russian modernism reflects the transformation of artistic and spiritual culture that took place in Russia in the late 19<sup>th</sup> and early 20<sup>th</sup> century, the author attempts to point out and analyze the main philosophical and aesthetic principles of the Italian Renaissance discussed among some of the important voices of the “World of Art” with particular attention on Sergej Djagilev and Aleksandr Benois. The author considers the logic of the continuity of artistic ideas of the Renaissance in the aesthetic concept of the founders of the “World of Art”. In order to demonstrate the strong link between the Renaissance past and the pre-revolutionary present the author analyzes the main literary, philosophical and memoir sources related to the legacy of Sergej Djagilev and Alexander Benois.</p> Ol'ga Žukova Copyright (c) Fri, 07 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Forms of Intertextuality. From Quotation to Allusion <p>This contribution is a report on the Slavic Studies Conference held at the University of Udine from 28<sup>th</sup> to 30<sup>th</sup> November 2018, directed at doctoral students and recent PhDs in Slavic studies and devoted to the topic <em>Forms of Intertextuality. From Quotation to Allusion</em>. The aim of the conference was to investigate intertextuality in all its vastness, and to further the discussion among young scholars by exploring the various forms and functions of intertextuality (from quotation to allusion to imitation, rewriting or translation) in a broad interdisciplinary exchange with contributions relating to literature, philology, linguistics, cinema, music and dance. This report summarizes some papers presented at the conference and examines the main ideas that emerged during the discussion.</p> Alice Bravin Copyright (c) Fri, 07 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Book Reviews Studi Slavistici Copyright (c) Wed, 19 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000