https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/issue/feed TECHNE - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment 2021-04-08T08:18:52+00:00 Redazione Techne c/o SITdA onlus redazionetechne@sitda.net Open Journal Systems <p><em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">TECHNE</span></span></em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> , la rivista scientifica di SIT </span></span><em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">d</span></span></em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> A, la&nbsp; </span></span><a href="http://www.tecnologi.net/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Società italiana di tecnologia architettonica</span></span></a><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> , soddisfa gli obiettivi della società lavorando, a livello nazionale e internazionale, per promuovere la conoscenza e i metodi e le tecniche della tecnologia architettonica, al fine di proteggere e migliorare l'uomo ambiente creato e per promuovere applicazioni innovative e confronti interdisciplinari. </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">La rivista pubblica articoli su ricerche e applicazioni innovative, nonché saggi e relazioni. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Gli autori lavorano nel mondo accademico e nelle strutture di ricerca nell'area della progettazione architettonica, dell'industria, delle attività imprenditoriali e delle organizzazioni clienti, pubbliche e private. </span></span><br><em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">TECHNE&nbsp;</span></span></em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">si rivolge a un mercato target interessato a discutere punti di vista rilevanti e critici e acquisire conoscenze utili per lo sviluppo di progetti attraverso un confronto di diversi approcci.</span></span></p> https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10671 Note 2021-03-25T13:13:18+00:00 Maria Teresa Lucarelli mtlucarelli@unirc.it <p class="p1"><span class="s1">At the time, in the holder of this issue of TECHNE Future Scenarios, no one could certainly imagine the serious incidents of public health emergencies that have invested nations and peoples, heavily engulfing the global economy. ‘What is to come’– future scenarios -is not a new question”: this was the incipt of the call of the number, challenging and purposeful, certainly assertive as can be the thought of those who look to the future with positivity and optimism: «[...] As humans, we always have adapted our being in the world through artifacts, tools, built spaces to give a (precise) shape to the image of the future environment in which we will live»<sup>1</sup>.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">However, how will the future be? What environments we will live in and use? The current dramatic events necessarily require some reflection, albeit brief one. The pandemic that has taken the world by surprise, is removing optimism and security by highlighting a profound weakness in dealing with an event that, although announced over the years by other similar forms but underestimated by most people, has caught politics and science unprepared to give comprehensive answers and propose acceptable solutions even in the emergency. It is precisely the unpredictability of virulence that makes difficult the control if not through social distancing and confinement. A solution that can only be temporary.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">It is inevitable, however, to wonder why the many possible dangers and risks that have long been linked to health problems (ebola, sars, etc.), environmental (climate change, disruptions, earthquakes, etc.) and, socio-economic (poverty, ghettoization, immigration, etc.) have not been addressed with the necessary attention. There are no convincing answers, also because in many cases the events appear unintentional but, almost always, they refer to serious human responsibility in not knowing how to prevent the event and, above all, not knowing how to deal with it. A lot of debate is going on, answers are being sought that science and politics have to mediate even in the face of an economic default that seems unstoppable. So the deep concern for physical health is associated with the psychological fear for the future resulting from the traumatic event that – as S. Freud says «[...]not being predictable makes any form of defence impossible»<sup>2</sup>.</span></p> <p class="p2">It is, therefore, legitimate to ask oneself what will be the future scenarios – possible, probable, preferable – with the awareness that at the moment there are no exhaustive answers. In fact, many of the certainties acquired during the last decades have disappeared, first of all, the deep conviction of being able and knowing how to control nature by serving its own needs.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p2">If, therefore, the pandemic is creating an inevitable disorientation and a consequent slowdown of life in all its expressions, it cannot be denied that the environmental crisis that has characterized the last 50 years, and the economic crisis that occurred between 2007 and 2013, second only to the great depression of the early twentieth century, have long imposed on humanity a change of pace with effects, especially on the social level, not easy to solve.</p> <p class="p1">Architecture, in front of the multiple challenges and their complexity, has to be able to relate to a multicultural society, in rapid change, increasingly forced to deal with the unpredictability of events. Therefore, the attention to the new scenarios, which are already prefigured in this issue, can provide adequate answers from the world of research and architectural culture, having in itself the ability to<span class="s1"> «[...]to develop a synthesis of scientific, social, political and cultural points of view at a time when the anthropocentric perspective has radically changed our approach to the environment, construction, technology and materials[...]» </span><span class="s3"><sup>3</sup>.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Numerous and diversified papers contained in the text – 27 selected by double blind review among the 104 received – that through the development of the five topics<sup>4</sup> proposed in the call, focus the issues on possible future arrangements.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">It is, in fact, evident that with the wide diffusion of digital technologies, the culture of the project is undergoing significant transformations. On the one hand, by obtaining greater design and implementation performance. On the other hand – in the transition from a traditional, linear and sequential approach to an integrated and interactive one – modifying the ideation and expressive methods that will necessarily require a change in the management of the relationship between human creativity and artificial intelligence.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The result is an appropriate and profound transformation of the approach to the “project” of cities and for cities that will increasingly face urbanization and population growth, energy problems, land consumption, climate change and possible serious health events, associated with significant social problems already present in large urbanized areas. There are many simulations in worldwide to predict the extent of the phenomena, especially climate phenomena. There are also many backcasting processes done for the construction of future development scenarios and different approaches that, starting from ecological thinking, talk about Collaborative Design, Nature Based Solution, Circular Economics in which the production and consumption processes promote a circular logic “from cradle to cradle”. Certainly, the architectural and urban design, with greater attention to the metabolism of cities, will have to focus on new structures in which a renewed vision of sustainability reviews the relationship between anthropized and natural systems to contribute to their resilience as a stable condition, albeit dynamic, and not as an emergency solution.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This will be possible if there is a real cooperation between the world of design and that of industrial experimentation/production in which technological innovation – technical, material and design –associated with knowledge innovation, will make it possible to govern complexity, identifying transdisciplinary and interdisciplinary ways, even with immaterial collaborative forms, to respond to the main challenges of the future<sup>5</sup>.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s1">It will be fundamental to re-think the figure of the Architect, his training and his new or renewed skills. For some time now, the<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">growing needs of the world of design and construction, increasingly aimed at a global market, require knowledge and ability to manage digital tools and skills in process and project management. It follows the need to form a new figure of architect, able to govern the various phases with greater knowledge of the potential that lies ahead and full awareness of a future with many uncertainties. A transformation that requires, together with the ability to adapt, new skills and abilities to manage the relationship between human creativity and artificial intelligence.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>Therefore, there is the need for a revision of training models that are not only based on the use of platforms, even if they are useful facilitating tools, but that identify new and diversified fields of knowledge capable of renewing the figure of the Architect and projecting him into the future, starting from the places of training, in particular the University.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Problems, all of which find interesting answers in this Special Issue of Techne.</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:03:24+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Maria Teresa Lucarelli https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10672 Built experiences. History as a barometer of contemporaneity 2021-03-25T13:13:15+00:00 Emilio Faroldi emilio.faroldi@polimi.it <p class="p1">Architecture is both a means and an end. Tending towards it allows the designer, and whoever takes part in the design activity, to make an ambitious attempt at defining an evolving entity.</p> <p class="p1">Deciding today what will be tomorrow – or, even, forever – is an extraordinary action that carries with it a high degree of responsibility: before being created, everything we see today in our built environment – public spaces, buildings, materials – were first of all imagined, and even dreamed.</p> <p class="p1">It is a question of accepting imagination as an instrument of creativity, as a primary element of evolution, allowing man to change and adapt to the spaces in which he lives. Dream, foresight, anticipation, invention and creativity – in other words, the overcoming of the sensitive side of our existence – represent the highest expression of man’s responsibility towards the world.</p> <p class="p1">By definition, a designer’s imagination is akin to the ability to anticipate: the environment, the city, the habitat of man; the urban and non-urban landscape of the future; the transformations we can impose and those we must endure.</p> <p class="p1">The act of designing means constantly pondering such aspects, cultivating the exercise of doubt as a primary prerogative of developing architecture. Designing means trying to never lose sight of the value of the many “maybes” that man faces every day, with courage but also with uncertainty. For architectural designers, use of the conditional is a desirable practice, given their constant battle with weak, alleged certainties and infinite unknown variables.</p> <p class="p1">Our responsibility, as designers, is to take consistent and structured architectural decisions promoting the construction of buildings and such use of the environment and landscape as to anticipate new scenarios, drawing on our past yet projecting ourselves into the future based on evolving scientific criteria.</p> <p class="p1">Taking these assumptions as our starting point, I wish to dwell on the relationship between history and contemporaneity, in order to outline plausible prospects for our geographical area, based on an autochthonous and original reading of the Italian and European contexts in particular. A vision that takes its cue from the purposely provocative wish to elevate history to a barometer of contemporaneity<sup>1</sup>.</p> <p class="p1">This interpretation relies on the assumption that ours is an urban world. While it is true that cities occupy less than 3% of the planet’s surface, people, the inhabitants of the world, live and circulate mainly in cities, and the tendency is to reaffirm this dynamic. This cultural attitude has inevitably resulted in their growth, in number and size, in a variety of ways mirroring our different lifestyles.</p> <p class="p1">The built environment constitutes the theatre of our lives, that physical context, hosting the life of man, readily identifiable with the concept of city. There can be no proper planning of our world, of our reality – whether natural or relating to man’s <span class="s1"><em>habitat </em></span>– without constantly referring to the history of places and cultures.</p> <p class="p1">Great masters have always been unanimous in reiterating the need to be familiar with history so as to be able to draw on such knowledge and adapt it to the new era. A civilization with no memory is destined to repeat its mistakes. Studying our past, instead, favours the contemporaneous experience, whether it be permanent or temporary, in continuity or in discontinuity with our past. In this dialogue between past and present resides the sequential and evolutionary value of the moment we are living.</p> <p class="p1">In the world’s heterogeneous urban structures, there are contexts for which a genuine history has not yet been written, and others, which, on the contrary, are strongly characterised by their urban experience.</p> <p class="p1">The city is everywhere, it permeates every anthropized interstice, concentrating in magnetic form and making it seem that our fate has already been written: we <span class="s1"><em>will</em></span> live in megalopolises. By 2050, the world’s population is expected to increase from 7.6 billion to 10 billion people. Currently, 54% of the total population lives in cities and, again by 2050, this percentage is due to rise to 70%, with the world having over 40 megalopoles – cities with more than ten million people – by 2030.</p> <p class="p1">On the other end of the spectrum, however, it is worth noting that in the countries of the European Community, Italy among them, almost two-thirds of the population currently live in small and medium-sized urban centres.</p> <p class="p1">For us, history is both a constant and inescapable liability, but also an enormous asset to be protected and valued. As a result, the European city, and the Italian one in particular, is going through a dynamic, non-static age nourished by the relationship of accord and discord between these two factors. It is constantly being enlarged and modified over time, opening itself up to the territory in a widespread manner and altering the urban behaviour of its inhabitants, its visitors, its designers.</p> <p class="p1">The city can no longer be measured, as it used to be, in terms of density, continuity, variety: the current urban scenario is discontinuous and enfolds considerable differences in terms of housing and functional density.</p> <p class="p1">It is also increasingly difficult to determine where the countryside begins and where the city ends: new ingredients linked to the concept of free time change our set ups and habits, and contexts connected with historical tradition show signs both of development and of contraction. This phenomenon takes its place among dynamics linked with the concepts of metropolisation and urban shrinkage, i.e. an increase in the mass and a decrease in the weight of the city.</p> <p class="p1">This development, mainly associated with a population decline, involves much more than just a falling demographic trend. It is viewed, instead, as a phenomenological and unplanned result of economic and political decisions resulting in excessive urban spaces, buildings and obsolete properties. Consequently, while some realities grow culturally, physically and economically, others experience deindustrialisation, economic crises, demographic nosedives that result in a redundancy of empty and abandoned buildings.</p> <p class="p1">The housing heritage passed on to posterity, often unused and obsolete, represents a serious challenge for the community in terms of dealing with the existing scenario and with the built city. “New” settings exist, and make sense, even where man has already carried out transformations: in the European context, there is no need to design a “new city”, but rather to identify new development strategies in line with the existing reality.</p> <p class="p1">This concept has been universally accepted as the primary means of giving whole parts of the city a new lease of life: the act of making <span class="s1"><em>urban regeneration</em></span> a driver for the rebirth of areas that have lost their identity.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>In the case of Italy, the idea is to regenerate neighbourhoods springing from a historical design but that have in fact lost the population that originally defined and nurtured it.</p> <p class="p1">Regenerating means restoring a state of dignity and grandeur by reconstructing the injured or lost parts of an urban organism. More specifically, it means tackling the new demands of contemporary living within historical fabrics, adapting the forms that the city has taken on over time to the changed needs of new urban populations. Building in an existing, on an existing, within an existing context: this is the challenge our generation must face.</p> <p class="p1">«The underlying theory», writes Paolo Portoghesi, «is that architecture, every architecture, is born from other architecture, from a non-fortuitous convergence of a series of precedents, combined by a synergistic process of individual thought and collective memory»<sup>2</sup>.</p> <p class="p1">The Italian landscape owes its survival to the fact of giving attention to local cultures and rejecting standardised developments, because it in is such “differences” that beauty, continuity and harmony lie. Every urban context is inevitably the result of multiple stratifications, and as such can be referred to as <span class="s1"><em>historical</em></span>. Contemporary designing continues this historical process based on an inescapable rationale of continuity.</p> <p class="p1">The juxtapositions of <span class="s1"><em>continuity-discontinuity</em></span> and <span class="s1"><em>assonance-dissonance</em></span> lie at the epicentre of the dialogue between the past and the future. It is for these and other principles that we must live the city, we must preserve it and value it, not as antiquarians or museum managers, but as citizens-architects with a highly developed sense of civic duty. We need to leverage the best of our past and of our experience and adapt it to our present and our future. This is because life – and, even more so, the work of an architect – is the sum of experiences, in the very same way as the city is, too.</p> <p class="p1">As Italian singer-songwriter Francesco De Gregori sings in a beautiful song from the 1980s, “we are history” (<span class="s1"><em>La storia siamo noi</em></span>)<sup>3</sup>: history, therefore, is not about buildings, or rather, it is not just about buildings and spaces; history is made by the men and women who live and interpret them.</p> <p class="p1">The dialectic relationship between memory and contemporaneity, in every discipline, sums up the ambiguities and difficulties we are going through. Consequently, the relationship between expressions of contemporaneity and traces of our past directly involves the debate on the range of action of design and constructive practice. Since modernity-related phenomena often tend to weaken the natural, historical and cultural environment, in Italy it is inconceivable to have an idea of architecture that disregards the concepts of memory and identity, also in relation to topical modern-day environmental problems.</p> <p class="p1">The process of creating our contemporary world must also serve as a fundamental instrument of analysis, elevating the critique and study of history to a constructive filter of new trends. Utterly inadequate, therefore, would Frank Lloyd Wright’s alleged dig at Siegfried Giedion be today: “we both deal with history, the difference being that you write about it while I make it”.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">Critical action, an awareness of the past, an understanding of the present and an inclination towards the future are strategic and synergic factors for the dissemination of knowledge, since every age must represent itself: it must leave a trace, through the built and the unbuilt environment, of its style and tenets. We must, therefore, counter an idea of the <span class="s1"><em>past</em></span> as a phenomenon in itself, as something that is over and done with, separated by an irreparable fracture from the present.</p> <p class="p1">This is an attitude that the younger generations tend to adopt: for them, the past is obsolete and the here and now advanced and progressive. Our young people’s growing ease with the use of electronic instruments should be set against a growing weakening of their critical ability.</p> <p class="p1">Contrast, hybridisation, fusion, allegory, reference: in contemporary urban architecture, these factors are elevated to legitimate and desirable processes. The <span class="s1"><em>vexata quaestio</em></span> regarding the logical connection between <span class="s1"><em>contemporary architecture </em></span>and <span class="s1"><em>historical contexts</em></span> sums up the daily relationship between the old and the new, with the concept of <span class="s1"><em>historical continuity</em></span> – in functional, semantic and technological terms – being the constant element of the equation.</p> <p class="p1">Here, then, is the paradigm: architecture is the <span class="s1"><em>barometer of an era</em></span>, while the consolidated city sets the <span class="s1"><em>stage for comparing different eras</em></span>. There is no single road to be followed, but multiple approaches, which can be mutually contradictory or complementary.</p> <p class="p1">Man was born to be a builder and modifier of the world he lives in: a child left alone on a beach will show his instinct as a builder as he plays with the sand. Hence the human mind’s faculty to preserve and call up memories and experiences that represent a founding element of the individual and collective identity of the city. Memory, in this cultural context, is an essential requirement for the birth and development of a people’s culture.</p> <p class="p1">Man simply adds to or subtracts from this memory, seeking a dialogue with pre-existing frameworks within which new designs can outline the transition from past to future. We channel the passage from before to after, without ever being extraneous to either.</p> <p class="p1">Aldo Rossi believed that the question of <span class="s1"><em>ancient-new</em></span>, of <span class="s1"><em>conservation-innovation</em></span> «can no longer be seen only from the viewpoint of the relationship between the old and the new [...]but from that of the necessary modifications that are produced with every work»<sup>4</sup>.</p> <p class="p1">Architecture is such when it favours its usability, in line with the idea of an entire community. The hope is that, in a thousand years’ time, when future archaeologists find our ruins, they can easily date our buildings and our cities due to the forms, the materials, the technological and construction systems used.</p> <p class="p1">Buildings, like men, are living, pulsating beings in continuous evolution; and the city, to use an oxymoron, is their natural environment. Moving beyond the metaphor of architecture – referred to by Goethe’s as “petrified music” – and widening our horizons, it is worth noting that every human sphere regards the history of society as the engine of contemporary design.</p> <p class="p1">The relationship between memory and contemporaneity is the barometer of all the elements that make up our existence – society, work, well-being, health, interpersonal relationships, lifestyles – and of our relationships with them. Every transformation can be positively experienced when it is welded to its own past, not in opposition but in continuity with same.</p> <p class="p1">Every day we are reminded by the experts that global warming is progressing faster than expected; every action connected with altering the built and the natural environment must necessarily be carried out with this in mind.</p> <p class="p1">In order to try to outline some future scenarios, paraphrasing the context in which this paper is placed, and acting within that paradigm, I would like to reiterate certain concepts on which future strategies should be based.</p> <p class="p1">The historical city is a more resilient entity than others are because, having had to confront that very historical aspect, it has had resilience imprinted in its very DNA. The city is where most of the world’s infrastructure is concentrated - a vital element for quality of life and always a critical factor within the Italian scene; it is the primary place and a democratic instrument of inclusion, integration and enhancement of differences through the plurality of its configurations; it represents the framework and a paradigm of acceptance and reception of inhabitants from rich and poor lands alike, who have decided or have been forced to leave their native home; the city and its spaces, its forms, play an educational role in the behaviour and habits of people.</p> <p class="p1">Three actions are consequently essential for our modern-day reality, incorporating a strategic significance for the future of our contexts and landscapes.</p> <p class="p1">It will become increasingly necessary to invest in urban regeneration, both in a material (space) and an immaterial (society) sense, without ever forgetting that cities are the people and not the containers that house them.</p> <p class="p1">It will become increasingly important to foster and promote dialogue with the built city and not to interpret the two entities as diametrically opposed, drawing on the concepts of valorisation and use, and not of simply preserving and treating cities like a museum - because the city only survives if it lives.</p> <p class="p1">It will become increasingly useful to consider the city as a living being, developing new formulas to graft and transplant “new organs” through micro and macro urban surgery operations on the city’s living body. And there is no doubt that the citizen is the city’s best possible doctor.</p> <p class="p1">We are the outcome of the experiences that have formed us. Each of us preserves his or her own memory of the past, and this will emerge subconsciously when facing anything new, combining rational reason with subjective need.</p> <p class="p1">The city is the sum of many architectures. Likewise, architecture – and history – are the sum of many stories.</p> <p class="p1">We are history.</p> 2021-03-22T13:03:49+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Emilio Faroldi https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10673 Backcasting the XXI century. Digital culture and tacit knowledge for the future of architecture 2021-03-25T13:13:12+00:00 Andrea Campioli andrea.campioli@polimi.it Stefano Converso stefano.converso@uniroma3.it Ingrid Paoletti ingrid.paoletti@polimi.it <p class="p1">Technological change and its social implications have in recent years become a topic of intense interest and fierce debate. Human actions are driven by cultural, economic and political forces that have unforeseen consequences and side-effects, as we have recently noticed.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">Climate related risks for natural and human systems (drought and precipitation deficits; sea level rise; species loss and extinction; health risks, livelihoods, food security, water supply, human security, and economic growth) are reaching higher and higher levels (IPCC, 2019) and we are asked to rethink and redesign ourselves as users of life in close and interrelated familiarity with the environment.</p> <p class="p1">This scenario overwhelms us with a sensation of uncertainty, of accelerated times, of technological transformation and rapid social changes that create concern and profound expectations at the same time.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">This paper will focus on the architectural project as the center of a new debate, able to build complex scientific, social, political and cultural point of views, in a period where the downturn of anthropocentric perspective is radically changing our approach to design, technology and materials given their impact on resources.</p> <p class="p1">The question we will try to answer along this paper is mainly: How can we direct our knowledge today so that – as designers – we can re-balance our impact on the planet and literally ‘build’ our future?</p> <p class="p1">Of course, there’s no linear and obvious answer.</p> 2021-03-22T13:04:18+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Andrea Campioli, Stefano Converso, Ingrid Paoletti https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10674 Human techno-evolution and the future 2021-03-25T13:13:11+00:00 Telmo Pievani contact-pievani@elas2ca.eu <p class="p1">Material cultures are the result of human ingenuity and aim at a purpose: a very basic notion of “technology”. They have surrounded the birth of human babies for more than three million years, much earlier than previously thought. In 2015, the discovery of an enigmatic lithic industry was announced at the Lomekwi 3 site on the western shore of Lake Turkana in Kenya, surprisingly dated to 3.3 million years ago, that is, more than half a million years older than the first known fossil belonging to the genus <span class="s1"><em>Homo.</em></span> We have to rewrite the textbooks because it is unlikely that <span class="s1"><em>Homo habilis</em></span> was the first human to build and manipulate tools (Harmand <span class="s1"><em>et al.</em></span>, 2015). He no longer deserves his surname. Lomekwi’s tools are rudimentary and often unfinished, but already diversified: they are a lithic “industry” in all respects, not a failed experiment of occasional creativity. We do not know which technologist hominin made them: in those regions in Africa, at that time, australopithecines of the <span class="s1"><em>A. afarensis </em></span>species (like Lucy) and their <span class="s1"><em>Kenyanthropus</em></span> cousins circulated. They had a brain that was a third of ours.</p> <p class="p1">Our brains develop for two thirds after birth. Thus, the experiences, the care we receive, the family and social context in which we grow, the encounters that happen to us, the games with friends, what we learn by social imitation, and so on, literally carve our brains (Dehaene <span class="s1"><em>et al.</em></span>, 2015). Therefore, in the past, the tools and technological (bodily and mental) prostheses that we learned to use, that surrounded us since we were born and that perhaps we ourselves contributed to invent or improve, shaped our brains (Wrangham, 2009). Fire, cooking food, group life have transformed the environment around us, making it more permissive, relaxing natural selection, so allowing the affirmation of costly adaptations such as neoteny (the retention of juvenile traits in adults, our developmental secret) and articulated language.</p> <p class="p1">Long after, when the last glaciation ended 11.700 years ago, after a long period of trials and errors (intuitive selection of plants for feeding and self-medication, flour production, and so on), some populations of <span class="s1"><em>Homo sapiens </em></span>learned to systematically domesticate plants and animals in several regions of the globe. Today, we think of agriculture as the domain of the “natural”, but actually it was the largest technological experiment in the engineering of terrestrial ecosystems ever done. Some plant and animal species started to produce goods useful to humanity, as of course they would never have done. Artificial selection has radically transformed them, morphologically and genetically. Nevertheless, from their point of view, domesticated plants and animals have cleverly used us humans as vehicles of diffusion. As a result, ecologically and geologically speaking, the Earth has never been the same via technologies. The Anthropocene is an old story.</p> 2021-03-22T13:04:51+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Telmo Pievani https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10675 Entomology and Information Technology 2021-03-25T13:13:09+00:00 Federico Leoni federico.leoni@univr.it <p class="p1">At some point, philosophy started talking about insects. Insects became a recurrent conceptual character. Bergson writes beautiful pages about wasps (1907), Heidegger (1929) about bees, Henri Maldiney (1991) and Gilles Deleuze (1995) about ticks.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">Philosophy is a kind of laboratory. The output of that laboratory is concepts. And what is a concept? It is a concentrated experience, something that happens in the world summarized in an extremely economic form. A crystal of events.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">So, at some point, the activities of that laboratory change perspective. The main characters are no longer God, Being, Good and Evil, or not only and not always. We should ask what happened, what kind of transformation is going on. Not so much in philosophy, but in our world. <span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:05:24+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Federico Leoni https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10676 Future scenarios. A cinematic perspective 2021-03-25T13:13:06+00:00 François Penz fp12@cam.ac.uk <p class="p1">«Later, as he sat on his balcony eating the dog, Dr Robert Laing reflected on the unusual events that had taken place within this huge apartment building during the previous three months» (Ballard, 1975).<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">Ballard’s brilliant opening sentence could be construed as summarising today’s world events – a thoroughly unhinged and disturbed world and for which Ballard’s High-Rise can, in part, act as a metaphor. Ballard’s vision of 1975 was subsequently successfully translated for the screen by Ben Wheatly and Amy Jump in 2015. The film is an adaptation not of a future imagined in 2015 but of how the future would have looked forty years earlier – a form of retro backcasting. Wheatly explained: «The future Ballard was projecting was forward of ’75 and we have lived into that future. We were making a futuristic film about a projected past and because we have seen what happened and Ballard saw it coming down the pipe [...]. The film is a look at the book from the perspective of the people that survived it. We are in a perpetual 70s/80s/90s. Boom followed by bust, then boom followed by bust again» (Wood, 2018).</p> <p class="p1">High-Rise’s enticing trailer’s voice-over<sup>1</sup> evokes perfectly the potential of a better future, inviting us to be immersed into a carefully constructed film world: ‘Ever wanted something more? Ever thought there could be a better way to live free from the shackles of the old tired world? This development is the culmination of a lifetime’s work by esteemed architect Anthony Royal. The high-rise has 40 floors of luxury apartments filled with every modern convenience. Onsite we have a fully stocked supermarket, gym facilities, swimming pool, spa and school, there is almost no reason to leave [...] ...so why not join us...join us!’».<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">But the promise of this better future turns out to be a chaotic nightmare; a fast spreading epidemic of violence amongst residents soon reaches pandemic proportion, leading to self- isolation and barricades, while fighting over nearly empty supermarket shelves. Presiding over this fine mess is the god-like-figure of the architect Anthony Royal, who symbolically occupies the whole penthouse floor, most of the time hunched over his drawing board, dressed in full modernist attire, and seemingly unperturbed by the chaos below. Allegedly Ballard had been inspired by the example of modernist architect Ernö Goldfinger, who «had famously moved into Flat 130 of the Balfron Tower for two months in 1968 to “test” the design of the building» (Luckhurst, 2016).<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">In search of film sets, Wheatley was inspired by a range of buildings, especially Le Corbusier’s Unité d’Habitation in Marseille inaugurated in 1952. The influence is palpable with the High-Rise supermarket halfway up the building and the gymnasium on the roof. Wheatley embraced the brutalist aesthetic of the béton brut that had been sprouting everywhere in London in the 1960s and 70s. Indeed the model of L’Unité d’Habitation in Marseille had paradoxically more resonance in London than in France. «In the United Kingdom the celebrated near-realization of such a ville radieuse would be the Alton West Housing project (1955-59), Roehampton Lane, London, on its sylvan site sloping towards Richmond Park, built under the LCC team [...]» (Kite, 2010).<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">Memorably, the Alton West Housing project, the English vision of la ville radieuse became the prime location for François Truffaut’s translation of Ray Bradbury’s dystopian vision of Fahrenheit 451 (1966), the setting of a repressive, totalitarian regime seeking out to burn all books. Stanley Kubrick, with <span class="s1"><em>A Clockwork Orange</em></span> (1971), also used to good effect the emerging brutalist architecture of London South Bank and the newly constructed Thamesmead Estate in East London. The new modernist aesthetic and the purity of the form afforded by le <span class="s1"><em>béton brut</em></span> had become shorthand for dehumanised spaces, the perfect setting for Alex and his ‘droogs’ to indulge in a ‘bit of ultra-violence’.</p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><em>High-Rise, Fahrenheit 451</em></span> and <span class="s1"><em>A Clockwork Orange</em></span> have all in common that they associate modernism and brutalism with dystopia – and we may ask ourselves – why is that? Why is it that the new aesthetic found itself associated with violence, fascism and debauchery? The explanation resides partly in the fact that in the 1970s the brutalist aesthetic was very unpopular at the time – indeed «it is hard now to recollect quite how much high-rise housing was demonized and despised in the mid-1970s. After the 1968 collapse of the system-built Ronan Point [...], towers essentially stopped getting built, with the assumption that they were unsafe structurally and potentially hugely damaging socially, creating ‘no-go areas’ and dystopias [...]» (Hatherley, 2016).<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">In fact, if we look at the history of cinema, modernism is almost invariably associated with dystopia, as remarked by Andersen: ‘The most celebrated episode in Hollywood’s war against modern architecture is <span class="s1"><em>L.A. Confidential</em></span>. Richard Neutra’s Lovell house, the first great manifestation of the International Style in southern California, plays the home of Pierce Patchett, pornographer, pimp, prince of the shadow city where whatever you desire is for sale’<sup>2</sup>. The implication is that by associating modern architecture with characters of dubious reputations, such as Pierce Patchett, cinema is seen as being critical of modernism. There is a perceived reflexive relationship between the setting and the action, between the architecture and the film’s narrative. In other words, the Lovell House found itself tarred with the same brush as the criminals that occupy it<sup>3</sup>.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p2">This mechanism of association between space and narrative is central to cinema. In order to convey the required dramatic effect, filmmakers carefully select architectural features to underline the emotion of the drama.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>This device can be referred to as “spatially organised drama”, whereby a</p> <p class="p1">narrative, a story, is both spatially and dramatically organized. And the choice of location and architectural setting is paramount to a successful <span class="s1"><em>mise-en-scène</em></span>. underline the emotion of the drama. This device can be referred to as ‘spatially organised drama’, whereby a narrative, a story, is both spatially and dramatically organized. And the choice of location and architectural setting is paramount to a successful <span class="s1"><em>mise-en-scène</em></span>.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">Cinema constructs very approachable worlds that we are invited to enter and share in the same way as we would enter a home. As spectators we become fully immersed into a carefully crafted biosphere with its own ecology and climate, the architectural equivalent would be what architect Peter Zumthor calls ‘atmosphere’ (Zumthor, 2006). Every detail counts in order to maintain this carefully crafted ecology. Therefore the association of a modern building in a film is never an accident but a deliberate choice to serve the purpose of the narrative – and more often than not, it turns out to be a site for a dystopic narrative. In the case of the Lovell House and <span class="s1"><em>L.A. Confidential</em></span>, the architecture critic of the Los Angeles Times attempted to explain this mechanism in the following terms: «The house’s slick, meticulous forms seem the perfect frame for that kind of power [...]. Neutra’s glass walls open up to expose the dark side of our lives - they suggest the erotic, the broken, the psychologically impure»<sup>4</sup>. While Neutra would have no doubt turned in his grave at this suggestion, it does raise the question of the gap between the vision of a modernist architecture and its perception and reception by the general public. And cinema, especially the so-called Hollywood cinema, as a popular medium partly reflects and capitalizes on the collective imagination of the masses. Le Corbusier’s spirit of <span class="s1"><em>L’Esprit Nouveau</em></span> presented in the celebrated photographs of the Villa Savoye exemplifying a new way of life, «a vision of certain eternal goods: the loaf of bread, the can of milk, the bottle of wine, light and air, access to the earth and the sky, physical health» (Anderson, 1987) remains a hard sell!<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">But whether it is Le Corbusier or Anthony Royal, architects always plan for the future – imagining a world not yet in existence, and in that sense they are futurists. Their work is evocative of new worlds and may help us to think of possible responses for future living. Planners and urbanists also need to have a long-term vision. By contrast nobody expects filmmakers to propose achievable future visions – although they occasionally try, for example in science fiction films, a particular genre not discussed in this essay. The vast majority of films are about the present addressing issues of the time. And if anything, when a film is released, the images projected on the screen are already of the past – however recent – same for photography – and this temporal gap can never be reduced. But this ontological challenge is no handicap for the value of film as rightly argued by Žižek: «in order to understand today’s world, we need cinema, literally. It’s only in cinema that we get that crucial dimension we are not ready to confront in our reality. If you are looking for what is in reality more real than reality itself, look into cinematic fiction» (Fiennes, 2006).<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">I regard fiction film as a barometer, an indicator of societal issues and I subscribe to Ferro’s view that «In its relation to society and history, film was for a long time treated only as a work of art [...] Grasping film in its relation to history requires more than just better chronicles of the works or a description of how the various genres evolved. It must look at the historical function of film, at its relationship with the societies that produce and consume it, at the social processes involved in the making of the works, at cinema as a source of history» (Ferro, 1983, p.358). Toubiana goes further by taking a specific example, that of Jacques Tati: «Tati has filmed something essential in the course of the 20th century: he filmed the countryside, the everyday life in the countryside (Jour de fête), then he filmed ‘la vie pavillonnaire’ (<span class="s1"><em>Mon Oncle</em></span>) [...] he especially filmed and captured in an ultra- sensitive manner, not unlike a virtuoso seismograph, the passage from the countryside to the city, this epic migration of man and objects from an ancient world towards the modern world [...] Everything was changed, the gestures, the trajectories, the atmospheres, the way people dressed. And of course the architecture. The Villa Arpel in <span class="s1"><em>Mon Oncle</em></span> was replaced by the ultramodern buildings of <span class="s1"><em>Playtim</em></span>e [...] words only can’t convey such scale of transformation. That’s why Tati’s films are mute. They just exist. They are visual noises. They observe with a very precise look, they drill an entomologist’s gaze onto the human world» <sup>5</sup> (Makeieff <span class="s1"><em>et al.</em></span>, 2009) (Toubiana, 2009).<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><em>Parasite</em></span> (Bong Joon-ho, 2019) provides a more recent example from which we can derive very similar observations. It is not only a hugely successful award-winning film, highly gripping and entertaining, but also a poignant exposure of Seoul’s social structures and inequalities – an excellent example of film as an agent, product and source of history (after Ferro). The contrast between rich and poor is laid bare as the story reflects on the lives of the urban poor living in semi-basements, while the wealthy reside in the upper part of Seoul. Predictably the wealthy family in <span class="s1"><em>Parasite</em></span> lives in a stunning modern house (a studio set), another prime example of the modernist aesthetic association with dystopia. But more to the point within the context of this essay, <span class="s1"><em>Parasite</em></span> is shot in a present that will influence the future as the South Korean Government has announced that, as a direct result of the film, it will offer substantial grants to improve the semi-basement dwellings with a view «to enhance heating systems, replace floors, and install air conditioners, dehumidifiers, ventilators, windows and fire alarms»<sup>6</sup>. This is a particularly vivid and direct example of what Keiller had predicted: «In films, one can explore the spaces of the past in order to better anticipate the spaces of the future» (Keiller, 2013).<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">For the purpose of this essay, I have assigned to fiction films a number of crucial characteristics and features. Key to my argument is that the filmic image shows the visible side of a society and an epoch that image makers try to grasp in order to transmit it. And that it constitutes a valid mode of observation to reflect on future scenarios. Film has also the advantage of simplifying a complex reality, making it more digestible. It can be construed as a form of ‘equipment for living’, providing an accelerated education in experiencing convoluted situations.<sup>7</sup></p> <p class="p1">In the light of this hypothesis, I am proposing to do a rapid survey of the history of future scenarios as portrayed in cinema, concentrating on how the architecture and the city have been represented. As highlighted above, the architecture in film is never a mere background but a crucial part of the narrative from which we can derive some insights as to how historically the future was envisioned.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">It would be difficult to discuss how films have depicted the future without mentioning Fritz Lang’s <span class="s1"><em>Metropolis</em></span> (1927), with its celebrated vision of the future city inspired by Manhattan. In the same breath we must mention <span class="s1"><em>Things to Come</em></span> (William Cameron Menzies, 1936), HG Wells vision of the future city which is purposely diametrically opposed to <span class="s1"><em>Metropolis</em></span> as the new city has developed underground. So, no agreement there as to what the future would look like and that’s at least a consistent aspect of future depictions on the silver screen, they are all slightly at odds with each other. But interestingly both <span class="s1"><em>Metropolis</em></span> and <span class="s1"><em>Things to Come</em></span> are projected in a faraway future, a 100 years on. They also both hail a rather positive future where technologies are a central part of life.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">Following from that, and pre-World War II, we find films that evoke what I would call the near future, looking only at 10 to 30 years ahead. Such a selection would include Murnau’s Sunrise (1927), where the city is inspired by the Bauhaus or Maurice Elvey’s High Treason (1929), a London in 1940 made of existing buildings and ‘new ones’. <span class="s1"><em>A Nous la Liberté</em></span> (René Clair, 1931) also fits this category with Lazare Meerson’s acclaimed sets of the assembly line factory that evokes a prison, an idea that Chaplin would perfect in <span class="s1"><em>Modern Times</em></span> (Charlie Chaplin, 1936). All such movies create a near future made of carefully constructed film sets entirely inspired by modernism. And on the dystopian scale, it is a rather mild form, especially in comparison to <span class="s1"><em>High-Rise, Fahrenheit 451</em></span> and <span class="s1"><em>A Clockwork Orange</em></span>.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">Post-World War II, the near future grouping would include <span class="s1"><em>Tati’s Playtime</em></span> (1967), a near future film, based on the Seagram building. It evokes what <span class="s1"><em>Le quartier de la Défense</em></span> in Paris would look like in the 1990s. The Villa Arpel scenes in <span class="s1"><em>Mon Oncle</em></span> would also fall in this category. Both films are a humorous and rather gentle critic of modernism. In the same category we could also include the evocation of future cities but using the existing city such as Godard’s <span class="s1"><em>Alphaville</em></span> (1965) entirely made up of existing locations in Paris. Truffaut’s <span class="s1"><em>Fahrentheit 451</em></span>, already evoked, also uses the existing fabric of the city, ditto for <span class="s1"><em>A Clockwork Orange</em></span>. Similarly, Chris Marker’s <span class="s1"><em>La Jetée</em></span> (1962), a dystopian authoritarian vision of a future society, is set in the aftermath of World War III in a post-apocalyptic Paris and is entirely shot in existing buildings. The trend in using existing cities evolves further with <span class="s1"><em>La Mort en Direct</em></span> (Bertrand Tavernier, 1980) shot in Glasgow. Most famously <span class="s1"><em>The Truman Show</em></span> (Peter Weir, 1998), shot in the existing town of Seaside Florida, is an Orwellian big brother vision of the world. Worth also mentioning is <span class="s1"><em>Gattaca</em></span> (Andrew Niccol, 1997), shot in Frank Lloyd Wright’s last building project, Marin County Civic Center (CA, USA), which tackles the emergence of a disturbing biological future.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">Closer to us is <span class="s1"><em>Children of Men</em></span> (Alfonso Cuarón, 2006), a film where London, subject to terrorist attacks, is fully recognizable. Michael Winterbottom’s <span class="s1"><em>Code 46</em></span> (2003) also belongs to the near future group, a useful film because of the way it brings in visions of the globalized future cities – Shanghai, Dubai, etc. – offering a culturally diverse vision of the future. But there is no longer grand cinematic vision as explored by <span class="s1"><em>Metropolis</em></span> and <span class="s1"><em>Things to Come</em></span>. One of the latest examples of what could be construed as an atrophied vision is <span class="s1"><em>Vivarium</em></span> (Lorcan Finnegan, 2020). Gone are the grand and utopian architectural gestures to be replaced by an endless labyrinth of cloned detached houses out of which a young couple will never manage to escape. The most disturbing element in <span class="s1"><em>Vivarium</em></span> is the estate itself, the endless suburban pavilions that remind us of what Graham Greene wrote about the semi-detached houses: «these houses represented something worse than the meanness of poverty, the meanness of the spirit» (Greene, 2001). It makes us yearn for the chaotic environment of <span class="s1"><em>High-Rise</em></span>.</p> <p class="p1">There is also a perceptible erosion of the belief that technology and science can solve problems. In fact, as we progress across the 20th century to present days, films imply that technologies and sciences have become the problem as opposed to the solution. What also emerges out of this quick overview, is that films looking at the future have a tendency to look at no more than 10 to 20 years ahead – <span class="s1"><em>Children Of Men</em></span> a 2006 film is set in 2027 or they may stand outside time as with Michael Hanneke’s <span class="s1"><em>Time of the Wolf</em></span> (2003). The bold 100 years future visions of <span class="s1"><em>Metropolis</em></span> and <span class="s1"><em>Things to Come</em></span> are no more. Several films in the 1960s and 1970s were an evocation of the year 2000 e.g. Godard’s <span class="s1"><em>Alphaville</em></span> and Truffaut’s <span class="s1"><em>Fahrentheit 451</em></span> are set respectively in 2000 and 1999. But a different tendency emerges past this landmark. A particularly poignant case is <span class="s1"><em>Amélie</em></span> (Jean-Pierre Jeunet, 2001), a film rooted in the present but harking back to the poetic realism of Marcel Carné, Doisneaux and Prévert of the 1930s. It indicates<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">that the past is more reassuring than the future. In the same vein, we could add the Harry Potter franchise; its popularity indicates that there is reassurance in looking at a past of mythology and waving magic wands.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">The history of future scenarios as portrayed in cinema indicates that filmmakers may have lost sight of the future, their entomologist vision is getting blurred. Cinematic futures are getting closer and closer to the present – to the point of looking to the past. There is no Hollywood happy ending for future scenarios – architects remain the only true futurists. But one thing that films teach us for sure is that whatever future we may consider, it will be dystopian to a degree.</p> 2021-03-22T13:06:12+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 François Penz https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10677 What’s the Matter? Materiality and computation in a studioat the age of environmental anxiety. An experimental approach to architectural education 2021-03-25T13:13:04+00:00 George Katodrytis gkatodry2s@aus.edu <p class="p1">The stagnation of current architectural education is attributed mainly to two factors. On the one hand we have all embraced universality, and on the other we are all using the same tools. This is a new form of global modernity; the production of international and well-mannered architects. There is very little difference, variation and specialized focus that enable students to develop individual architectural approaches. The prevailing modernist heritage is prone to dogmatic attitudes of design and prescriptive teaching methods.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">The second half of the twentieth century was a time of change marked by increased global mobility and the exchange of ideas; a context full of diverse approaches that occurred at the end of Modernism. The beginning of the twenty-first century was time to explore new perceptions and innovative technologies such as the micro scales, materials that perform, architecture that adapts and the environment as a dynamic agent; architecture is part of complex micro systems of ecology, chemistry and biology, and not only physics.</p> <p class="p1">Architectural experimentation is conducted through representation and embraces estrangement, opposition and resistance that attempts to transgress boundaries. More than just a graphic device, the act of speculative drawing and representation is a form of architectural inquiry unto itself. Pedagogy becomes again a primary agent within architectural culture. Yet representation is now shifting from mere abstracted or figurative illustrations to simulations and a new form of procedural and volumetric growth. It is possible now to transgress the limits of architecture through replication, reproduction and time-based processes.</p> <p class="p1">To provoke an even more challenging process of discovery, design studios of architecture can establish a starting point that is non-architectural. A project would then follow a specific design process, an incubator of ideas, which involves experimentation, intellectual rigor, precision, continuous testing and evolution of propositions. The first version of the students’ concepts is prepared before considering the program or the site. We need more non-linear thinking systems that do not seek obvious and predictable outcomes. The notion of ‘lateral’ causes thinking ‘out of the box’. Purely skill-driven design modes stand out, but this is not enough. In the ear of abstract technological influences, it is fundamental to maintain and foster a studio focused on culture as a basic pre-condition for learning and as a platform for experience and interaction.</p> <p class="p1">The work of an architecture studio should investigate the impact of innovative technologies on current design practices. The process looks at advances in new digital media and materials or biotechnology within a design context that is increasingly more interdisciplinary, while simultaneously focusing on a new spatial, programmatic and linguistic dimension of architecture.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">The design of habitats today is being shaped by the outcomes of two key revolutions, material technology and computation, and our exposure to the long-lasting effects of climate change. Nature plays a central role that goes beyond being a simple environmental regulator or inspiration; it is a system of ecologies and complex, subtle behaviors. It is not organic or biomimetic but a new Avant Garde of expressions, efficiencies and impulsive simulations.</p> <p class="p1">A discussion on aesthetics and the unpredictable dimension of nature and growth challenges our traditional preconceptions in favor of more a contemporary understanding of tectonics and new aesthetics, which includes more three-dimensional, complex and unique patterns and typologies of occupation.</p> <p class="p1">The crucial motivation of this cross-disciplinary research is a new and holistic approach in design. This method involves an ecological understanding of landscape and urbanism in which the concept of sustainability is understood as a dynamic agent rather than an outcome to satisfy green ratings. The influence of local traditions, the research of socio-economic conditions, and the role of digital design is complemented by a coherent employment of innovative technologies in the field of energy and materials. This research focuses on new experimental design solutions that are anarchic, formal, material and with a spatial three-dimensional complexity. A major area of research is the architectural, urban and environmental strategies in extreme rural (desert) and urban environments.</p> <p class="p1">Paradoxically, the research-driven approach makes projects unique. Material and fabrication studies and spatial iterations (programmatic possibilities and user experience) are then transformed into systems (typological variations) that are subsequently interrogated, adapted and applied to unpredictable sites and contexts. Issues of program and site are components to define a project rather than to generate it. The discomfort and rawness of the architectural project could work in opposition to a site, a ‘lateral’ thinking approach that generates a discourse. It is more meaningful to make architectural spaces of quality, open and pure, (referring here to the modernist dogma) that can adapt to time and transformations rather than offer a quick solution to solve a site problem which, by default, is temporary and fake. Abstraction here supersedes figuration.</p> <p class="p1">The sequence of operations in the process follows a logical structure: concept, narratives, tools and machine, physical modeling, digital modeling and scripting, simulation, systems and iterations, representation, prototyping and detail and ultimately a fabrication. It is a sequence of continuous and rigorous transformations.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">The studio progresses in a series of stages, with each stage corresponding to an increase in complexity, scope and scale. The quality of both the process and the outcome are equally important. By adopting contemporary practices such as modeling in physical and digital form, the work of the studio attempts to go beyond some of the preconceived limitations of architecture, notably that of the traditional sequence of site, program and solution. We like the incomplete, raw, crude, unpolished and endless potentialities of architecture; atmospheric than glossy. The studio is interested in questioning as to what architecture might be—not what architecture is already understood to be, or how it is already created and practiced.</p> <p class="p1">Studio projects develop an architecture that is built up by many different layers of applied scientific knowledge, software-based morphologies, micro-worlds and intelligent environments such as physical and chemical forces, gravity, fluid dynamics, particles and temperature. This is a type of performative application rather than aesthetic composition. Dynamics, topology and systems then become tools that pertain in large degree to the control and manipulations of formal strategies.</p> <p class="p1">The studio reconsiders architecture as an eco-system that mediates between environment and inhabitation. We look at the new challenges posed by climate change and how this thread can recondition architecture and its materiality. Climate change offers an opportunity for creative architectural interventions more than solely policies. There are opportunities to include changes in cultural and social behavior. The challenge is to engage with an architecture that renegotiates the boundaries between the natural, the artificial and the visionary.</p> <p class="p1">The studio seeks intense design experimentation for ambiguous proposals situated at the intersections between technology, landscape and art. Students are encouraged to develop individual research themes, narratives and manifestos. They are asked to imagine a fictional construct and present it through a series of intricate (small and large) drawings. We combine disruptive technologies and experimental materials with hybrid drawing and modelling techniques.</p> <p class="p1">Architecture is liberated and it starts as an open field. Projects describe narratives and time-based concepts. They include scientific research on found, natural or artificial material, its behavior, its application and its imaginary projection.</p> <p class="p1">The studio encourages digital and analogue making, shifting quickly between the hand and the computer. We juxtapose organized and spontaneous systems and arrive at hybrid structures and programs. We begin by selecting themes that will explore the potentials of formlessness and experiments with appearance that cannot be reduced to a singular figure or shape and maintain a tendency towards change, transformation, openness and ambiguity. We reimagine architecture as the link between the real and the imaginary.</p> <p class="p1">Architecture is drawing, making and simulating space. We think through seeing and doing. Doing can also be seen as a ritual act analogous to everyday habitation, the rhythms, cyclical repetitions and irregularities that determine the social life of buildings.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">Historically, architecture begins with a concept, an overall strategy and a pre-meaning that justifies the design of buildings. This studio proposes a re-examination of design as an autonomous act influenced by selected parameters to inform a form-generation process and outcome. These parameters can be internal and external, programmatic and behavioral.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1">The challenge is to engage with an architecture that renegotiates the boundaries between the natural, the artificial and the visionary. And the glossy object becomes experiential.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:06:46+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 George Katodrytis https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10679 Urban datascapes 2021-03-25T13:13:02+00:00 Carlo Ratti ratti@mit.edu <p class="p1">In a short story written in the late 1960s, the Italian writer Italo Calvino imagined a dystopian society in which every detail and every moment is recorded for posterity. All information would be compiled into the greatest document ever conceived, blending the details of every individual life. The concept is problematized by intrigue and paradox surrounding information control and deletion, and a final twist puts an uncanny spotlight on the condition of absolute archiving. How will humanity remember itself? And how will it act when it knows that it is being recorded? These are prescient questions for a society that, today, is confronted with a similar situation of total recall.</p> <p class="p1">Fifty years after the first publication of “Memory of the World”, data is turning Calvino’s fiction into a reality. As digital technologies become increasingly pervasive, permeating our physical spaces with the Internet of Things, every individual is generating a staggering amount of data. It is not always easy to precisely quantify how much aggregated data our digital society is producing. In 2016, it was famously estimated that, in that year alone, mankind produced as much information as had been created since the beginning of human civilization. One can also consider this sense of scale through our billions of everyday digital devices, most of which contain more computational power than NASA wielded in the time of Apollo 11. Every time we send a message, make a call, or complete a transaction, we leave digital traces. As digital information is captured and stored, our “Memory of the World” – the virtual copy of it – becomes more detailed.</p> <p class="p1">At the forefront of this data-driven revolution there are cities. With their population density and sensor-laden streets, cities are the first places where we are experimenting with new ways of using data for improving our daily life. How can designers and urban analysts leverage this huge amount of information to improve the way we understand and design our cities? To foster a discussion, we are putting forward a reflection on the different types of data available today, and some examples of their possible uses, as drawn from the work of the MIT Senseable City Lab.</p> <p class="p1">Any dataset collected for a specific purpose has an array of potential data by-products. Working with this deluge of urban information is what researchers often call opportunistic sensing: using data that has been generated for a specific reason and analyzing it in a different context to arrive at new conclusions. Datasets are often enriched with many dimensions, and whether or not every one of those dimensions was intended to have an explicit use when it was created, every aspect&nbsp; can be instrumentalized in creative ways. Credit card transaction data, for example, includes unique IDs for the vendor and the consumer. These tags allow researchers to filter the data by location and type of purchase (food, gas, clothing) to understand patterns of economic behavior in cities. Similarly, analysis of telecommunications data and social media have proven them both to be powerful tools for understanding human networks and social dynamics.</p> <p class="p1">When sensors are distributed in a dynamic network, datasets can be considered individually, but far greater insights lie at their intersection and superposition. Geographic space is the common denominator that allows them to be linked. As early as 2006, our researchers at the MIT Senseable City Lab began compounding telecommunications with transportation data. The aggregate urban portrait that emerged – specifically during such extraordinary events as the final match, in Rome, of the 2006 soccer World Cup – revealed collective behavior tied directly to the event. Before the game, movement and communication were frenzied. Activity slowed almost to a stop during the match, spiked sharply at halftime, fell to almost zero during the tense final minutes, and exploded when the match was called. Communication traces during the following hours revealed mass movement into the downtown area to celebrate the national team’s victory.</p> <p class="p1">Subsequent projects in cities with more readily accessible data, such as Singapore, have compounded even more datasets. Data from weather, shipping, social media, public transit, cell networks, and more flow together to create a multidimensional portrait of cities and their patterns. Beyond opportunistic sensing, data can also be generated by deploying an array of sensors with specific intent. Embedding technology into the urban environment can yield robust and fine-grained data, whether to map an existing system, to reveal dynamics that have never been brought to light, or to gain a new understanding of humanity’s fingerprint. On a macro scale, the Google Street View car, for example, has driven across the world photographing 360-degree panoramas. After its first five years of operation, the Street View team announced that their fleet had captured five million miles of road in thirty-nine countries, generating a staggering twenty petabytes of data – quadrillions of images.</p> <p class="p2">As more and more of these digital elements are embedded in physical space, many other aspects of the urban environment can be revealed with a participatory approach to gain more information about our collective behavior and impact on the environment.The Senseable City Lab began a project, Trash Track, that brought the power of ubiquitous tracking to our waste disposal system. Researchers created geolocating tags and worked with residents of Seattle to attach them to thousands of ordinary pieces of garbage – effectively creating an “Internet of Trash” – to map the waste removal chain across the United States. Over the following months, the devices revealed a surprising network that had been completely unknown before. In the&nbsp;future, an accelerating diffusion of technology into urban space may offer an unprecedented understanding of systems like waste management dynamics and may create data that can be used to optimize the entire system, even in real-time.</p> <p class="p1">As digital devices become increasingly lighter, smaller and able to process greater amounts of data, we are moving towards the full realization of a phenomenon that has been termed “smart dust” by Kristofer Pister. Physical space could be ubiquitously laced with nanosensors – scattered devices that are smaller than grains of rice. Large-scale networks of wireless sensors are becoming an active topic of research, promising a rich array of data in a future of ubiquitous. In fact, a pervasive network already exists in our cities today: citizens themselves.&nbsp; Internet-connected humans are producing huge amounts of data. The computer scientist Gordon Bell was one of the first to explore the idea of individual data in a practical way – in 1998 he began a project called Your Life, Uploaded, making himself the subject of the first full-resolution experiment in so-called life-logging. Bell created the hardware and software to capture every moment and every action of his life through photos, computer activity, biometrics, and more. The technology was primitive, and in many ways disruptive, but the project was successful in cataloging his existence for more than a decade. “The result?” he wrote. “An amazing enhancement of human experience from health and education to productivity and just reminiscing about good times. And then, when you are gone, your memories, your life will still be accessible for your grandchildren.” What Bell initially set out to do as a full-scale scientific and sociological study is now the unconscious norm – the default condition – of an Internet generation. Our spatial and social activity is tracked and logged; in many cases, it requires more effort and determination to opt out of documentation than to opt in. Tweets, Uber calls, text messaging, restaurant reviews, and check-ins have become the natural activities of daily living.</p> <p class="p1">The resulting trove of data can provide a deep understanding of how people interact with physical space as digital traces are mapped and overlaid-revealing, for example, the movement and activity of tourists. Using Flickr data, Senseable City Lab researchers started the project “Los Ojos del mundo” to map a crowd-generated cartography of Spain, showing how visitors and residents see and use their environment and identifying hotspots, or “visual magnets.” Researchers could effectively borrow the eyes of the population in a continuing analysis, applying computer vision image-processing and color-matching to landscape photos. The user-generated photographic data began to reveal natural ecological conditions like drought and urban green spaces.</p> <p class="p1">The categories of data collection in cities mentioned above – opportunistic sensing, ad hoc sensor deployment, and crowdsensing – can be hybridized. On the backbone of telecommunications networks, a new universe of urban apps has appeared, allowing people to broadcast and exchange geolocated information and reveal the city from their personal perspective. Air quality, for example, is poorly understood because data is collected in static and sparse ground-based stations. In a possible&nbsp;future, citizens themselves could carry a distributed network of sensors that create a real-time atmospheric map. Using smartphone-integrated sensing devices, pedestrian commuters could generate data at the human scale, as though a tracer were running through the veins of the cities, showing the urban environment that the commuters live in and move through. This concept may inspire manufacturers of consumer electronics to include environmental sensors and to publicly release the resulting data for analysis.</p> 2021-03-22T13:07:13+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Carlo Ratti https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10680 Interacting components 2021-03-25T13:13:00+00:00 Kas Oosterhuis koosterhuis@qu.edu.qa <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Since my entrance into the architectural area at the end of the eighties of the last century and more intensively after I was appointed professor from practice at the Faculty of Architecture at the TU Delft just after the millennium shift, I have written and edited a vast number of essays and books<sup>1</sup>, securing to have the theory as directly as possible connected to hands-on practice. Our practice ONL (Oosterhuis_Lénárd) has been since its foundation a platform for the fusion of art, architecture and technology. Hyperbody has thrived at the forefront of interactive architecture until its self-selected abolishment in 2016. The name Hyperbody is the logical extrapolation of Hypertext and Hypersurface (Perella, 1994). Hyperbodies are consistent embodied vehicles that live simultaneously in physical and digital space in real time. In a programmable Hyperbody, non-physical and physical changes can be performed by jumping from one mode of operation to another. In this essay I will look briefly back at some key components of our combined theory and praxis, and then quickly peer into what I believe is looming ahead of us.</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:07:43+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Kas Oosterhuis https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10681 The forest as heritage 2021-03-25T13:12:57+00:00 Valentina Puglisi valentina.puglisi@polimi.it Marco Introini null@null.com <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Imagining the future has always been the task of architects, but do they still have the tools to do it?</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Giancarlo De Carlo had no doubts. By definition, the role of the architect is to prefigure the future, to persuade others of their reasons, to design what still does not exist, and to coordinate the various results so they can be implemented. De Carlo was certainly aware of his position within society and felt the capacity to imagine and design the future as his own (Lima, 2020).</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:08:58+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Valentina Puglisi, Marco Introini https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10682 Metadesigning the urban space/environmental system. Inter- and trans-disciplinary issues 2021-03-25T13:12:55+00:00 Filippo Angelucci filippo.angelucci@unich.it <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Deindustrialisation and urban densification are shifting the vitality of the city into private spaces. Once places of socialisation and participation, public spaces are now areas of conflict, risk and separation. The horizon for regenerating and revitalising urban public space is not only technical, but also trans-disciplinary and socio-technological-environmental.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The essay reconsiders unbuilt urban space as a space/environmental system; an interface between people, technologies, nature and society that favours a more context-sensitive and responsive project.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The text highlights new roles for the metadesign process by working with material, connective, functional and relational dimensions, new vectors of urban metamorphosis and eco-relational qualities of future public spaces.</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:14:02+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Filippo Angelucci https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10683 Back o Future. Morpho-typological approach and environmental performance of urban fabrics 2021-03-25T13:12:53+00:00 Carlotta Fontana carlotta.fontana@polimi.it Shuyi Xie shuyi.xie@polimi.it <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Human settlements grew up over time due to the action of many generations, taking shape according to the local geo-climatic characteristics and resources. This article discusses the co-evolutionary, largely unintentional and complex quality of the built environment, envisaged by studies on its morphogenesis since the mid-20th Century, in its relationship to the studies on the energetic performance of building fabrics, based on an urban morphological approach. The research-and-action proposal for the adaptive reuse of a historic residential neighbourhood in China, described here, endeavours to provide fine-tuned and ‘tailor-made’ improvements, making the most of the existing quality of the built environment while meeting present-day needs and expectations of the inhabitants.</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:15:04+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Carlotta Fontana, Shuyi Xie https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10684 Architecture and the “imaginary planet”. Projects and technologies for an intermediate landscape in the city 2021-03-25T13:12:51+00:00 Paola Marrone paola.marrone@uniroma3.it Federico Orsini federico.orsini@uniroma3.it <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The traditional ecological and environmentalist thinking that theorised the ‘return to nature’ by contrasting cities and nature seems to be unable to remedy the destructive relationship between city and biosphere. For this reason, it is necessary to rethink the relationship between anthropised and biotic systems, in order to respect the objectives of the Paris Agreement. This rethinking process involves imagining a ‘third space’ with a positive environmental value, much like an intermediate landscape in which buildings and urban realities can be designed - in a backcasting process - as tools capable of incorporating different types of ‘biospheric’ capabilities. The essay investigates urban forestation technologies by evaluating their potential and long-term limitations in extreme climatic scenarios.</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:16:36+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Paola Marrone, Federico Orsini https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10685 Technological transition in building design at the intersection of living and manufactured 2021-03-25T13:12:48+00:00 Berrak Kirbas Akyurek b.kirbas.akyurek@tue.nl Masi Mohammadi null@null.com Aysen Ciravoglu null@null.com Husnu Yegenoglu null@null.com <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This paper aims to elucidate reflections of technological transition today through the ‘unity’ of living and manufactured components of building design. Technological advances enable living organisms from algae to humans, and many more, to become useful tools to create interior and structural elements for buildings. Thus, designing with living organisms has become a growing phenomenon in architecture by transforming building components into ‘biobuilding’ components. In this paper, this phenomenon is critiqued through the bonds between the concepts of nature, technology, and building design, from contemporary studies to the highlights back in history. Overall, the paper gives architects insights on the envisioned future that presents a harmony between natural and building environment.</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:17:03+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Berrak Kirbas Akyurek, Masi Mohammadi, Aysen Ciravoglu, Husnu Yegenoglu https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10686 Cities in transformation. Computational urban planning through big data analytics 2021-04-08T08:18:52+00:00 Carlo Caldera carlo.caldera@polito.it Carlo Ostorero carlo.ostorero@polito.it Valentino Manni valentino.manni@polito.it Andrea Galli andr.galli@gmail.com Luca Saverio Valzano luca.valzano@polito.it <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Future scenarios foresee a city as a fragmented and uneven system in relation to rapidly evolving environmental, economic and social phenomena. The traditional urban planning tools, based on a theoretical-predictive approach, adapt poorly. We need to rethink how to govern the transformations of a city, which can be described by models of urban metabolism. City Sensing has changed the way a city is explored and used. With the transition from digitisation to datafication, through a computational approach, one can process georeferenced datasets within algorithms in order to achieve a higher quality of the project. This process exploits data provided by public administrations, companies and citizens taking part in inclusive and adaptive urban planning.</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:19:23+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Carlo Caldera, Carlo Ostorero, Valentino Manni, Andrea Galli, Luca Saverio Valzano https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10687 Applied innovation: Technological experiments on biomimetic façade systems and solar panels 2021-03-25T13:12:42+00:00 Livio Petriccione livio.petriccione@uniud.it Fabio Fulchir fabiofulchir@libero.it Francesco Chinellato francesco.chinellato@uniud.it <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The most advanced technological concepts aim to obtain an “organic” behaviour of the building envelope, which consequently becomes “dynamic” and variable because it is sensitive and self-adapting with respect to external environmental conditions. In this highly innovative context, solar shielding devices become important and, in some cases, they can be integrated with special types of glasses or with “active” components, such as solar panels. Instead, the orientation systems of solar devices, described below, use only the thermal expansion to self-regulate, combining the reduction of energy consumption with minimum environmental impact, without the aid of motors, computerised devices or external energy sources, overcoming some critical issues of the self-adaptive envelopes used to date.</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:19:50+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Livio Petriccione, Fabio Fulchir, Francesco Chinellato https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10688 Design of urban services as a soft adaptation strategy to cope with climate change 2021-03-25T13:12:40+00:00 Cinzia Talamo cinzia.talamo@polimi.it Giancarlo Paganin giancarlo.paganin@polimi.it Nazly Atta nazly.atta@polimi.it Chiara Bernardini chiara.bernardini@polimi.it <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Climate change is increasingly threatening anthropic systems, which are calibrated on climate parameters that have been mostly stable during the last millennium. Reducing its impact on urban centres is one of the most pressing global challenges of our time. This study develops the concept of soft-resilience, the ability of systems to absorb and recover from the impact of disruptive events without fundamental changes in their function or structural characteristics. Starting from this assumption, this paper explores the potential of the urban services field in a perspective of city adaptation to climate change, suggesting that measures based on ICTs applications and information exploitation represent one of the pillars of soft strategies.</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:20:24+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Cinzia Talamo, Giancarlo Paganin, Nazly Atta, Chiara Bernardini https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10689 Weaving artificiality and nature. Architecture, context and techniques as interacting agents 2021-03-25T13:12:38+00:00 Francesco Spanedda francesco.spanedda@uniss.it <p class="p1"><span class="s1">At the start of this century, a discussion took place with regard to humankind as an Earth-shaping force and the beginning of a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene. This paper investigates how this condition, where nature and artificiality are considered mutually influencing agents, could concern the field of architecture. It sums up the interdisciplinary background behind the main threads on the topic, and discusses the main implications for architectural design, a discipline traditionally concerned with the relationship between the artificial human habitat and the surrounding nature.Several case studies back up these speculations and show different design concepts that try to work on a fluid relationship between artificial and natural elements.</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:20:54+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Francesco Spanedda https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10690 Ecological-thinking and collaborative design as agents of our evolving future 2021-03-25T13:12:36+00:00 Erminia Attaianese erminia.attainese@unina.it Marina Rigillo marina.rigillo@unina.it <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The paper depicts emerging scenarios of environmental design, in connection to the paradigm shift brought about by digital technologies, and awareness of future challenges. It reviews selected researches and projects applying ecological thinking principles. It aims at raising awareness on heuristic approaches in research and design. The paper focuses on collective design as a way to improve the governance of complexity in the current anthropogenic era. The main conclusion highlights cultural marks depicting contemporary research trends, with a view to translate theoretical insights into practical experiences.</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:21:19+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Erminia Attaianese, Marina Rigillo https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10691 Towards urban transition: implementing nature-based solutions and renewable energies to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 2021-03-25T13:12:34+00:00 Valentina Oquendo Di Cosola valentina.oquendo@upm.es Francesca Olivieri francesca.olivieri@upm.es Lorenzo Olivieri lorenzo.olivieri@upm.es Jorge Adán Sánchez-Reséndiz adan.sanchez@upm.es <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Cities today are the scene of major problems linked to air pollution, resource consumption, and inequality. The Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development proposes a roadmap for the transition to more resilient and sustainable city models. This challenge can only be met through systemic innovation, which produces technological, social, environmental, and cultural changes. The integration of nature-based technologies is a tool for the transformation of the current city model. This essay analyses the international context of sustainable development in cities, and the different possibilities for transforming urban space, with the final aim of making a concrete contribution to solutions that guarantee the fulfilment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), decarbonise the current model, and ensure the participation of citizens in the process.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> 2021-03-22T13:22:54+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Valentina Oquendo Di Cosola, Francesca Olivieri, Lorenzo Olivieri, Jorge Adán Sánchez-Reséndiz https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10692 Urban retrofit of the Leipzig-Grünau District. A screening LCA to measure mitigation strategie 2021-03-25T13:12:32+00:00 Elisabetta Palumbo elisabetta.palumbo@inab-rwth-aachen.de Monica Rossi-Schwarzenbeck monica.rossi@htwk-leipzig.de Marina Block marina.block@unina.it Marzia Traverso marzia.traverso@inab.rwth-aachen.de <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The work proposes and verifies an integrated approach to the redevelopment of the disadvantaged Grünau district in Leipzig, combining microclimatic mitigation strategies on buildings and urban scales with Life Cycle Assessment screening. The application of the LCA showed that, compared to an increase in the impact of retrofitting solutions, the strong reduction of energy consumption (-58%) during the use stage leads to an overall decrease of the total GWP. Nonetheless, some major issues connected to occupant comfort were not totally captured by the environmental dimension. Consequently, it is crucial to develop new approaches and schemes based on combining LCA with other appropriate performance criteria in order to more broadly assess the sustainability of a district.</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:23:19+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Elisabetta Palumbo, Monica Rossi-Schwarzenbeck, Marina Block, Marzia Traverso https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10693 Teaching to dexign futures in cities 2021-03-25T13:12:30+00:00 Anna Barbara anna.barbara@polimi.it Peter Scupelli pgs@andrew.cmu.edu <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Global challenges, such as Climate Change and Sustainable Development, require the design of sustainable lifestyles, products, services, and cities that reduce carbon intensity by at least 50% before the year 2030 and 100% by the year 2050 to avoid long-term climate catastrophes.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Short-term action is needed to accomplish long-term sustainability goals. We work on the 2030 deadline with every tool available to us: new course development combined with new pedagogy to effectively and efficiently deliver time-based design. We made our courses available online as open source resources within a global network of universities.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In this paper, we describe a project called “Dexign Futures” initially developed at the School of Design at Carnegie Mellon University. This open source learning project is being locally adapted and evaluated with three global partners: at the School of Design, Politecnico di Milano, Italy; Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, and Georgia Tech University in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. In this paper, we describe the general project Dexign Futures and, specifically, the case study workshop conducted at the School of Design, Politecnico di Milano. We briefly describe the general Dexign Futures project and focus on the seminar conducted at the School of Design of the Polytechnic of Milan to show the possible variations to adapt the global model to specific and local contexts.</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:24:35+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Anna Barbara, Peter Scupelli https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10694 Heritage buildings towards the future: conservation and circular economy for sustainable development 2021-03-25T13:12:28+00:00 Ernesto Antonini ernesto.antonini@unibo.it Giulia Favaretto giulia.favaretto2@unibo.it Marco Pretelli marco.pretelli@unibo.it <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The issues of energy efficiency and climate change belong to a complex scenario to which contemporaneity is called upon to answer. Architecture can contribute by promoting practices that look at the environment with a view to building the future. As an architectural activity, restoration of heritage buildings can actively participate in this fundamental challenge within the perspective of a circular economy proposing a globally sustainable model. Starting from a state-of-the-art investigation, this paper aims to enucleate the BECK project’s contribution in this field, as well as to underline how careful strategies of conservation and contemporary use can have positive effects on sustainable future scenarios.</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:24:58+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ernesto Antonini, Giulia Favaretto, Marco Pretelli https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10695 The future now: An adaptive tailor-made prefabricated Zero Energy Building 2021-03-25T13:12:26+00:00 Antonella Violano antonella.violano@unicampania.it Lorenzo Capobianco lorenzo.capobianco@unicampania.it Monica Cannaviello monica.cannaviello@virgilio.it <p class="p1"><span class="s1">How much space do we need for living? In a backcast vision, the living scenario is inscribed in spaces for short stays, concentrates functions strictly necessary to the daily needs of its occupant, and takes the archetypal shape of the “refuge”, naturally inspired but technologically advanced. (Robinson 1982).</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The contribution proposes results of an experimental technological design conducted by the “ZEBtwdZEEB” research group of the University of Campania “L. Vanvitelli”, in collaboration with industrial partners, which led to the construction of a prototype of a zero energy building<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>(3x3m single user residential unit), built with the innovative LGS Construction System in cold-formed steel. Various envelope solutions, which ensure high energy performance, have been designed for it.</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:25:27+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Antonella Violano, Lorenzo Capobianco, Monica Cannaviello https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10696 Will artificial intelligence kill architects? An insight on the architect job in the AI future 2021-03-25T13:12:24+00:00 Dario Trabucco trabucco@iuav.it <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Artificial Intelligence’s (AI) impact is already visible in several aspects of our life: when we ask for a car insurance, when we consult the weather forecast or when we plan the best route on a car trip, we are actually using AI tools. Jobs are also being affected in many fields, and studies predict AI’s dramatic impact will be clear in the near future. The present study analyses the application of AI to architecture by reviewing the most recent achievements in the automation of architectural design. The study then adapts existent methodologies to predict AI’s impact on the work-related activities carried out by architects. The results show that some disciplines will experience a massive impact of AI technologies with the need to adapt the way architects are trained at universities.</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:25:58+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Dario Trabucco https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10697 Future memories from the deep. An open artificial system for Kiruna 2021-03-25T13:12:22+00:00 Virginia Sellari virginia.sellari@gmail.com Susanna Vissani susanna.vissani@gmail.com <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Thinking about an increasingly nomadic society that needs to adapt to the economic circumstances and to climate change, the dissertation aims to find a balance between anthropological and environmental needs in the extreme context of Kiruna. This city is an opportunity to imagine a possible spatial translation of a ‘liquid’ society. Its strong relevance in the contemporary scene is its floating in a perpetual condition of change and movement, until the necessity for its relocation due to the iron mine expansion.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The thesis moves from a deep analysis of Kiruna territory and passes through the research of the main constants that influence the foundation of cities. The project addresses the theme of the limit by creating an unusual relationship between inside and outside, natural and artificial.</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:26:48+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Virginia Sellari, Susanna Vissani https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10698 Learning architecture in the digital age. An advanced training experience for tomorrow’s architect 2021-03-25T13:12:21+00:00 Roberto Ruggiero roberto.ruggiero@unicam.it <p class="p1"><span class="s1">What Mario Carpo defines as “the second digital turn” (Carpo 2017) represents for architecture an irreversible process meant to modify many consolidated rules in the professional practice. Without upgrading his methods and points of view, education in architecture turns out to be inappropriate for future scenarios, both in terms of content and methods.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In this regard, in 2018 the School of Architecture and Design “Eduardo Vittoria” (SAAD) of the University of Camerino launched an experimental educational programme focused on: a) “digital fabrication” as a building strategy; b) the SAAD-Lab#Prototype (the SAAD fab-lab) as fulcrum of an innovative workshop in the field of building construction. The paper presents the result of the 2018/19 workshop concerning a temporary settlement for students made with customised building systems.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> 2021-03-22T13:27:29+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Roberto Ruggiero https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10699 Novel component for smart sustainable. Building Envelopes 2021-03-25T13:12:19+00:00 Gianluca Rodonò gianluca.rodono@unict.it Angelo Monteleone angelo.monte@unict.it Vincenzo Sapienza vincenzo.sapienza@unict.it <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Contemporary approaches to the topic of the responsiveness of architectural components tend to simplify the moving parts as much as possible, avoiding the use of complex mechanisms. KREO is a component for lightweight responsive envelopes made with a composite material with elastic matrix and a textile reinforcement. The composite is pre-folded and it is possible to fold and unfold it without hinges through its elastic mechanism. The component is also capable of producing energy for its handling system through an integrated high efficiency photovoltaic system. Furthermore, its pre-folded geometry ensures its strength. This research involves the construction of a prototype of this energy self-sufficient kinetic component and the definition of its production process.</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:28:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Gianluca Rodonò, Angelo Monteleone, Vincenzo Sapienza https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10700 Designing futures of performance and interaction 2021-03-25T13:12:18+00:00 Ruairi Glynn r.glynn@ucl.ac.uk <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This paper shares a novel educational programme that is attempting to detect and nurture emerging transdisciplinary fields of creative production, and stage architectural education as a holistic environment for initiating new forms of practice. Its experimental pedagogy uses physical and virtual prototyping to build and critically examine future applications and socio-spatial implications of emerging technologies. This article contextualises the development of a transdisciplinary programme in relation to the field of media art. It presents our approach to building a transdisciplinary course and the preliminary results of a programme now entering its third year.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> 2021-03-22T13:29:09+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ruairi Glynn https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10701 A teaching strategies model experiment for computational design thinking 2021-03-25T13:12:17+00:00 Selin Oktan selinoktan@ktu.edu.tr Serbülent Vural svural@ktu.edu.tr <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This study aims to share an educational model experiment for teaching computational thinking with hands-on activities. There is a gap between today’s architectural education system and computational thinking. The exercises aim to fill this gap. In this study, conventional and computational design processes are not considered as two opposing poles, but as integrated processes and as a bridge between these processes.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Starting from Gagné’s model, the learning process classification is reinterpreted, and the exercise processes are discussed in the titles of reception, expectancy, computation and semantic encoding, responding and creating alternatives. The outcome of this study will be a discussion on the first results, observations, and feedback from the students about the educational model attempted to be created.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> 2021-03-22T13:29:48+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Selin Oktan, Serbülent Vural https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10702 Climate-resilient urban transformation pathways as a multi-disciplinary challenge: the case of Naples 2021-03-25T13:12:16+00:00 Mattia Federico Leone mattia.leone@unina.it Giulio Zuccaro zuccaro@unina.it <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The effects of climate change in cities are already visible with extreme events globally increasing in both frequency and intensity. It is essential to consider the impact of urban regeneration strategies on local microclimatic conditions in order to guide urban planning and design in a resilient key. The complex management of information required to define adequate intervention strategies at a local level is a growing challenge for public administrations. The paper presents the first results of the ongoing H2020 project CLARITY (2017-2020) aimed at developing climate services for the integration of adaptation measures in urban redevelopment actions focused on activities performed in partnership by the UNINA team and the City of Naples, one of the project’s case studies.</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:32:01+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mattia Federico Leone, Giulio Zuccaro https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10703 Enhancing the integration of Nature-Based Solutions in cities through digital technologies 2021-03-25T13:12:14+00:00 Chiara Farinea chiara.farinea@iaac.net <p class="p1"><span class="s1">During the last decades a growing awareness about the effects of pollution on our planet and its inhabitants has led to a demand for a new environmental sensitivity in urban planning. Nature-Based Solutions have the potential to enhance the liveability and prosperity of cities, providing ecosystems services (Millennium Ecosystems Assessment, 2005).<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The paper explores pathways towards a progressive knowledge construction to shape a future in which NBS are largely integrated in our buildings and public space thanks to the use of digital technologies and design, transforming our cities into healthy, productive and collaborative environments.</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:32:51+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Chiara Farinea https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10704 Upcycling plastic waste for the development of construction materials 2021-03-25T13:12:11+00:00 Alexandre Carbonnel alexandre.carbonnel@usach.cl Hugo Pérez hugo.perez.h@usach.cl María Ignacia Lucares maria.lucares@usach.cl Daniel Escobar daniel.escobarc@usach.cl María Paz Jiménez pazjimenezvilla@gmail.com Dayana Gavilanes dgavilanes.ruiz@gmail.com <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Consideration of plastic waste as a secondary raw material obtainable by means of upcycling presents fresh possibilities in the search for new construction and architectural materials. This paper demonstrates the possibility of recycling thermoplastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and the potential for enhancement of its properties through the incorporation of nanoparticles. The design of materials by means of managed complexity involving processes of <em>materialisation</em> and <em>configuration</em> is explored by processing film from recycled plastic and their subsequent assessment as a possible semi-finished product with photocatalytic potential.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> 2021-03-22T13:33:24+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Alexandre Carbonnel, Hugo Pérez, María Ignacia Lucares, Daniel Escobar, María Paz Jiménez, Dayana Gavilanes https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10705 Digital anonymity. Human-machine interaction in architectural design 2021-03-25T13:12:10+00:00 Giuseppe Bono ucbqono@ucl.ac.uk Pilar Maria Guerrieri pilar.guerrieri@gmail.com <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The paper seeks to define the concept of <em>digital anonymity</em>. <em>Digital anonymity</em> is defined as the autopoietic condition of architectural design in the digital era, a state in which the combination of decontextualisation and depersonalisation of the design process leads towards emergent and anonymous design results.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Starting from the analysis of principles coming from the architectural world and then extending their definitions to considerations relative to other disciplines, the paper tries to delineate a new ethic of human-machine interaction and integration in the current architectural discipline.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The evidence suggests that <em>digital anonymity</em> is the touchstone of an ongoing evolutionary process, which is translating architectural design into its new digital realm.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> 2021-03-22T13:33:59+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Giuseppe Bono, Pilar Maria Guerrieri https://oaj.fupress.net/index.php/techne/article/view/10709 Future scenarios. A Dialogue of Ingrid Paoletti and Maria Pilar Vettori with Gerard Evenden (Foster + Partners) 2021-03-25T13:12:08+00:00 Ingrid Paoletti null@null.com Maria Pilar Vettori null@null.com <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The idea of the Special Series ‘Future Scenarios’ is to put the architectural project at the centre of debate as a complex phenomenon, able to build a synthesis of scientific, social, political and cultural points of view, in a period where the anthropocentric perspective has radically changed our approach to the environment, to construction, to technology and materials, given their impact and effects on scarcity of resources and moreover today to urban health.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Gerard Evenden is Senior Executive Partner&nbsp;Head of StudioBSc, BArch (Dist), RIBA. Gerard Evenden has worked on a diverse range of projects during 26 years at Foster + Partners. Graduating from the University of Wales Institute of Science and Technology, Gerard’s interest in innovation, materials and new building techniques, is evident in his global experience and demonstrated by award winning projects across the world. Gerard led Masdar City and has developed pioneering high-rise towers and transportation buildings. He named his children, Florence and Sydney, after two competition wins. Gerard enjoys a family life in Wiltshire.</span></p> 2021-03-22T13:34:48+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ingrid Paoletti, Maria Pilar Vettori