TECHNE - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment 2020-12-21T20:24:30+00:00 Redazione Techne c/o SITdA onlus Open Journal Systems <p><em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">TECHNE</span></span></em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> , la rivista scientifica di SIT </span></span><em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">d</span></span></em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> A, la&nbsp; </span></span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Società italiana di tecnologia architettonica</span></span></a><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> , soddisfa gli obiettivi della società lavorando, a livello nazionale e internazionale, per promuovere la conoscenza e i metodi e le tecniche della tecnologia architettonica, al fine di proteggere e migliorare l'uomo ambiente creato e per promuovere applicazioni innovative e confronti interdisciplinari. </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">La rivista pubblica articoli su ricerche e applicazioni innovative, nonché saggi e relazioni. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Gli autori lavorano nel mondo accademico e nelle strutture di ricerca nell'area della progettazione architettonica, dell'industria, delle attività imprenditoriali e delle organizzazioni clienti, pubbliche e private. </span></span><br><em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">TECHNE&nbsp;</span></span></em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">si rivolge a un mercato target interessato a discutere punti di vista rilevanti e critici e acquisire conoscenze utili per lo sviluppo di progetti attraverso un confronto di diversi approcci.</span></span></p> Note 2020-12-21T20:11:21+00:00 Maria Teresa Lucarelli <p>The theme that this issue proposes is undoubtedly of great suggestion; equally undeniable is that it is a subject of many facets and complexity not only because of the different definitions and interpretations that have been given to “time” since ancient times, but also because of its relationship with architecture that is appropriated and nourished by time.</p> <p>As can be seen from the contributions of the Dossier, which introduces the essays and research presented here, many distinguished scholars – architects, philosophers and intellectuals – have tried their hand at investigating this relationship, developing, in the specificity of their thought, interesting critical reflections that focus on the aspect of memory, continuity and/or change, declining in a harmonious way the concept of permanence, «[…] included in the continuous and changeable flow of becoming<em>» </em>(Truppi, 2012), with that of temporariness intended not only as a solution to the emergency but as attention to the varied housing needs of a society in constant change, a strategic design option in which attention to <em>flexibility</em>, in the articulation of spaces and <em>reversibility</em>, in the definition of uses can allow for greater durability over time.</p> <p>In the debate that periodically reopens on the subject, the events that occur, often completely unexpected as the pandemic that has recently hit us and/or announced and mostly underestimated, such as climate change in progress, seem to question the classical relationship between time and architecture that finds in the Vitruvian triad and its balance the maximum expression.</p> <p>Therefore, it is undeniable that the <em>firmitas</em> has allowed Architecture to remain in time; that <em>utilitas</em> has enhanced its function by favouring its duration and that <em>venusta</em> has satisfied the need for beauty necessary to assert its essence and existence.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>One could say, as R. Secchi (Secchi, 2013) says, that «[…] the Vitruvian triad does not admit the abuse of one category over the others but prescribes the achievement of their right balance […]<em>»</em>. In reality, even though these principles remain a stable and not only symbolic reference for Architecture, the economic, social and environmental phenomena that over time have passed through Societies. In particular starting from the Industrial Revolution, seem to have significantly changed this balance, in many cases in favour of <em>utilitas</em> to improve the quality of life but often denying <em>venustas</em>; acting also on <em>firmitas</em> as witnessed by the catastrophes, even recent ones, generated by natural events or, even more serious, by human neglect. It is evident the lack of attention paid in recent decades to the temporal stability of the manufactured product, often designed without adequate control of technical solutions; to maintenance, monitoring and the trend of its life cycle. These actions are essential to ensure the safety of users but also the maintenance of the formal as well as functional aspects for which the object has reason to exist.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>To escape the rhetoric of symbolism in which it is easy to fall into the relationship between time and architecture and bring back the reasoning on the themes, concrete, that the call extenders (Lauria and Pollo, 2020) wanted to propose through the four topics: <em>Time as project factor/variable; Time as performance factor/variable; Time as organisation factor/variable; Time as transformation factor/variable, </em>the intent of starting a comparison on the different weight and influence that time has on the architectural project and on the phases that characterize it clearly emerges. Influence not only with respect to the succession of sequential actions, codified by practice and the norm, but also with respect to new design paradigms that increasingly have to be confronted with the speed of innovation, with environmental and social changes, rapid and unpredictable and that impose to the project, and therefore to the object, the same speed of transformation. It refers about the “adaptivity” of Architecture, strongly linked to the continuous space-time mutation but also to economic, social and environmental sustainability; of circularity of design respecting the resources used and considered in every phase of the life cycle; of flexibility according to strategies aimed at strengthening durability, including concepts such as reversibility, recyclability and energy self-sufficiency. All these factors associated with the control of the lifecycle of the building and therefore with the evaluation over time of the expected quality levels, have to take into account new performances deriving from the relationship between the building and the context, the appropriate use of resources and adaptation to climate change. New performance, also «[…] measurable in terms of the extent of the “mission” during which certain levels of reliability and maintainability have to be maintained<em>» </em>(Lauria and Pollo, 2020).<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>Another focus proposed by the call concerns the time factor connected, right from the design phase, with the overall management of the building process. A good time planning, closely linked to costs and human resources, has a significant impact on the planning of the various phases that characterize the governance of the project. Scheduled time management does not in itself guarantee quality, but it can certainly encourage the achievement of objectives and improve results also through the use of project management procedures and techniques, which the Law on Public Works itself calls for, or through the adoption of new practices, such as <em>lean construction</em>, which aim essentially at improving implementation and management processes.</p> <p>Certainly, time and its passing have determined important changes and transformations on the building heritage, leaving the signs of a physiological degradation – as a <em>coating</em> of time that does not always connote the negativity of the building – but also of relevant functional and technological obsolescence mainly due to the lack of attention to design and construction, particularly in recent decades. On the one hand, therefore, historical Architecture that has to be re-functionalized in order not to lose its value of use in addition to the symbolic value that characterizes it. On the other hand, modern Architecture where the recovery can represent an opportunity for new experiments redefining, in a time projection, spaces and functions always with a view to sustainability and respect for the environment.</p> <p>To conclude, we refer to a reflection by Vittorio Gregotti, taken from his book “Time and Project” (Gregotti, 2019), which is well adapted to the contents of this issue of TECHNE: «The interpretation of time is one of the structural materials to which the architectural project gives expression. Time, together with place and space, represents an opportunity for the present to confront a poetic, disciplinary and civil past as well as many other meanings […]».</p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Maria Teresa Lucarelli Spaces, Times, Architectures. the Elements of the Constructive Phenomenon 2020-12-21T20:11:39+00:00 Emilio Faroldi <p>Architecture represents a primary hourglass marking the passage of time. It elevates the city to a preferred theatre for such representation, «[…] human time will never conform to the implacable uniformity or fixed divisions of clock time»<sup>1</sup>.</p> <p>The discipline of architecture falls between art and science as a <em>continuum </em>between past and future, dialoguing with the passage of time, marking eras, tastes, and aspirations. «[…] Reality demands that its measurements be suited to variability of its rhythm, and that its boundaries have wide marginal zones. It is only by this plasticity that history can hope to adapt its classifications, as Bergson put it “to the very contours of reality”: which is properly the ultimate aim of any science» (Bloch, 1998)<sup>2</sup>.</p> <p>Our relationship with time is articulated, differentiated, and dependent on discipline-related and personal variables. A unitary vision and perception of time is not possible; one need only think of the different relationships entertained with it by philosophers and athletes, physicists and poets, teachers and students.</p> <p>Architecture, concurrently as an object and as a single element pertaining to a set, is born, lives, and often perishes according to the different relationship it has with the value of time. At times, the latter is assumed as a challenge to tend towards the absolute, at other times as an indicator of temporalized planning ability.</p> <p>The professional applications of architecture must therefore be translated and filtered through the variable of time, testing the times of the project, establishing a relationship with historical dynamics, and defining the duration of the prefigured building. The act of designing also reflects cultural approaches that agree or disagree with the spirit of the time through adherence to or contrast with the identities, languages, and modes of seeing and thinking about architecture in a way that conforms to the contemporary age or by means of countering trends.</p> <p>We are not faced with a single way of conceiving space, time, and architecture; rather, the terms require their evident terminological pluralization. The built space, its form, the language undoubtedly represent the barometer of an era, the result of economic, social, technical, and cultural variables that come together synergistically to define the architectural meaning.</p> <p>With regard to the thinking of Sigfried Giedion, based on the assumption that architecture may be generated from many surrounding conditions, but which once built may also represent an organism with independent value, we can see that architecture today is the fundamental essence of a becoming landscape, thus the bearer of dynamic values of constant interaction with the physical scene in which it is situated<sup>3</sup>.</p> <p>The influence of the architectural element on the context and vice versa amounts to evident, sharable dynamics. Interest is not limited exclusively to the morphological/typological and linguistic characteristics that determine the details of the object, but rather the ways in which they act in their environment. For Giedion, <em>space</em> and <em>time</em> in the new architecture are connected by a direct thread, underlining a position that is still supported today.</p> <p>What has changed in contemporary architecture is the value of time, its perception, something that is now the object of obvious constraints; pluralities, differences, dissonances are increasingly connected to an altered, never linear, temporal dimension.</p> <p>The Twentieth century and more recent years correspond to a period marked by the collapse of certainties, the total freedom of thought, the adoption of forms increasingly freed from their gravitational laws, a linearity between form and function that is no longer perceptible. In this context and with respect to architecture, time assumes an independence never seen before.</p> <p>«One of the essential characteristics of the European spirit», wrote Fritz Saxl, an Austrian art historian that lived between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, «seems to be the way in which it destroys things and then reintegrates them on new bases, breaking with tradition only to return to it with a completely new spirit» (Fritz saxl, in Gregotti, 1999). It is a concept of the past as a phenomenon in itself, concluded and distinct from the present due to an irreparable rift, rooted in a sort of irreconcilability between the architecture of the past and contemporary spatiality. «It represents an increasingly common position to be contrasted by affirming the value of the present precisely in relation to its dialogue with history» (Faroldi, 2016)<sup>4</sup>.</p> <p>Classicism provided our discipline with the arduous, noble task of enduring forever. Now architecture is handed vital rules and prearranged phases of functioning. With growing assiduousness, the elements of architecture and the related language borrow principles and terms with a clear temporal connotation: continuity, resilience, adaptability, permanence, flexibility, reuse, ephemerality, and duration, just to name a few.</p> <p>The spatial decomposition that architecture has undergone has also opened a new dimension in the temporal matrix, breaking a linear relationship based on the introduction of elements, superposition, and interconnections that create short circuits between the architectural foundations and its space-time assumptions.</p> <p>This approach reopens a discussion about the relationship between our discipline and the figurative arts. Perceptible in some areas is the design attempt to develop a renewed spatial culture that can highlight the relationships between architecture and daily human activities and the synergy of the very methods of construction, painting, urban planning, and the sciences. This is valid for both the act of design and the act of criticism and rendering the architectural phenomenon: ours is knowledge that highlights the need to go beyond reality.</p> <p>In order to design, one must understand the event in an attempt to anticipate the future; the present events are most apparent within a <em>continuum</em>, where time flows uninterruptedly.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>Contemporary arts and science recognize the action of observing and the observed object as elements in a single complex setting. Observing means interacting, consequently acting on the phenomenon being observed, thereby altering it. This is why the relationship with time in architecture elects the historian as a figure that should necessarily and intimately represent a constituent part of the era, one who is capable of addressing questions regarding the past that are still suitable for guarding a meaning.</p> <p>In history, space in itself and time tend to evaporate, dissolve, in order to form a single great evolution of events aimed at blending the two entities.</p> <p>The relationship between <em>time</em> and <em>architecture</em> today is therefore affected by a crisis of identity due to the acceleration of processes, the immateriality of the phenomena, and the simultaneous spread of information. The technical and technological acceleration that affects our living and contemporary interest, directed at the past interpreted as a heritage, decidedly emphasize the space-time ambiguity of events.</p> <p>With regard to architecture, the meaning of time acquires multiple variations related to the perspective through which we consider the design process, the architectural building, its analogue value.</p> <p>Throughout history, the architectural form symbolically echoed absolute concepts strongly tied to the time variable; on the urban scale and the object scale, the formal definition indicated a precise vision of the relationship with time.</p> <p>The recent decomposition shatters this relationship, echoing more abstract, less tangible or limitable architectural conceptualizations. Historical time, the spirit of time, the time of duration, the perception of time, movement, and rhythms all change in relation to the evolution of the form and the architectural space.</p> <p>«In the disintegration of time characterizing our era, which is composed of a sum of increasingly considerable moments and a multitude of information products that replace and overlap the real objects, architecture may still serve as an antidote to the illusory nature of images: an everyday object, a trace that constrains our movements and roots our thoughts. Architecture as a tool for rooting rather than an element of alienation. […] Yet to obtain this, “patient research” is required, as is a great deal of modesty, an attitude that is increasingly foreign in a world where a spectacle (and market) is made of everything and everything is consumed with a speed that is intolerable because it is faster than our capacity for reflection, assimilation, or verification. A world that, due to the state of things, produces prima donnas, fake masters, and disorientation as a necessary mechanism giving rise to the next “novelty”. Perhaps this modesty should contain some traces of Pagano’s “rejection”, his hushed speech, his battle against those who are possessed by the anxiety of becoming pioneers with some unplanned, unthinkable invention» (Borroni <em>et al.</em>, 1987)<sup>5</sup>.</p> <p>Time is the substance of every human event.</p> <p>Many sociological analyses have shown how modern civilization depends on the precise scan of time, whether idle, social, or economic. Time is also a dimension and complex reality: a system whose overall behaviour contains properties that both derive from the cooperation of singular elements and are also completely extraneous to the elements themselves.</p> <p><em>Time</em> is a Latin word; the Greeks did not have a single word to indicate time, but rather many. Indeed, for them it constituted a complexity.</p> <p>The high-performance capacity of humans to order the elements that surround us concerns the concept of time, but we barely scratch it. A Ciceronian tyranny of time is thus born<sup>6</sup>: In an attempt to discipline it, we crush it.</p> <p>No form of organization can erase the discrepancy between the incessant acceleration of time and the constant slowness of humanity. A doubt arises à la Hamlet: to chase it or to stop, to act or to observe. Faced with the impossibility of providing a correct answer, it becomes possible to appeal to the Aristotelian <em>in medio stat virtus </em>– “virtue stands in the middle” – a continuous fight for the future, for evolution, improvement, which is halted, however, by the awareness that when we have all the answers, all the questions will have changed.</p> <p>Like humans, “architecture can no longer keep up with the world”<sup>7</sup> or with time.</p> <p>The term <em>architecture</em> comes from Greek so it does not ignore complexity. Indeed, it is precisely complexity wherein lies the capacity to accept, organize, and enhance age as a resource, which we call “history”, or better yet, “memory”. The latter represents one of the main elements of design, on par with matter, light, and climate. At the same time, the stratification of past experience interprets the constituent phenomenon of the city, as well as the streets, people, squares, and buildings.</p> <p>Only when a set of houses, volumes, buildings possess a history and a memory are we in the presence of a city and not just a place where simple, superficial aggregations occur. By means of these entities, a set acquires meaning and energy and thanks to this, new buildings, new parts of the city are also absorbed and metabolized by the urban system, in turn becoming the expression of the history.</p> <p>«In vain, great-hearted Kublai, shall I attempt to describe Zaira, city of high bastions. I could tell you how many steps make up the streets rising like stairways, and the degree of the arcades’ curves, and what kind of zinc scales cover the roofs; but I already know this would be the same as telling you nothing. The city does not consist of this, but of relationships between the measurements of its space and the events of its past: the height of a lamppost and the distance from the ground of a hanged usurper’s swaying feet; the line strung from the lamppost to the railing opposite and the festoons that decorate the course of the queen’s nuptial procession; the height of that railing and the leap of the adulterer who climbed over it at dawn; the tilt of a guttering and a cat’s progress along it as he slips into the same window; the firing range of a gunboat which has suddenly appeared beyond the cape and the bomb that destroys the guttering; the rips in the fish net and the three old men seated on the dock mending nets and telling each other for the hundredth time the story of the gunboat of the usurper, who some say was the queen’s illegitimate son, abandoned in his swaddling clothes there on the dock. As this wave from memories flows in, the city soaks it up like a sponge and expands.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>A description of Zaira as it is today should contain all Zaira’s past. The city, however, does not tell its past, but contains it like the lines of a hand, written in the corners of the streets, the gratings of the windows, the banisters of the steps, the antennae of the lightning rods, the poles of the flags, every segment marked in turn with scratches, indentations, scrolls. […] The eye does not see things but images of things that mean other things» (Calvino, 1972)<sup>8</sup>.</p> <p>On the one hand it would be titanic (if not impossible) and on the other hand useless (if not insignificant) to try to produce architecture that “does not age”, which is not subject to the passage of time, which is commonly and perhaps erroneously defined as <em>current</em>, <em>contemporary</em>. What architecture today could we describe as <em>not current</em> or <em>not contemporary</em>?</p> <p>«Contemporary time is not the present, the here and now. Contemporary time entails a much more extended, rich, dynamic temporal nature. Contemporary time moves, and in moving, it moves our thoughts, the ideas we have about the world, our models, convictions, our ways of living. Contemporary time is a way of acting with respect to the present time, looking for a perspective that helps us understand what is around us. This means projecting ourselves into the future, but also looking to the past for ideas and works that shed light on the present» (Sandretto Re Rebaudengo, 2014)<sup>9</sup>.</p> <p>It is easy to show how likewise contemporary – contemporary in the sense that they are alive – are the <em>Pantheon </em>and <em>Torre Velasca</em>, the<em> Imperial fora</em> and <em>CityLife</em>, the <em>Parthenon </em>and the Centre Pompidou. Even if the architectural project is formed in the present dimension, this dimension is none other than the profound union of the past with the future. Ancient and new cancel out by means of being fundamentally present.</p> <p>«The fascination of the world’s past and the history of architecture therefore resides – paradoxically – in not being able to view and separate it from the flow of daily time, just as it is not possible to observe the layout of a labyrinth unless we are lifted above it, something that fortunately is not permitted in the rules of the game» (Purini, 2007)<sup>10</sup>.</p> <p>Due to its nature, architecture cannot and should not constitute a consumer good. If so, it would go against its guiding principle: enduring forever.</p> <p>Giancarlo De Carlo states: «When I design, “I design for forever” and it does not even cross my mind that what I design may last for only a short time. [...] Architecture is still one of the few custodians of memory. … I believe that if I did not design for forever, this would truly hinder me in being an architect, so I believe that all architects, even those that say the opposite, if they have quality and ambition, design for forever»<sup>11</sup>. Gio Ponti teaches us that «The past does not exist. Everything is simultaneous in our life and culture. Only the past exists. In it we recreate the past and imagine the future» (Ponti, 1957)<sup>12</sup>.</p> <p>For antonomasia, architecture is a human product, the result of a thought that is first immaterial and then constructive, prepared to compete against the flow of time. Its fundamental characteristic is duration and, in particular, its performance throughout that duration: temporal continuity that elects a formal gesture in the place. It follows that every building possesses its own temporal dimension: it is not left to chance for those who experience it, but rather becomes the first object of the project.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>In this context, the user is an integral part of the building itself, representing a fundamental dynamic element. This concept imposes a revolution in canonical thought: the acceptance of a fourth spatial dimension that we define academically as time, which represents the essence of the same.</p> <p>Time is not an “a posteriori of the place”, but rather a necessary “a priori”. While the concepts of <em>space</em> (and <em>place</em>) have assumed a central place in the architectural debate, especially following postmodernism and Deconstructivism, the variable of <em>time</em> becomes forgotten, weakened in its essence.</p> <p>As some scholars have pointed out, there is no <em>Genius Temporis</em>, understood as the interpretation of the individual situated in a historical context, accepting the future in its essence, in the creation of the civilization, society, culture of a place. One cannot – and it would not be correct to – stop the flow of history and its passage.</p> <p>This concept is worth even more for architecture as an interpreter and expression of a community’s demands, needs, and requirements, directing designers to trace out a decision-making path whose statute is based on the concept of “continuity”. Space and time are also objective quantities. In the heart of this relationship, the architect acquires an extraordinary awareness of the profound energy and opportunity to create <em>time</em>. Without being subject to it; rather, organizing it, ordering it, often creating it.</p> <p>The <em>architecture of time</em> becomes an indicator to define, implement, and design a space, since it is an element that possesses times connected to physiological rhythms of use.</p> <p>“The architecture is testimony to man’s aspiration to win time by raising the order in space” (Broch, 2016)<sup>13</sup>.</p> <p><em>Spaces</em>, <em>times</em>, and <em>architectures </em>blend in an indissoluble trinomial. They meet and once united cannot disentangle themselves or stretch independently, but rather contribute as one to shaping the theatre of our lives, constantly making the whole of our daily lives vibrate<em>.</em></p> <p>This is architecture.</p> <p>NOTES</p> <p><sup>1</sup> Bloch, M. (1949), <em>Apologie pour l’histoire ou Métier d’historien, Librairie Armand Colin</em>, Parigi, in Bucci, F. (2020), “Giudicare o comprendere? Il senso della storia”, in Faroldi, E. and Vettori M.P. (Eds.), <em>Insegnare l’architettura: due scuole a confronto</em>, LetteraVentidue Edizioni, Siracusa, p. 73.</p> <p><sup>2</sup> Marc Bloch, <em>Thje Historian’s Craft</em>, introduction by Joseph R. Strayer, Translated from the French by Peter Putnam, A Caravelle Edition, Vintage Books, A division of Penguin Random House LLC, New York 1953, p. 189.</p> <p><sup>3</sup> Published in the United States in 1941, <em>Space, Time and Architecture</em> was translated for the first time by Hoepli in 1953. In 1965 it was republished in a version integrated and refined by the author himself. The work continues to highlight notable points of interest. For Giedion, architecture constituted the means of interpreting a historical period. His is a comparative approach borrowed from his education straddling art history and engineering that aims to identify relationships and parallels between architecture and technological and artistic development.</p> <p><sup>4</sup> Faroldi, E. (2016), “Architettura contemporanea: elemento di dialogo tra eredità e ibridazioni”, <em>Techne, Journal of Technlogy for Architecture and Environment</em>, Vol. 12, Firenze University Press, Firenze, p.12.</p> <p><sup>5</sup> Borroni, L., Coppola Pignatelli, P., Lenci, S. and Ostilio Rossi, P. (1987), “Tempo e Architettura”, in Borroni, L., Coppola Pignatelli, P., Lenci, S. and Ostilio Rossi, P. (eds.), <em>Tempo e Architettura</em>, Dipartimento di Progettazione Architettonica e Urbana, Università di Roma La Sapienza, Annale 1986, Gangemi Editore, Roma.</p> <p><sup>6</sup> Translated literally, the Latin phrase “<em>tempus fugit”</em> means “time flies”. The expression comes from a verse in Virgil’s Georgics.</p> <p><sup>7</sup> «Architecture can no loger keep up with the world» in Fairs, M. (2004), “Rem Koolhaas”, in <em>Icon</em>, available at: (accessed 15 august 2020).</p> <p><sup>8</sup> Calvino, I. (1972), <em>Le città invisibili</em>, prima edizione Giulio Einaudi Editore, Torino. “Invisible cities” Translated by William Weaver English translation copyright © 1974 by Harcourt Brace &amp; Company.</p> <p><sup>9</sup> Sandretto Re Rebaudengo, P. (2014), “L’importanza di essere contemporanei”, <em>Arte contemporanea: turismo e distretti culturali fra politiche pubbliche ed energie,</em> <em>Convegno per la presentazione del nuovo comitato italiano delle fondazioni</em>, Fondazione Sandretto Re Rebaudengo, Torino,&nbsp;23 settembre 2014.</p> <p><sup>10</sup> Purini, F. (2007), in Cervellini, F. and Partenope, R. (Eds.), <em>Una lezione sul disegno</em>, Gangemi Editore, Roma.</p> <p><sup>11</sup>For this and other related concepts, see: Salvi, R. (2016), <em>Dentro l’edificio. Brevi considerazioni sull’architettura d’interni</em>, Franco Angeli, Milano.</p> <p><sup>12</sup> Ponti, G. (1957), <em>In praise of architecture</em>, Translated by Giuseppina and Mario Salvadori, Preface by Mario Salvadori, F. W. Dodge Corporation,New York 1960, p. 79.</p> <p><sup>13</sup> Broch, H. (2016), <em>La morte di Virgilio</em>, Feltrinelli, Milano.</p> 2020-10-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Emilio Faroldi Time and Architecture 2020-12-21T20:12:37+00:00 Massimo Lauria Riccardo Pollo <p>In the Italian language, the term “tempo” (literally time) is a word of daily use to which we attribute many meanings.</p> <p>It can signify a chronological dimension between past, present and future, an epoch or a period, a phase of an action, as well as the weather and its change. In philosophical and scientific thought, it was the becoming, the before and after of each moment, the unchanging and uniform time of Galilean and Newton’s physics, the variability of existential states or the memory of a primeval condition.</p> <p>As the physicist and essayist Carlo Rovelli states, time «is perhaps the greatest mystery» (Rovelli, 2017). The journalist Federico Rampini recalls an ancient Afghan proverb «you have the clocks, we have the time», reflects on its value dimension, different from the attitude of western culture to measure this dimension, to attribute meanings according to its precise accounting (Rampini, 2013).</p> <p>The contemporary age thus stimulates reflections on the comparison between different visions of time, from the linear ones, typical of modernity and the industrial age, to the “timeless” phenomena of quantum physics, where only relationships count, up to measures of different types like the succession of the cycles of nature and human generations.</p> <p>In its various meanings, time is a fundamental factor of forecasting, of the future and, therefore, of every project, in the meaning of its Latin etymon <em>projectus,</em> which is the action of becoming and projecting forward.</p> <p>In the relationship with the project, artistic practices therefore imply a very close link with the temporal dimension. Among these, the architecture that «claims that share of aspiration to eternity that lies in the very foundation of the idea of humanity» (Gregotti, 1997).</p> <p>Time and architecture are therefore terms of a powerful dichotomy that considers architecture works and their duration together; their permanence and changes in form and image; their conservation according to the social, productive and urban transformations of the city and landscape.</p> <p>Time in the city is, and has always been, relative. The monuments and old towns have a centuries-old history, the political discussions and dynamics that govern the projects are asynchronous, empty and inconsistent anticipatory announcements of promised architectural works, perennial delays in implementation. Celebrations and festivities live ephemeral seasons, the installations are, by definition, temporary. The speed of transportation and instant communication tools coexists with the slow time of the man who walks and with the real-time processes of the smart city. The time of unfinished works is interrupted. In recent days, humanity has experienced a new dimension of time, that of the pandemic. A time that we perceived suspended and widened. Inversely proportional to the contraction of space that has suddenly become insufficient due to the confinement at home and to sharing living and working in a single environment.</p> <p>An unmeasurable event – the pandemic – invisible, of which we do not know and cannot imagine its boundaries, another “hyper object”, as Timothy Morton could define it, like <em>Global Warming</em> and <em>Nuclear Holocaust</em> (Morton, 2013).</p> <p>The new scenario cannot fail to be a topic of reflection, as well as a dramatic break in the biography of the living. Many of the changes taking place were already present, or at least they were in Western culture: smart working, telemedicine, distance education, sociality no longer experienced in physical contact but through social media.</p> <p>All different phenomena investigated by many and often referred to as the ability of technology to make them possible in accordance with man’s boundless confidence in governing his relationship with the environment. The eruption of this planetary phenomenon also linked and favoured – but probably not determined – by technology, therefore pushes us to observe reality in a different way. And although the authors of the Dossier have not been allowed to explicitly address an issue, the pandemic that is not yet manifest but perhaps already immanent to the environmental theme, it is certain that these latter events seem to strengthen the relationship of connection space-time, and of these two entities, with architecture and more generally with nature.</p> <p>In the past, these relationships were fulfilled and evolved through the succeeding alternation of generations. The ancient city centuries-old construction sites were built with the contribution of the entire community, which then proudly displayed its ancestry, memberships and social goals. The architecture was the synthesis of a complex process that allowed its construction by workers, custodians of knowledge of local techniques and materials, their processing and conservation. The collective enjoyment of historic buildings was a prerequisite for their durability and compatibility between urban transformations, needs of civil society and representative functions of architecture. On the other hand, the buildings’ construction has always required long times. Incomparably longer, however, has always been the time necessary for them to give rise to a place, become part of the city, be accepted by the inhabitants.</p> <p>Time, when referring to architecture, evokes and therefore naturally combines with the idea of transformation and the action of construction. But also, with regard to this aspect, there are differences between the present and the past, when designers often did not see their most ambitious works completed. Palladio never saw one of his buildings completed. The Sagrada Familia, symbol of the city of Barcelona and whose construction began in 1882, is still being completed today after having accompanied the life of its designer, Antoni Gaudi.</p> <p>The case of the Spanish basilica demonstrates how the history of the time-architecture relationship does not follow linear patterns and successions between design, construction and use, showing the paradox of a building that is a symbol of a city, enjoyed by millions of visitors but not yet completed; a unique architectural work that is still in construction and under restoration, studied by the disciplines of engineering and architecture.</p> <p>The natural course of time appears so upset: past, present, future coexist and chase each other in a circular succession of events that confirm the intuition, present in the expression widespread among architectural technology scholars, of Valerio Di Battista at the end of the last century, of «project of the existing» (Di Battista, 1992). Principle according to which a linear and unidirectional temporal succession can no longer be associated with the “life” of an architecture. At the same time as the metabolization of these theories, other terminologies brought to the general attention further questions on the time concept: that of techniques (Nardi, 1990), their appropriateness (Gangemi, 1988), recovery (Caterina, 1989), building maintenance (Molinari, 1989). An evolutionary process that took place, first through the conscious definition of the characters of the new complexity connected to the theme of the intervention on the existing building stock, prefiguring as a priority the search for knowledge tools and suitable intervention methods. In the following decades the meanings of terms such as conservation, reuse and requalification have been declined according to the significance that the technical-scientific lexicon still adopts in the present. In this perspective, time faded in its boundaries and is no longer uniform but a generator of sequences and cyclic modification processes.</p> <p>In one of his last writings, Vittorio Gregotti, quoted here because of a heartfelt tribute to a protagonist of 20th century architecture, says that past, present and future take on meaning as «material of the architectural project», like space, context and function (Gregotti, 2020).</p> <p>His interpretation of time is therefore that of one of the “structural materials” that the project shapes. Time, place and space represent an opportunity for the present to confront a poetic, disciplinary and civil past. What many researchers and intellectuals – Ruskin, Riegl, Yourcenar – have referred to as true “beauty”.</p> <p>In the contemporary urban environment, on the contrary, time seems to have lost these dimensions and values, just as the civic sense that supported the most important works seems to be lacking. Buildings completed with the rapidity of industrial processes are placed with indifference in the city, contradicting the dialogue between “conservation” and “transformation” typical of the historic town. Such historic contexts, where well preserved, seem to show organicity, compatibility with the environment, evoking in definitive the abused but powerful concept of sustainability as well as the most current one of resilience.</p> <p>The extension of the construction time phases has changed compared to a more static and slower past, becoming pressing and close, functional to programmed lifetimes, linked to the solution of contingent problems and short-term financial goals.</p> <p>According to Salvatore Settis, contemporary urban transformations are to a large extent subject to negotiation between public authorities on the one hand, and area owners, investors and property developers on the other. So, the uncontrolled expansions of the city or even certain regenerations of dismissed and abandoned places are the result of economic or financial calculations, rather than architectural works (Settis, 2017).</p> <p>Logics are therefore too often dictated by short-term economic visions, inconsistent with the times of the social and cultural construction of the city. The short durations and the frenetic constructions in fact often escape the control of the project and are “suffered” by the city. Construction sites are subject to slowdowns, accelerations and abrupt interruptions creating new urban landscapes dotted with contemporary ruins, new simulacra dedicated to ambition, to bad political programming, to technical incapacity, in some cases to malfeasance. “Birth”, “life” and “death” of a building wear out, sometimes, quickly and unreasonably.</p> <p>In this way, an important domain is set up which contemporary architectural production faces by considering in dialectical terms the need to implement, right from the initial stages of the design process, strategies inspired by the permanence of architectural works and temporary-oriented options. The first are linked to the traditional concept of the durable building, whereas the latter consider it an artifact of limited and programmable duration, rapidly obsolete, ephemeral and consumable. In this dialectic, absolutely central issues are involved in the disciplinary debate concerning the governance of anthropic transformations of the built environment, from economic and sociological issues, to the need for a correct environmental balance, overcoming mere financial goals. This concept is well described by the French word “durable”, synonymous with sustainable. A dialectic, however, of marginal significance, according to Francois Burkhardt, who says «it seems to me that neither is realistic, since one dreams of a past that is future and the other a future without a past» (Burkhardt, 1997).In this scenario with boundaries as wide as uncertain, in inviting researchers from different fields, from architecture, to technology, to philosophy to express their point of view on the theme, the expedient of proposing them, such as starting point, some quotes from the literature were followed.</p> <p>These trace a sort of logical common thread that moves from the historicity of the object and the architectural project (Lewis Mumford and Aldo Rossi), to the relationship between the designer’s thought, permanence and aesthetic value of the architectural artifact (Rafael Moneo, Giò Ponti), to its transformation by nature and society (Marc Augè), to end its relationship with the environment and the climate (Jeremy Rifkin).</p> <p>The authors, as expected, betrayed and, at the same time, supported that schedule, introducing highly topical themes and profound representations. The multifaceted aspects of time, different and variable in individual perception and physical reality, are intertwined with biographical paths, with disciplinary training, with the events of society, with the narratives of culture and with the relationship between man, nature and artifacts.</p> <p>Through the magnifying glass of time, an unprecedented comparison between the different disciplines and architecture has resulted. Philosophy, history, environmental physics, technology, as systematized methods of knowledge of nature, of thought and of acting in it, have always looked at architecture as art and as a practice. This relationship is also true in the opposite direction, from architecture to forms of knowledge of the world and society, without which the discipline and its practices would not exist.</p> <p>In architecture as an artistic and material expression though, that of culture that makes us feel contemporaries of the ancients, and nature, which inevitably marks the birth and death of objects and living things, as well as people, meet and interpenetrate.</p> <p>Moving between the loops of this ambiguous relationship, Ettore Rocca claims that the architectural project becomes «supreme human manipulation of nature» which, when completed, «becomes nature, is delivered in the time of nature». Art and culture are man’s time. The time of nature is indifferent, it is birth and death. Architecture is both the time of man and the time of nature, which also decays, dies and, like all matter, is regenerated.</p> <p>A vision that seems to allude to the reflections and elaborations typical of the technological culture of design, which connects the project, as an intentional act, but with not obvious and uncertain results, to the time of nature which, in turn, transforms and corrupts the material of the building. In this way we can interpret the quotation in his essay “Architecture should become a detail of the Earth” (Hiroshi Sambuichi) as a vision of the relationship between time and architecture.</p> <p>In a historical perspective, such as that suggested by Stefano Della Torre, the city is a living material of men and artifacts. The Mumfordian metaphor of the “mold” can therefore be interpreted, outside of determinisms no longer acceptable, in a dynamic meaning in which history, culture and matter find relationships outside of ideological visions that enhance parts, or eras, at the expense of others.</p> <p>Invoked by Sergio Croce, the concepts of resilience, adaptation, mitigation inform the theories and tools of environmental design. The response to changes and catastrophes through social and technical reorganization is the new needs reference framework of the contemporary architecture project. Adaptation is the condition in which the natural and artificial worlds find themselves to avoid trauma and extinctions, mitigation, the set of technical and conceptual tools that intervene to govern complexity towards favourable and shared outcomes.</p> <p>In a conscious contemporary vision, environment and health are collective and no longer individual goods. The fragility of individuals and communities, underlined by Teodoro Georgiadis, is combined with that of nature and it is no longer conceivable to separate the environment from society, the living from humans, the communities among each other. Universalism aimed at continuous progress, as well as the localism that feeds conflicts, must make place for the consciousness of being “terrestrial”, as Bruno Latour argues, capable at the same time of «imagining under what conditions the world, in age of globalization, can be made habitable – and other adjectives that have become important for the contemporary age: sustainable, durable, breathable, liveable» (Latour, 2009).</p> <p>Time acquires a biographical dimension between architecture, research and teaching in Lorenzo Matteoli’s vision. The architectural project is strongly linked to the experience and culture that are projected in acting and ideation. «Where do the ideas come from» is the question that arises with the student mentioned in his essay, highlighting the association between “time” and “ideas” as a possible place for some answers. Ideas come from us, from our mind immersed in the world. In the neuroscientific perspective of the embodied mind, as Pallasmaa states, it is the “thinking hand”, it is the body, with the mind, that designs. Experience, perception and action are not distinct, but inextricably united. The transition from the experiential dimension of the architect to the interconnection with the world of objects and living, according to Tim Ingold’s vision, closes the circle of reflection. The project, an elusive entity is, therefore, increasingly distant from being an abstract idea, which precedes the making, the construction of the object. Construction and design appear increasingly social rather than individual, thus recalling the vision of Marc Augè who inspired the contribution.</p> <p>Finally, starting from Aldo Rossi’s acknowledgment of the permanence of the built, as an objective element of the knowledge of the city and its existential and cultural dimensions, Lorenzo Bellicini contextualizes time in urban reality, in its development and in the social and institutional dynamics that regulate it. Dynamics that often led to pathological results in which the absence of a unified project and the lack of sharing of forward-looking visions by the actors of the construction process led to the at least partial failure of urban planning ideals. From these reflections one could derive the need for a holistic project of the city, its redevelopment or expansion, according to the contexts, capable of responding to the need, this time truly collective, of a healthy city. Thinking about the times of the city thus becomes an instrument to correct the dysfunctions, even temporal, of its structure today, between the past and the future. A renewed, but essential, urban project requires adequate implementation times and certain rules for sharing choices, not marred by vetoes and administrative inefficiency.</p> <p>In closing it could be said with Carlo Rovelli, that “absolute” time does not exist, or rather it is an intellectual construction, it is not a fixed and predetermined entity, but linked to experience, to changes in the life of objects and living, to their relationships, to their physical, atomic and existential nature. At the same time, in a homologous way, the architectural project is not, even in an updated anthropological perspective, separated from the material, but united in a continuum that links society, culture, operators, and nature in a single system.</p> <p>This vision is particularly needed in this moment in which the living relate in ways that dramatically escape the logic of domination that has characterized what we have considered the development of human societies for some centuries: a relatively short time if you think about the history of genus sapiens.</p> <p>A separation between project and product, idea and realization, technique and technology, between digital culture and the new dimensions of the <em>infosphere</em> is no longer conceivable (Floridi, 2014). In the same way, we cannot think of the separation between health and economy, between the world of men and biosphere, between nature and built environment.</p> <p>The world of objects, animated or not, cannot be separated from society, just as architecture is not solely to conceive an abstract idea but extends over time of construction and interactions with the environment.</p> <p>Design and construction are intertwined with the lives of people, societies, cities and nature. And it is precisely this multifaceted nature that makes the considerations that follow productive confrontation opportunities for the practice of architecture and for the reflections around it.</p> 2020-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Massimo Lauria, Riccardo Pollo Architecture: from time of mind to time of nature 2020-12-21T20:13:38+00:00 Ettore Rocca <p><em>«</em>To judge Architecture, add time to the elements of judgment<em>» </em>(Ponti, 1957).</p> <p>In this article, I deal with two conceptions of time. The first is the time of human mind, i.e. the time of human thinking, acting, imagining and producing. It is the time of the history of civilizations: a stratified time that increases itself. This time is spatially accumulated in cities, where there is a layer of historical civilizations on top of the other. It is also the time of memory and historical narrative; it could be the history of literature, of architecture, of economics or of science.</p> <p>The second conception of time is the time of nature; here there is no accumulation, but continuous flow, transformation, substitution of everything with everything. It is the time of birth and death, as if it were a theatrical stage where figures enter and leave. Finally, it is the time of the body, of our body, that is born, grows, decays and dies, leaving room for other bodies.</p> <p>These two temporalities conflict. Every human generation, indeed, every single human life, seeks a balance in this conflict. We try to confer a meaningful and human temporality onto the temporality that natural events grant us. We try to imagine and produce objects that develop, and if possible, improve what we have inherited, and then entrust them to those who come next. The dynamics of culture survive individual lives. The works of Cézanne, Van Gogh, O’Keeffe, Bourgeois enter the narrative of the history of painting and survive their authors. When we elect World Heritage Sites, we order them so that they can tell the time of human thinking and acting. Natural sites also become part of human time, simply because they are recognized, chosen and preserved by a specific generation. However, everything we imagine or do, as individuals, as generations, as a society, is ultimately entrusted to the time of nature, that time in which we can date the formation of the solar system and its future destruction, that time of which history of human thinking and acting is a very short chapter. On the other hand, human activity always tries to humanize the time of nature, to inscribe it, in an extreme attempt, in human time.</p> <p>I cite only two examples, more or less known. The first one is the lyric <em>Damnation</em> by Giuseppe Ungaretti (1916): «Closed between mortal things / (Even the starry sky will end) / Why do I crave God? » (Ungaretti, 1942). Ungaretti portrays natural time in just two verses but encloses them between the title of the lyric and the last verse, which instead refer to the time of human thinking and imagining. «Damnation» is the human way of naming (and protesting against) the time of nature, just as the aspiration to God and to salvation is part of human time. Eschatological time, that is, both the time of damnation and that of salvation, is part of the human spiritual time. The second example is the lyric <em>Naenia</em> by Friedrich Schiller (1799), who opens with the words without appeal: «Even the beauteous must die!», And ends with the two verses: «Even a woe-song to be in the mouth of the loved ones is glorious, / For what is vulgar descends mutely to Orcus’ dark shades» (Schiller, 1799)<sup>1</sup>.</p> <p>Although the beauty that unfolds in human temporality is subjected to the time of nature, the human being can nevertheless <em>say</em> this in a <em>Klagelied</em>, in a woe-song, which in turn aspires to beauty and thus restores again, with a last attempt, the time of human mind.</p> <p>All kinds of art try to bring the time of nature back to the time of mind. In a short essay entitled “The ruin” (1907), the German philosopher Georg Simmel expresses this point as follows: «In poetry, painting, music, the <em>laws governing the materials</em> must be made dumbly submissive to the artistic conception which, in the accomplished work, wholly and invisibly absorbs them» (Simmel, 1907)<sup>2</sup>.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>The law of the time of nature is subjected to the creative law of human time. However, this does not seem to me to happen only in the fine arts, but also in technological and scientific research. The development of a new material, a molecule or a vaccine are also examples of human manipulation of a matter that is brought back to human purposes and thus incorporated in the time of human thinking and acting.</p> <p>Nevertheless, within the archipelago of the human arts, as for the interrelation between time of nature and time of mind, the role of architecture is different from all the other arts. As Simmel puts it: «Architecture is the only art in which the great struggle between the will of the spirit and the necessity of nature issues into real peace: that in which the soul in its upward striving and nature in its gravity are held in balance» (Simmel, 1907)<sup>3</sup>. This perfect equation between human mind and nature – and between temporality of nature and temporality of mind – is achieved thanks to what can be interpreted as a cunning of human thinking and acting: <em>«</em>Although architecture, too, uses and distributes the weight and carrying power of matter according to a plan conceivable only in the human soul, within this plan the matter works by means of its own nature – carrying this plan out, as it were, with its own forces. This is the most sublime victory of the spirit over nature – a situation like the one we obtain when we know how to guide a person so that he realizes our will through his own. His will has not been overpowered; rather, the very tendency of his own nature is made to execute our plan» (Simmel, 1907)<sup>4</sup>. By means of these sentences, we understand why a couple of decades earlier Friedrich Nietzsche had affirmed that architecture is the supreme art and the supreme expression of artistic intoxication and of the will to power (Rocca, 2008). Not because architecture is a more beautiful art than the others, but because more than any other it is capable of taming, harnessing, manipulating (in any sense, even pejorative, of the term) the forces of nature. Architecture is the most sublime victory of the spirit over nature, Simmel echoes.</p> <p>According to Simmel, the breakdown of the perfect balance between human mind and nature occurs when the building begins to go to ruin: <em>«</em>This unique balance – between mechanical, inert matter which passively resists pressure, and informing spirituality which pushes upward – breaks, however, the instant a building crumbles. For this means nothing else than that merely natural forces begin to become master over the work of man: the equation between nature and spirit, which the building manifested, shifts in favour of nature» (Simmel, 1907)<sup>5</sup>.</p> <p>In the ruin, the time of nature regains possession of human time. If before it was human activity that gave shape to natural matter, in the ruin the relationship is reversed: «Nature has transformed the work of art into material for her own expression, as she had previously served as material for art» (Simmel, 1907)<sup>6</sup>.</p> <p>However, Simmel’s reflection must be radicalized. We must not wait for the stage of ruin to observe that in architecture the time of nature takes possession of human time. The stage of ruin makes perceptible something that had already happened when the building was realized. According to Simmel’s thesis, the architectural project succeeds in making nature fully realize human will, as if it were the will of nature. Indeed, <em>as if</em> it were the will of nature. This means that, paradoxically, what <em>appears</em> is nothing other than the will of nature. The victory of human thinking and acting immediately is reversed into its opposite. In the Hegelian dialectic of the master and the servant, the servant ends as master of the master he had had to serve (Hegel, 1807). In the same way, once realized, the architectural project – the supreme human manipulation of nature – <em>becomes nature, is delivered to the time of nature</em>: almost as if it were a reversed fairy tale in which, in the end, the natural monster is not transformed into a prince, but the prince is transformed into a natural monster. The architect believes that he or she can manipulate nature by bending it to his or her own will, but in the end, it is the architect’s work that does the will of nature. For architecture, it is not necessary to wait for the stage of ruin to become nature; at the same time as the project becomes a built reality, it is ruined, becomes a ruin. In other words, from its very beginning the building is completely inscribed, without rest, in nature and in its temporality.</p> <p>For this reason, the first principle of architecture is for Vitruvius “firmness” <em>(firmitas),</em> and for Leon Battista Alberti “necessity” <em>(necessitas).</em> This means that architecture was born to last (it does not matter how long, it can be centuries or a decade), therefore it was born as a submission to nature, and as a submission to the time of nature. If architecture does not recognize this point, it betrays its task, its vocation. So when architecture puts sustainability, resilience or climate change at the centre of its attention, as has happened in the last two decades, this means nothing more than that architecture is finally understanding what it has always been: human power that becomes nature, time of mind that becomes time of nature.</p> <p>Architecture is the most natural of the arts; it is the most inhuman of the arts, whether we want it or not, whether we recognize it or not. The natural turn of architecture can only mean recognizing what architecture has always been, namely a project that becomes nature, human temporality that becomes natural temporality.</p> <p>To this we can add two references, the first to the fifteenth century, the second to contemporaneity. That the building is like an animal body is an issue repeated over and over again in Alberti’s <em>De re aedificatoria</em> (Alberti, 1485). It may seem a nice metaphor referring to the holistic character of the body, which is also present in the building. However, following the line of thought briefly developed above, the similarity between body and building takes on a much greater importance. The body represents the time of nature in us. In the course of our lives, we ourselves are that equation, more or less exact, between gravity and inertia of the body, on the one hand, and formative force of the mind, on the other. In ourselves, the two temporalities are opposed daily and must be balanced again and again. Our works and actions – and the consequences of them – survive us (and therefore enter the time of human history), but our living body is inscribed in natural time. What I do gives spiritual form to the physical energies of my body, but illness and finally death bring my actions and works back to the brutal form of the time of nature. In this sense, the building is a body exactly like my body. It will produce cultural consequences (social, economic, aesthetic) on the human beings who live it, but as such it is a body inscribed, for better or for worse, in the time of nature. Moreover, for Alberti, the ultimate goal of architecture is to reconstruct «the absolute and fundamental rule in Nature» (Alberti, 1485)<sup>7</sup> and apply it to the building.</p> <p>Nothing would seem as distant from the Italian Renaissance as contemporary Japan. Yet, there is a line that connects Alberti’s reflection on the building as a body to Hiroshi Sambuichi’s statement that «architecture should become one detail of the Earth» (Sambuichi, 2017). The internal balance that governs a body, in which Alberti was interested, expands in Sambuichi to the body within the forces of nature in their entirety: <em>«</em>If the building shall survive for many years, if it shall exist a long time and thrive like a plant, it should be like a plant, which is adjusted to the air, wind, and sun. Architecture should be a very small part of the Earth’s circulation and function. It should absorb the sun, make photosynthesis, eject oxygen – and finally inhale CO<sub>2</sub> to clean the air. We should make architecture that becomes one with the Earth’s cycle. [...] As the forest is a detail of the Earth, architecture and cities should be like these forests. [...] If new and young architects would think like that, the architecture in about one or two hundred years will grow like forests and become beautiful cities» (Sambuichi, 2017). In his projects (Sambuichi, 2016), Sambuichi affirms he wants to bring water, sun and wind to manifest themselves. For example, in the Inujima Seirensho Art Museum (2008), Sambuichi uses the ruins of a copper factory by combining them with what he calls the energies of «moving materials» such as water, light, and wind. The ruin, i.e. the old chimney, however, does not remain a relic, but actively becomes part of the museum’s energy cycle. Ruin enters the natural time of death and rebirth, so that finally the crumbling building cannot even be called ruin. In his renovation of the Oziruzu Tower in Hiroshima (2016), Sambuichi establishes an almost intimate relationship with the ruin. Here the ruin is one of the most painfully symbolic of humanity: the so-called Atomic Bomb Dome, the skeleton of a building not far from the epicentre where the atomic bomb exploded in 1945. In designing a new roof for the tower, Sambuichi almost makes a temple of the wind, he calls it «a hill for the wind», that wind that allowed Hiroshima’s nature to be reborn. In designing it, says Sambuichi, «I thought of the power of nature to take care of the landscape» (Sambuichi, 2017). Even the tragedy of destructive human violence is thus inscribed in the cosmic time of nature.</p> <p>The more the architectural project is aware of the relationship between building and the time of nature, the better it will be able to think of building in the temporality of human thinking and acting. The first point is a presupposition of the second, not the other way around. If I consider the ruin as an accident that happens at some point in the life of the building, I can only do bad projects. In other words, if I consider the time of nature as an accident in the human history of the building, I will distort the task of architecture and its place among the arts. If, on the contrary, I understand that the ruin names the very essence of the building – as it names the belonging of the building to the time of nature – only then will I have the prerequisite to appreciate, for example, its aesthetic value. Furthermore, only by understanding that the building is born already as a ruin will I be able to imagine the possibility of rebirth, will I be able to understand that the building is always a body in ruins and a body that can flourish again.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>We cannot understand the human time of building unless we inscribe it in natural time. And yet, paradoxically, this understanding is one of most genuine acts of the human mind.</p> <p>NOTES</p> <p><sup>1</sup> «Auch das Schöne muß sterben! […] Auch ein Klagelied zu sein im Mund der Geliebten ist herrlich; / Denn das Gemeine geht klanglos zum Orkus hinab».</p> <p><sup>2</sup> «Die <em>Eigengesetzlichkeit des Materials</em> in der Poesie, Malerei, Musik muß dem künstlerischen Gedanken stumm dienen, er hat in dem vollendeten Werk den Stoff in sich eingesogen, ihn wie unsichtbar gemacht».<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><sup>3</sup> «Der große Kampf zwischen dem Willen des Geistes und der Notwendigkeit der Natur ist zu einem wirklichen Frieden, die Abrechnung zwischen der nach oben strebenden Seele und der nach unten strebenden Schwere zu einer genauen Gleichung nur in einer einzigen Kunst gekommen: in der Baukunst».</p> <p><sup>4</sup> «Die Baukunst aber benutzt und verteilt zwar die Schwere und die Tragkraft der Materie nach einem nur in der Seele möglichen Plane, allein innerhalb dieses wirkt der Stoff mit seinem unmittelbaren Wesen, er führt gleichsam jenen Plan mit seinen eigenen Kräften aus. Es ist der sublimste Sieg des Geistes über die Natur – wie wenn man einem Menschen so zu leiten versteht, daß unser Wollen von ihm nicht unter Überwältigung seines eigenen Willens, sondern durch diesen selbst realisiert wird, daß die Richtung seiner Eigengesetzlichkeit unsern Plan trägt».</p> <p><sup>5</sup> «Diese einzigartige Balance zwischen der mechanischen, lastenden, dem Druck passiv widerstrebenden Materie und der formenden, aufwärts drängenden Geistigkeit zerbricht aber in dem Augenblick, in dem das Gebäude verfällt. Denn dies bedeutet nichts anderes, als daß die bloß natürlichen Kräfte über das Menschenwerk Herr zu werden beginnen: die Gleichung zwischen Natur und Geist, die das Bauwerk darstellte, verschiebt sich zugunsten der Natur».</p> <p><sup>6</sup> «Die Natur hat das Kunstwerk zum Material ihrer Formung gemacht, wie vorher die Kunst sich der Natur als ihres Stoffes bedient hatte».</p> <p><sup>7 </sup>«[…] absoluta primariaque ratio naturae».</p> 2020-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ettore Rocca Cities are a product of time 2020-12-21T20:14:33+00:00 Stefano Della Torre <p>«Cities are a product of time. They are the moulds in which men’s lifetimes have cooled and congealed» (Munford, 1938).</p> <p>This Munford’s sentence, divided in two short phrases linked to each other, puts Time at the centre of the reflections on the city. I deem it is quite legitimate and consistent with the kind invitation to comment, although maybe unforeseen to transfer this reflection from the topic of the city to architecture meant at all levels.</p> <p>The main reason of interest of the sentence can be found in the tight relationship that summing up the two phrases Munford establishes between Time and <em>«</em>men’s lifetimes»: put otherwise, between Time and the users, but also the soul of cities, and of architecture as well (Munford, 1938).</p> <p>Actually, the two parts of the sentence may even seem contradictory. In the second phrase, Munford uses an intriguing metaphor, that is city as a mould, the matrix that gives shape to men’s lives, because it builds limits and directs their attitudes. Men’s lifetimes, obviously in previous eras, in this mould took their shapes and apparently by their solidifying became something tangible, and a somehow monumental presence, as we are going to see. The idea of a mould evokes something definitely solid and complete, a concrete and almost nondeformable reference system.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>If one reads only the second period, it would be possible to think that the shape given as the city was planned got the power to condition and rule the human activities. Undoubtedly, living in some urban environments designed by the architect with strong authorship (I am thinking of the Bicocca quarter in Milan) could produce alienation and depression. But according to Munford the city is produced by life itself, as time goes on. This idea that time can “produce” may sound amazing. In Greek mythology, that is in the basic foundation of Western thinking, Chronos was born as the god of seasons and fertility of agricultural cycles, but then became the one who eats his own children, the <em>«</em>all-subduing Time» (Simonides of Ceos) that threats memory.</p> <p>Nevertheless, writing this sentence Munford imagines a time that works positively, building and strengthening. This time is not even the mighty sculptor described by Marguerite Yourcenar, which ultimately seems more the power of the nature that carves, marks, sculpts <em>«</em>by taking away». (Yourcenar, 2005).</p> <p>Instead, Munford’s time rather works by addition, shape, models, casts, giving durable substance to men’s lifetime. Therefore, the shaping action of urban space works through a becoming, which thanks to the interaction between the urban structure and the life builds the city that human beings, the future citizens, will experience. Summing up, if the city is a product of time, the city, the mould itself, is born by becoming, and its shaping action has nothing deterministic. Indeed, if one goes on reading that page of “The culture of cities” it becomes clear that men’s lifetimes get their durable shape through art, generating moments which can be involving and long-lasting, but also renewable. In the city, time becomes visible: buildings and monuments engage many persons but above all, times stratify, clash, challenge each other until <em>«</em>modern man invents the museum» as a tool for order and apparently also for freedom from the burden of history.</p> <p>From Munford’s sentence, extracted from a seminal book, which inspired many of ours (including me), an important lesson can still be learnt, but today it is also possible to take some distance. The lesson I deem forever timely is about understanding the city as where the footprints of age, of several ages, stratify, challenge each other and clash. These dynamics are exactly what gives the city its character, exactly as a place is a city as it is open to the stranger, not suspiciously closed. Its openness makes the city where innovation happens; its density of memories makes the city an inspiring location.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>In this perspective, on the basis of this understanding of the idea of city, the famous and often cited aphorism by Kark Kraus, saying that the great historic Vienna was once new, reveals all its brilliant vacuity: the process through which Vindobona’s urban plan became real took some time, and before the streets and parcels scheme could perform as a “mould”, the power of time already changed the plan into an experienced and alive reality; time’s shaping action in Munford’s sense had already been exercised, maybe even time’s sculpting action in Yourcenar’s sense already happened.</p> <p>One of the most enlightening games, whilst studying cities with ancient layouts, is exactly to go beyond the first recognition of the planned scheme, to detect old exceptions, the curved paths that signify the occupancy of previous voids or the privatization of large public structures. From these analyses, the city comes out as a product of <em>«</em>the great hope of an organic becoming», as Gianfranco Caniggia would say; a product of a typological process, in which spatial, cultural, juridical, economic relationships produce the configuration of the space and the construction of the whole and its parts.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>(Caniggia, 1992).</p> <p>Thus understood, the physical structure of the city cannot be divided from the collective action of the citizens and their presence. The city is something that cannot be reduced to its form, it is built up by unforeseen human gestures, as well as by the presence of human beings. By the way, I’d like to take, from Italo Calvino’s Invisible Cities, the case of Bauci (Calvino, 1972), built on pileworks so that inhabitants could stay <em>«</em>contemplating with fascination their own absence». In my opinion, a warning on the absurdity of the city empty and metaphysical, which photographers of (metaphysical) architecture love so much, but gives an odd idea of city, or at least an idea pretty far from the concept of the open and alive city that Munford preached to generations, since 1938 till today.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>Including users among the determinant factors of the urban scene is a crucial step, which taking some risk we can transfer from the urban to the architectural scale. Vitality, openness, dynamics, change: these are the keywords consistent with thinking cities as a product of time, appreciating their imperfection. Avoiding to give into the temptation to discuss the concept itself of time, the reasoning we are developing clearly evoke a quote by a popular scientist as Ilya Prigogine, who took the city as a metaphor opposed to the crystal, in order to explain some aspects of his vision, usually cited as <em>«</em>from Being to Becoming» (Prigogine, 1986).</p> <p>The disordered and productive vitality of the city is opposed to the determinism of the crystal: beautiful, immutable in its isomorphism, ready for a shooting session for a photographer specialized in still-life, or (metaphysical) architecture. The crystal is not affected by time and does not promise anything more than its own perfection. When Giò Ponti asked to love architecture saying that <em>«</em>architecture is a crystal», he was not laying, he was asserting a poetics, the vision of an architecture allergic to imperfection and change (Ponti, 1957).</p> <p>Here the change of scale is ambitious, but significant. Thinking the city as a place to live is easier, to give up thinking architecture as something to be forever conserved as brand new, made to challenge time and not to grow with it.</p> <p>Yet even the building gets substance by memories through time, by layered signs, by an evolving and growing sense of place. To think buildings as crystals turns into a limit, thinking them as cities opens to many opportunities, also for their future transformations, for a creative reuse, for a conservation not to be reduced to embalming or freezing.</p> <p>Going back to Munford’s metaphor, in Ponti’s and many others’ vision the mould is what matters, men’s lifetimes, because of their own creativity risk to impair the given perfection. The overlapping of many layers or periods makes conflicts, such as even according to Munford’s it turns into an insufferable burden: the excess of life and memory would become a threat for life itself, if a part of the memory would not be made harmless by closing it into the museum. As Munford says: <em>«</em>then, in sheer defence, modern man invents the museum». Modestly speaking, I am afraid I know directly and in detail several municipal museums, in various towns and cities, full of relics of old quarters demolished by the 19th and 20th century urban renewal. Museums for consolation, born to make illusion about conservation, pretending to keep alive through few selected exhibits the memory of much more complex stories. Or archaeological museums, which all around the Mediterranean Sea by some findings randomly gathered give the excuse to real estate speculative operations in protected areas.</p> <p>Therefore, I am not available to accept, not even in Munford’s book, the good old common sense, which supports sentences, such as <em>«</em>remembering everything, one goes crazy», or <em>«</em>conserving everything, it’s like getting plastered». Considering the footprints of the past, conserving them, doesn’t at all mean freezing the status quo: it means managing change in an open and farsighted way. In reality, the frequent conflicts between innovation and protection of heritage tend to vanish, if the past is understood with care and curiosity, and the new is evaluated on the long term and not on ephemeral needs. Most of the urban transformations we have witnessed proved to be inadequate after few decades, making everybody regret the demolition of what got lost or just represented in the museum. And I am not speaking of romantic nostalgia, but of serious evaluations of economic convenience. Lessons to be learnt, to free ourselves not from memories, but from common sense, which is the true insufferable straitjacket.</p> <p>Stepping again to the architectural scale, how many times did the approach to existing buildings have the target of reordering reality steering it to perfection? Well, if architecture as well is the product of time, if architecture as well becomes inspiring for life thanks to the layering in the lived spaces of the sings of so many periods, the capacity is needed to appreciate becoming and imperfection as values. It is mandatory to look elsewhere to find new metaphors: for instance, in natural history as Steven J. Gould told, and Telmo Pievani tells pointing out the signs of ongoing evolution as the promise of a future that will be determined not by the triumph of entropy, but by the progress of coevolution (Gould, 2012; Pievani, 2019).</p> 2020-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Stefano Della Torre Architecture and adaptation 2020-12-21T20:15:09+00:00 Sergio Croce <p>«The architectural work transcends the architect, goes beyond the moment in which its construction takes place, and therefore can be contemplated under the changing lights of history without its identity being lost with the passage of time» (Moneo, 1999).</p> <p>The relationship between the work of architecture and the conditions that stem from the passing of time, together with the ensuing changes, has always been subject of discussion. This debate has focused, in particular, on the safeguarding of the identity of architecture from a historical perspective and of modern architecture, in addition to the necessary cultural, procedural and technical tools.</p> <p>As of today, it appears this debate is not part of a conceptual backdrop in terms of the architectural project, even if the designer’s inspiration (more or less at the subconscious level) is fuelled by the idea that the work may have an indefinite duration.</p> <p>Moneo addresses the topic of the defining characteristics of today’s works of architecture and the conditions for their conservation. He holds that one can speak, within the realm of possibility, of a “timeless architecture”, provided that the architect sets this objective during the design phase and is willing to shoulder the responsibility that the building will lead a solitary life when it will no longer be under the architect’s sphere of influence. The architect therefore needs to put his or her full professionalism into play to secure conditions that prevent that the inspiration behind the project is altered once time passes.</p> <p>The architect notably draws attention to elements of design associated to flexibility, the multi-functionality of spaces and the necessary outer <em>compactness</em> of the building, understood as elements that contrast the obsolescence of identity.</p> <p>Moneo’s conceptual position should therefore inspire the same attention to design as other aspects that are just as crucial today and concern the physical and performance changes in the way buildings are constructed these days, elements that are gradually exacerbated by the incipient climate change as a result of <em>global warming</em>.</p> <p>The introduction of the time dimension in the architectural design of the concept of adaptation takes on a renewed importance today and constitutes an inescapable ethical and social objective that delivers added complexity to the project.</p> <p>Complexity is today’s paradigm and influences all sectors and disciplines: it touches upon the environmental, social, cultural and productive fields, not to mention, of course, its interaction with the architecture of buildings.</p> <p>In particular, themes such as sustainability, the reduction of the impact of buildings upon the environment, and the reduction of energy requirements have led to a steadily growing attention on design.</p> <p>For this reason, new materials, components, construction systems and new control procedures have appeared on the market at an unprecedented pace in recent years: novelties that have set a radical change in the world of executive design, that is, the architecture of construction.</p> <p>What is still missing is an approach, or, likewise, a radical strategy, that can guide and support projects and the world of construction in an effort to adapt to the effects of the now visible, yet gradual, climate change.</p> <p>One gets the impression that the technological attributes of projects revolve around fittings with a purely geometric coherence, pre-packaged solutions that are not necessarily consistent with one another, trendy technological gadgets or solutions based on individual experiences. All are certainly praiseworthy, perhaps slightly ideological, but nonetheless inspiring a sort of cultural and regulatory conformism.</p> <p>What emerges is a design method based on the notarial review of regulations according to a static vision of the building quality throughout time. Negatively paraphrasing Plato, here we have an immovable vision of eternity.</p> <p>Yet the availability of new technologies, scientific knowledge and simulation analysis tools offer the opportunity to conceptually overturn projects based more on the knowledge of the physics of buildings and their performance rather than the environmental alternatives.</p> <p>The conceptual foundation behind Moneo’s thinking, which essentially integrates the ability to adapt to the design objectives is therefore extremely topical given the expected rise in temperatures that is already under way and involves the entire construction sector.</p> <p>According to the moderate scenarios outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the global warming trend will gradually worsen in the Mediterranean basin. In 2050, the average temperature could increase up to 2 °C and could exceed 5 °C between 2050 and 2100 compared to the reference period 1961-1990.</p> <p>Summers, in particular, will frequently include intervals with temperatures up to 38°C caused by heat waves. This will only increase the energy demand for air conditioning units in buildings during the summer. Otherwise, heating will not be turned on as often and demand will drop.</p> <p>Already in 2016, the “National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change” report published by the Italian Ministry of the Environment emphasised Italy’s vulnerability to the risks triggered by extreme weather events.</p> <p>In 2017, the document was updated with targets linked to the strategic objectives of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.&nbsp;</p> <p>These included the need to promote experimental adaptation measures at the building and neighbourhood scale.</p> <p>This constitutes a strategic target for the upgrade of the current energy policy, now based on NZEB (nearly zero-energy buildings), towards climate-responsive buildings that minimise the use of air conditioning and further reduce the dependency on energy and minimise environmental impact.</p> <p>Focusing on the critical issues behind the climate emergency, these concern not only those matters related to the physical and performance-related obsolescence of elements and components of the building enclosure, but also – and above all – to the potential effect on living conditions and the social, health and economic-related issues pertaining to the fabricated setting.</p> <p>These measures need to be taken in coordination with policies connected to summer mitigation for urban living spaces by means of widespread reforestation based on blue-green techniques (Croce <em>et al.,</em> 2017) capable of maintaining the temperatures of the interior spaces within an acceptable, comfortable range, in an effort to reduce energy-intensive cooling systems (Frank, 2005).</p> <p>As will be discussed later, the current policy instead relies on installations and their incremental innovations to remedy future functional deficiencies in current construction systems, an approach that considerably increases energy requirements and exacerbates the environmental impact.</p> <p>This approach foreshadows a future energy-dependent, interior-based lifestyle, similar to the one seen in the Arab Emirates, where streets and squares are used to move by car and lack the cultural and social value at the basis of our traditions.&nbsp;</p> <p>Thirty years from now, that is, from now until 2050, would be a sufficient technical time to implement truly sustainable mitigation programmes.</p> <p>With regard to the aforementioned innovation trend on the technological support of architecture, it should be noted that, since the period of comparison with the environmental conditions that induce the physical obsolescence of the construction is limited, new technologies can feature intrinsic fragilities or aspects that have not been analysed during the design phase.</p> <p>This refers, for example, to the effects of wind: according to research on wind power stations based on international weather data, wind speeds are increasing, a positive development for these kind of power plants since they can actually produce more energy. Nevertheless, climate change will lead tropical cyclones and tornadoes, particularly in the Mediterranean.</p> <p>More intense wind will, for example, affect the structure of dry-mounted façade components, as well as the appearance or increase of rainwater infiltration due to the effects of wind.</p> <p>At the same time, higher temperatures could accelerate the weathering of thermoplastic materials and increase internal tension due to thermal expansion.</p> <p>From an experimental perspective, additional exposure to average and maximum temperatures, the average and maximum moisture and the heating and cooling rates require that the test methods currently used for ageing, including cyclical ageing, need to be updated.</p> <p>It is therefore important to start investigating new techniques and technologies that anticipate such events in a proactive manner, with adaptations that can be implemented in advance or be formulated on scheduled intervention thresholds by means of replacement upgrades or added performance, similarly to what is required by Directive (EU) 2018/844.</p> <p>The current Italian legislative and regulatory reports on energy conservation are centred on the efficiency of installations, indicating that the building has the exclusive function of controlling the incoming and outgoing thermal flows through the enclosure.</p> <p>This is a conservative approach based on over-insulating infill walls, high thermal resistance of windowed components, direct gains and the closed-window installation management of the hygrothermal environmental conditions inside the building.&nbsp;</p> <p>The approach is certainly consistent with the climate of central and northern Europe, where energy conservation is a persistent issue in winter; however, it is not particularly consistent with Italy’s climate, which features a more complex and diverse geography, where the summer period is generally considered the most critical. Italy’s climate should suggest adopting a natural dissipative approach in most parts of the country.</p> <p>The “system-dependent” logic of the current energy regulation embodies a retrograde approach that clashes, as mentioned above, with Italy’s tangible culture, where the direct relationship with the external environment is a way of life.</p> <p>The erroneous nature of this approach is strikingly evident in the fact that, according to the regulation, the evaluation of the performance of buildings is performed exclusively on the enclosure – without taking into account the efficiency of the system. This implies that the construction as a whole cannot contribute to mitigate the effects of climate change!</p> <p>This ill-informed absurdity results in the proliferation of buildings without inertial mass, even in climates that are less extreme than those of Italy: buildings can easily overheat in hot weather conditions unless an air conditioning system is used (thankfully, these are not yet mandatory). And this despite the building’s energy efficiency plaque contains three smiley faces. This approach results in hyper-insulated construction systems lacking internal inertial masses: sun-based heating in the winter can easily require cooling, on top of the cooling needed during the summer that is taken for granted.</p> <p>The time may be ripe for a fresh start. We need to creatively reconsider the principles of design by fostering a cultural revolution that lies outside comfortable ideologies and simplifications inscribed in an exclusive, regulation-based conformism.</p> <p>An innovation based on climate-proofing techniques aimed at optimising the relationship between the building and architectural systems and the urban spaces, in the quest for a more environmentally friendly quality of life. To this end, the adaptive capacity of humankind must be harnessed using the scientific foundations of building physics, general physics and the biology of the natural environment, all elements that are readily available following many years of research (EEA Report, 2017; Hahn and Fröde, 2010).</p> <p>Italy features significantly diverse climate conditions ranging from the Alps to the Apennines, it also includes hills, lakes, plains, seafront, countryside or urban locations that define significantly different levels and forms of environmental stimulation on the building systems. This is potential that should be harnessed using adaptive solutions, where the building, with its own performance, tends towards a reduced operating time of the installation support. Nowadays, there are many examples of <em>climate-responsive</em> architecture with their own temperature regulation to draw inspiration upon. Using a hybrid approach, these solutions are based on the “free running” concept of the building, whereby the use of the system installation is limited to short periods.</p> <p>The principles of adaptive comfort, now regulated by the EN 15251:2007 European Standard, the knowledge gained over time on the physics of the building and the availability of models and dynamic analytical simulations allow assessing buildings to adjust convenient temperatures during the summer and adaptively maintain under control obsolescence caused by gradual climate change.</p> <p>While practising a climate-responsive approach, this potential should lead to rethinking the building systems and towards self-generated temperature control solutions, where the air conditioning system only turns on in case of emergency (Croce and Poli, 2007).</p> <p>The study of new systems based on design should be at the centre of this renewed thinking.</p> <p>For example: passive or active inertial performance of the building, dynamic shielding, architectural orientations and configurations, internal modules that facilitate air circulation and natural ventilation, projections for shade, spaces with double openings that can be calibrated or deactivated depending on the season, natural ventilation enhancement systems (solar chimneys, ventilating façades, double-height duplexes), new modules and window sizes that highlight the importance of ventilation, geothermal air cooling systems and more.</p> <p>The networks, or intelligence, found in buildings today are composed of wiring, sensors and electronic devices aimed at connecting the user to service devices and to provide intelligent equipment, installations and systems. Nevertheless, the time may have come to experiment with new conceptual systems which deliver their own intelligence to the physical and geometrical building system in a way that this can calibrate itself not only depending on the different seasons, but also by adjusting to the future progressive climate changes.</p> <p>The functional rigidity of the present-day construction systems and the dynamism of the system devices that compensates for it must now be contrasted with the possibility of rendering the construction system and its components intelligently dynamic, in a manner that directly ensures that internal conditions are suited for summer – making an effort to adapt to human nature and its precious versatility.</p> <p>The sailboat represents the paradigm of this approach: a reference model in terms of energy efficiency that is distributed between technical systems and the structure’s organism.</p> <p>In a sailing boat, the sail’s layout changes when environmental conditions change and the engine is used, or should be used, only when waters are extremely calm. A motorboat can certainly never be as efficient as a sailboat, even if fuel consumption is reduced to a minimum: the same goes for a climate-responsive building.</p> <p>The idea is a building that minimises the number of days of the installation system’s operation, where the relationship between the building and the installation is more sustainable and with a lower environmental impact than the politically correct approach behind the present-day design conventions.</p> <p>Many researchers who have investigated risk analysis and climate proofing have highlighted how an adaptation based on the concept of “incremental is enough” and the optimisation of existing structures could lead us towards situations that are finally unsustainable from a social, health and economic standpoint.</p> <p>The term “transformational adaptation”, adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and thoroughly described in the European Environmental Agency’s “Urban adaptation to climate change in Europe 2016”, an indicator-based report that highlights the opportunity to adopt proactive approaches in an effort to optimise, even in a gradual manner, the systems composed of urban spaces/buildings. These actions are intended to adapt these constructions to enhance resiliency and be more prepared to face ever-increasing climate risks. Only then can the risk of overheating in urban areas and building systems turn into an opportunity for a critical, thoughtful, creative and truly intelligent renewed way of thinking on how to innovate both the architectural design and the development of efficient support technologies (Lonsdale <em>et al.,</em> 2015).</p> <p>As mentioned above, given the deteriorating environmental conditions, the architectural building system should move towards the search for a functional and performance dynamism, one that can counteract the aggravated indoor conditions.</p> <p>A dynamism that revolves around, as previously noted, the natural ability of humankind to adapt and is consistent with a deeply rooted social behaviour. The building’s enclosure is not a permanently sealed barrier: instead, it is an intermediary tool, providing a physical and psychological contact with the outside world.</p> <p>Currently, the enclosure is conceived as a two-dimensional technological unit. Taking an innovative approach, instead, it could be conceived as a three-dimensional volumetric unit that features new requirements and adaptation performances.</p> <p>A technological unit in essence, one that is comprised of components with variable structures and modules that can be manoeuvred as an intelligent network when external conditions change and gradually vary. A unit that is comprised of embedded volumes and unified spaces that optimise the intermediary function between the interior and the exterior. An intelligent technological unit that is coherently integrated into the building system and relies on flexible modules, natural ventilation enhancement, thermally inertial technical supports, passive cooling techniques and dynamic shielding or intelligent occlusion systems.</p> <p>This is entirely conceived along the lines of a design and regulatory approach in which intelligent networks and the adaptive quality is sought, enhanced and evaluated – not only in terms of the building, but referring to the system composed of the outdoor spaces/buildings.</p> <p>In addition to the expected increase in the average temperature by 2050, cities, and thus buildings, will experience a critical degree of overheating as a result of phenomena such as urban heat islands and heat waves, unless blue-green mitigation techniques are adopted to reduce the thermal forces that affect buildings, something that is happening in many cities around the world.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Sergio Croce The time of the earthlings 2020-12-21T20:16:07+00:00 Teodoro Georgiadis <p><em>«</em>Sun does not always shine and the wind does not always blow<em>» </em>(Rifkin, 2011).</p> <p>Looks like we have a problem. Our problem is time. It is an ancient human problem to want to predict. We want to know what will happen, what will become of our life, and time, in its various meanings, is the variable for which we try to invent increasingly complex models to understand its evolution.</p> <p>Today the main problem of understanding what will happen is related to the question of how long we have. We know very well that our time is limited. It is because our star is a G0 type star and it stands in the middle of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (Fig. 1) which determines the life span of a star: our Sun has still a lifetime estimated at 1750 million years then, due to a series of internal reactions to the star, our planet will no longer be habitable. In this period, there are about seventy million successive human generations and we do not even have the terms to be able to define in what degree of relationship we will be with the last man who will see the Sun explode.</p> <p>This is therefore not our problem but only an astrophysical curiosity. Our problem is much closer in time and rests on an indisputable evidence: the resources of our planet are limited, that is, the terrestrial system, which is not a closed system because it receives energy from the Sun, requires long times to restore its own resources.</p> <p>In other words, it still does not seem a problem, the problem clearly emerges if we consider the population growth curve as we have taken the indication given in Genesis very seriously that says <em>«</em>bloom, become many and fill the Earth».</p> <p>We are in the presence of an inflection around the 1940s. It is the result of a multiplicity of factors among which there is also the good part of population growth, i.e. the scientific-technological progress that has allowed the survival of newborns like never before in human history.</p> <p>Thus, if we go back to our system, not isolated but with slow “reloading” of resources, on the one hand we have the planet that acts as a mine, and on the other we have a growing population that possesses, being made up of humans, the wonderful gift of having of expectations. It is wonderful because it allowed, for example, the writer to be here to bore you with these concepts at an age that only in the year of his birth (Fig. 2) represented the statistical limit of the median. Leaving the staff and expanding the discussion, the expectations of a better life represent for the most economically developed part of the world a conquest that is now treated as an acquired right, often forgetting that most of the world experiences profound problems of inequality and access to well-being, happiness.</p> <p>The awareness of these differences has not been fully metabolized by <em>homo oeconomicus</em>, or rather a <em>rational fool</em> (Sen, 1977) who pursues his interest by maximizing it.</p> <p>This hypothesis would have had strong implications on the development model up to the present day and on the exploitation of natural resources. The same semantics of the representation of the world brings trace of this approach using terms such as “developed countries” and “third world”, the latter now referred to as “developing countries”, or “emerging countries” if they can demonstrate a growing GDP.</p> <p>It is in 1987, with the Brutland Report (WCED), that the paradigm changes and the issue of resources begins to go global. A few years later, 1990, l’Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC, produced the FAR (First Assessment Report) on the state of the climate and, also taking up part of the vision of <em>Our common Future</em>, connects the problem of the development model and the consequent emissions from the production processes to the modification of the composition of the atmosphere and, consequently, to climate change.</p> <p>Over time, these evidences of a direct relationship between resource use and climate change become more evident. The processes and the models of development are starting to be questioned and attempts are made to define the strategies of mitigation and adaptation (UNFCCC, 2020). These conferences have hardly achieved the set objectives. Economic reasoning and direct disbursements by the acceding countries underpin everything.</p> <p>We now come to the initial problem: time. In the IPCC Special Report (2018), the policies for keeping the heating below 1,5 °C of average temperature increase on the planet are identified with great accuracy. Here the time is represented by a graph, unfortunately misunderstood by many, where different development models are represented which lead to different projection results (Fig. 3). Misunderstood because it is customary to take the trend of the <em>business as usual</em> model as if that were the inevitable trend.</p> <p>The energy paradigm is perhaps that of the concepts of human development, which has undergone the most profound changes. Man has built his own development and well-being on fossil fuels. Civilization, as we know it today, is the arrival point of the discovery and use of fossils.</p> <p>What we have discovered over time is that the use of this energy source had a defect in altering the average composition of the atmosphere. At first, it was highlighted major impacts could be generated on the quality of the air, as in the cases of the great air pollution of London (1952) and Los Angeles (1940). Furthermore, it was found that part of the Sulphur contained in the fuels gave rise to another environmental problem, which took the name of acid rain. Much of the damage to forest systems was attributed to this phenomenon.</p> <p>In the post-war period, a new energy source was considered and developed even if its use was originally war-devoted, with the great hope that the chemical composition of the atmosphere would not be altered for the future. Nuclear power has this characteristic, and the development of nuclear power plants was very rapid in the world. However, history reminds us of several accidents in nuclear plants and in particular those of Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986). This latest incident generated a great mass mobilization that in fact led to a vast reduction in the use of this alternative source to fossils. The two great slogans that mobilized an entire generation of young people can still be remembered today: <em>atomkraft nein danke</em> and the equally famous <em>not in my backyard </em>(NIMBY).</p> <p>First the Sun and then the wind became, in particular the first, emblems of a movement of thought, also very unrealistic in the capacity of proposing real solutions. Then, with the progress of technical knowledge from a first hippy approach, methodologies that are more robust were developed during the course of time, which induced in these sources, defined as renewable, a valid integration of traditional ones.</p> <p><em>«</em>The sun does not always shine; the wind does not always blow» is what he wrote in his book on the Third Industrial Revolution Jeremy Rifkin (2011) recalling his conversation with Romano Prodi. In that conversation, Rifkin answered a question by Prodi identifying the problem but also, not the solution, the way to explore for the solution of the problem. Traditional sources are polluting but have an enormous competitive advantage for an industrial system: they are continuous. The production system can count on a seamless energy supply ensuring the maintenance of existing industrial processes. Renewable sources are affected by a large intermittence. In his chat, Rifkin identified the possible turning point towards a world driven by renewables precisely in the need to develop new forms of energy storage.</p> <p>We have therefore seen in this decade the increasingly massive development of new technologies based on storage that have then seen different fields of application up to electric vehicles.</p> <p>There is, however, another problem not developed during that conversation by Rifkin, and it is the further need to have a strong energy density in industrial processes. Natural cycles are sustained by the Sun but over long periods, the same applies to its conversion to industrial use, i.e. the power density required can hardly be provided by a solar system imagined according to the concept romantic of the first movements of opinion. To have what the industry needs, large areas of conversion of solar energy into electricity is due. However solar panels develop high heat in their vicinity and the subsequent disposal of the same, which contain metals that “doping” the substrate.</p> <p>Around the wind issue, there are perhaps even greater problems. The identification of the sites in our country is very problematic because few areas of the territory have the necessary characteristics to produce quantities of energy that justify the investments, often these contrast with landscape protection guards, the end-of-life disposal of the shovels made with carbon structures are not simple and highly polluting. Offshore use could be a solution, but the economic returns of this type of plant are questionable.</p> <p>All this said today, but time changes things. What is true today surely will not be true tomorrow and Europe, in fact, has decided resolutely on the transition towards renewables that are currently promoted through incentive mechanisms to overcome the economic gap compared to the cost of the conventional, and definitely aims to a conversion project within a few decades. This means not only a substitute-wait but also the introduction of pro-active mechanisms supported by a scientific-technological effort. This concerns the mitigation chapter, which however we know is not the only chapter of current policies.</p> <p>The other magic word of the transition to this renewable world is adaptation. Adaptation means to accuse the blow of change but in a condition that allows us to absorb it. <em>Calati juncu ca’ passa la china </em>(bent rush that passes the flood, an old arab-sicilian motto) is the best representation of how adaptation works, the ability of a system to restore functionality. Where to apply it and why it becomes easily understandable considering still a characteristic human factor: the urbanization process, which has marked man since the beginning of his time. Social animal has always resolved its weaknesses in the community system. From the cave to the village, from the village to the city, and from the city to the megalopolis, the development of man has always tempered the idea of the place as aggregation.</p> <p>Urban science has always sought to solve the problem of the <em>city model</em>. Problem never solved and perhaps now abandoned. Curiously, and it is always a joke of the time, in this time the need for a general city model is becoming more pressing. The great debate that involved giants such as Mies Van de Rohe, Le Corbusier, Gropius and others, thrown to the brim, seems to be reborn today in the face of a unifying factor such as that of climate change. This is because in the large megacity the fragile factor is the human being. The city that grew up around itself centralized work as a unifying element and generated the expectations of a different and richer life, which turned out to be the attractive mechanism towards it. This time of change requires a new paradigm that sees a new centralization mechanism that solves the problem of fragility by putting the human being in the focus of urban policies.</p> <p>Policies must guarantee accessibility, in a general sense, and well-being to the population. Accessibility and wellness are broad concepts that would need an appropriate analysis. For brevity, we will consider with accessibility the possibility for all sections of the population to be able to use the services, just as wellness will be used in the sole sense of physical wellness, bearing in mind that in this way the psychological and social dimension that deeply affects the structure of cities (the problem of banlieu, for example) will be missing.</p> <p>In the city, there are different fragilities: the children, the elderly, and the sick that need to be protected are precisely the most sensitive to the effects of climate change.</p> <p>Another meaning of time, in this meteorological case, determines our future again.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>In the urban area, climate change operates through two major effects linked to the intensification of extreme phenomena: variation of the thermal regime and that of the precipitative regime.</p> <p>Heat waves, more and more recurring and persistent, coupled with the heat island of the city generate situations of great drama, as in the case of the heat wave of 2003 (Fig. 4), and capable of generating thousands of deaths (Georgiadis, 2015). The other aspect of extreme gravity in the urban area is intense rainfall, which often arises from the formation of self-regenerating storms, as in the case of Rimini in 2013 (Georgiadis, 2019a).</p> <p>Urban planning, however, is potentially able to solve the problem.</p> <p>We have new materials, new modelling tools, and ancient resources available, which are vegetation and water. We can intervene on the construction of the city, without prejudice to the constraints, seeking in the design the configuration that maximizes the physiological well-being of people. We will not completely overcome the weather, but we will drastically reduce its impacts. The functionality of the project, following a rationalist point of view, must put the resilient objective before other canons, that is to say, amalgamating with these without prejudice that the centrality of the person is the fundamental focus. This can take away from the designer the pleasure of leaving his own pyramid to posterity, even if resilient projects show that beauty is not excluded, and if anything happens, we will get over it.</p> <p>The new tools work on a basic concept linked to surface energy balances, that is, they solve the balance equation by means of a fluid dynamic modelling that allows evaluating the well-being index in a given urban-architectural element and can solve the problem up to size of a neighbourhood, if not a city (Georgiadis, 2019b). The city of Bologna is introducing these concepts into its own PUG and the Urban Planning Regulations will see the inclusion of the study of well-being in the tools necessary for planning, identifying an index of climate fragility that will guide urban interventions.</p> <p>The energy problem or the incapacity for economic reasons of access to energy, either for heating, or for air conditioning, is described in the book published by K. Fabbri “Urban Fuel Poverty” (2019) together with the role of buildings in the origin of the poverty. We have seen in recent winters how energy poverty has led to the use of wood stoves, during inversion weather conditions, to aggravate episodes of acute urban pollution.</p> <p>Regenerating the city by protecting the weakest means protecting everyone. Protection and access to services of this population also means reducing social and health costs.</p> <p>The application of NBS (Nature Based Solution) allows the design of a resilient, adaptive and inclusive city, which reduces risk and increases accessibility. These solutions also are often called blue-green and gray, i.e. based on green, water and technological solutions to be included in the urban system (Climate KIC, 2015; REBUS, 2019). Using the techniques described in the references, urban routes can be built where, and as for example, people with diabetes, extremely prone to thermal imbalances, can face the city by accessing services and medical devices during their daily lives (Fig. 3). It takes time but the solution to problems is within our reach.</p> <p>Time has run away, and this brief review is ending. It has been shown that the future could be better than someone wants to see it. Of course, if we mentally feel about the remaining seven and a half years then everything would become vain, but that is the worst-case scenario in a much wider range. Time, which according to a popular saying is a gentleman, has shown that the worst-case scenario almost never occurs. However, we have to work on that almost starting immediately, crossing our knowledge to regenerate the world. The bet between Julian Simon and Paul Ehrlich (1980) was won by the first, $ 576,07, because scientific-technological progress allowed the necessary advancements, therefore not for abundance but for research results, and winning a new bet is always possible through the incredible capacity of humankind to renew itself. But and we continue with the sayings, those who have time do not wait for time, and the time to act is “now”, because the <em>«</em>Sun does not always shine and the wind does not always blow».</p> 2020-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Teodoro Georgiadis Where do ideas come from 2020-12-21T20:16:49+00:00 Lorenzo Matteoli <p><em>«</em>Future history will no longer produce ruins. It doesn’t have the time<em>» </em>(Augè, 2004).</p> <p>While for many other environmental physical phenomena we have “sensors” and organs capable of recording them, for time we do not have an organ that records, feels, translates it into an image or into a physical provocation. If it exists, we do not know it.</p> <p>The eyes see light, colours, distances, depths. The question remains whether what I see is exactly the same as what others see, but there are good reasons to suspect so. Ears hear sounds, noises, register the direction from which vibrations and acoustical energy arrive and recognize frequencies within certain limits. They probably also record many other characteristics of sound energy according to categories that are unnoticeable, unquantifiable or incomprehensible to most of us. The thermal sensors of our body tissues feel the heat and react to it in different ways: increasing or decreasing their temperature, secreting sweat, dilating or contracting their pores to grant the organic balances necessary for our well-being, comfort and safety. We also have sensors that react to pain caused by environmental, “social”, accidental and mechanical situations. These sensors can react to trauma by cancelling the sensation of pain to allow rational control behavioural patterns to handle the emergency/life threatening situation, an assumption I make because it is contradicted and confirmed by many different stories.</p> <p>We do not know “organs” in our body that “feel”, “record”, “evaluate”, “quantify” or “qualify”, time as a physical dimension of the environmental context. Perhaps it is our whole physical and organic system that “feels” and “records” time: in fact, the system “ages”, changes physical, dimensional, organic, biological, chemical, mechanical, neuro-vegetative qualities and sensitivities of various kinds and nature. Overall, for this reason, it is correct to say that it is by living that we measure time. A few decades ago, in a short essay published by the UWA (University of Western Australia), I wrote that <em>«</em>time is like an immense motionless ocean that we cross while changing» (Matteoli, 2002).</p> <p>It is a literary and suggestive image, but in reality only useful to contradict the other “figures” of “time”, which “passes”, “rolls”, “unfolds”, “runs away”, while it is we who “pass”, “roll”, “run away”, pursued by a strange, benevolent or evil demon or genius.</p> <p>For us, the “dimension/feeling” of time is even more relative and is linked to the time we have lived, to the activities we carry out or that we would like to carry out, to the pleasure or boredom or discomfort of the present. A year of life for a ten year old is 10% of the life he has lived. For a 50-year-old adult, it is only 2 percent of the life he has lived: the same 365 days are worth less for the adult by a factor of 5 (500%).</p> <p>This is why the summers of our childhood seemed very long and those of our later years seem very short.</p> <p>In the absence of time sensing organs or in the absence of our knowledge and control of our time sensing organs, we have invented measuring instruments which measure the astronomical time of the Planet: the (approximate) 24 hours of rotation around its axis and the 365 (approximate) days of the revolution around the sun, from sundials, Horas non numero nisi serenas<sup>1</sup>, hourglasses, water clocks, pendulums, to John Harrison’s chronometer (1693-1776) with spring and balance (the first instrument capable of measuring longitude at sea), to watches based on vibrations of quartz crystals to atomic clocks, etc.</p> <p>But the times of architecture have little to do with the measurement of time marked by astronomy.</p> <p>These are times related to History, Anthropology, Culture, Economy, Geography, Technology, Politics: all relevant items for the “design culture”, few of which are studied, analysed and systematically explored in the curricula of our architectural design schools, although architects are perhaps among the greatest manipulators of time.</p> <p>At this point, to deal with its times, a definition of “architecture” and the architectural design culture is needed. For the breadth of the critical grid of my notes, I think that an equally broad and general definition will do: «everything that has to do with the form, structure and substance of the anthropic context». The built landscape, the city, houses, monuments, streets, bridges, ports, etc. the items of everyday life, clothing, pots, furniture accessories... everything that requires drawing, formal thought, visual intuition, technological tools, materials, their process and shaping, where needs induce problems and solutions that require thought, anticipation, description, communication, logistic organization, production, making, using, living, suffering.</p> <p>I can’t help but think about the courageous Chinese student in Shanghai who, after my conference on “Italian design”, asked me: <em>«</em>Where do ideas come from?»<sup>2</sup>.</p> <p>A challenging question that still occupies some sleepless nights of mine and that I willingly pass on to my Techne readers.</p> <p>The times of city design are centuries, with many generations involved: we live in cities that others have designed and design cities in which others will live. These cities, by definition, hardly meet current needs because they were conceived on the needs of other times, other generations and other cultures which is a specific condition on the way we live plan, draw, manage and use them, in a challenging, fascinating self-referential twist. It is no coincidence that those who live in Genoa are different from those who live in Turin, Milan or New York. When the times of the city were consistent with the times of its conception that was not a problem, but it is now.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>In this “narrative” lurks the problem of city planning, which requires knowledge of history and compromise with history, long-term vision of the future and respect for the past, authority and power in the present (Mumford, 1938, 1961).<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>These are not easy conditions in the complicated clash between administrative political clients and professional design and planning competence. This clash involves laws, rules, regulations, property regimes, micro and macro economies and financial schemes, all contingent factors often abstract and dominated by logics far from those of the cultural/social needs of the optimal urban container (Magnaghi, 2000).</p> <p>In some cities, traces remain of the dictatorial powers of the times in which they were conceived: the Ramblas of Barcelona, the Boulevards of Paris, the orthogonal grid of Augusta Taurinorum, efficient rational castrum of the Roman legions and their chain of command of consuls and centurions, pragmatically reproduced by the Scottish colonizers in thousands of cities in North America (Romano, 2004).</p> <p>It is a legitimate question how much of this memory, how much of this time informs today’s decisions, it is reasonable to maintain that this condition is much more important than what is perceived by the common feeling. The environment in which we live is part of our cultural DNA even if we have no clear knowledge of it.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>In cities there are houses, churches, schools, courts, offices, shopping malls, museums, libraries, universities and hospitals, all qualifying as “architecture”, all designed and built to respond to needs; all products, good or bad, of a “design culture”.</p> <p>What time condition has produced, conditioned, formed them?</p> <p><em>«</em>Where do ideas come from?».</p> <p>Most are the result of a virtual zero time. Hundreds and thousands of trivial objects put together to build a message that goes far beyond the specific banality of ordinary objects. They form an urban landscape and the set of their specific platitudes produces a more complex meaning through a strange conundrum, whereby the sum of any number of singularly meaningless items conveys a meaning. Colour? The infinite repetition of a current sign? Windows? The balconies? The gutters? Here you can see the power of municipal building regulations which, dictating a set of banal rules, unify, coordinate and determine a system language. They give to banality a systematic semantic dignity. The eaves of Florence, the attic-roofs (mansards) of Paris, the terraced-houses of London, Manchester, Liverpool, the porticos in Bologna and Torino.</p> <p>With the thousands of trivial items, however, there are exceptional buildings, the Casa Milà in Barcelona, the Unité d’Habitation in Marseille, the Lingotto in Turin, the houses of Coop Himmelb(l)au, the houses of Troppo Architects in Australia and thousands of other splendid and less splendid examples of great provocation, which I cannot quote for obvious lack of space.</p> <p><em>«</em>Where do ideas come from?».</p> <p>The time of these specific items is in the history of their designers. Which memories, which references, logical analysis, provocations of customers/clients, building construction conditions, material, which first pencil stroke on paper, literary quotation or poetic provocation, dream, vision, music or song, or what other accidental occurrence.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>Each, however, may be followed by the ability to associate the “vision” to the tools for its communication and for its translation into a built object, technology, materials, processes, logistics, competence, men, women, money.</p> <p>Some building “times” are a matter for thought, buildings that took decades and even centuries to build, with no documented record of the time required for their design.</p> <p>The “design” and construction of Gothic cathedrals in Europe was the founding episode of the engineering and logistics of large modern construction deeds. The real Renaissance, after the Middle Ages that was not dark or gloomy at all, but a great historical melting pot and host of formidable intuitions and visions involving huge multigenerational enterprises, which affected entire regions and thousands of workers, masons, stone cutters, financing schemes launched over hundreds of years, territorial infrastructures for the transportation of materials (roads, bridges, canals). For many of the European cathedrals, a designed project never existed: their construction followed verbal instructions from the master builder. There was no “calculation”: the structures were intuitively assessed and built on an empirical basis. Accounting required trust-based contractual relationships, the money value of which in present day currency would be several billion euros. It would be difficult to find politically, dimensionally and financially comparable endeavours currently (perhaps space exploration). The time of the cathedrals started in 1100-1200 has not yet ended today, after 8-9 centuries and there is no end in sight. The huge local, territorial, social, knowledge and experience and lives invested is still returning huge interest after more than 40 generations. Never so few made so much for so many.</p> <p>Many of these items have provoked, and will provoke, ideas, visions, design and architectural experiences with the times of current communication, teaching, media and again for months, years, days, centuries.</p> <p>These times set the problem of teaching, training and transferring the design-culture to future generations of architects and designers.</p> <p>In my experience, there are two current teaching attitudes:</p> <p>A. to throw the student into the deep end hoping that he will learn to swim;</p> <p>B. to establish a “school” with set formal methodologies, procedures and models and impose them.</p> <p>The combinations and variations of the two methods are infinite. <span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>The alleged existence of a design “method” represented by block diagrams, outlines, operational sequences, grammar and various syntaxes is peculiar to attitude B and its presence in literature is abundant. The merit of managing the problem rationally and giving students an operational reference of relative certainty should be acknowledged for this manual. Follow this diagram and you will achieve a result, even if you’re not a genius.</p> <p>Teaching attitude A is more adventurous. Many drown in the pool, and those who do not drown are not necessarily the best.</p> <p>The two attitudes are defeated by the brilliant subjects, by those who “use” the school but are equipped, however equipped, with robust individual, critical and cognitive tools, perhaps 2% of the school population of our School of Architecture. The trouble is that for this 2% of exceptional subjects there are many normal subjects who “believe” they are part of that 2% but regrettably they are not at all.</p> <p><em>«</em>Where do ideas come from?».</p> <p>This is another place of “time” and architecture: the time between the delivery of knowledge and its practical application.</p> <p>Schools of architecture train professionals who will be operational (hopefully) perhaps within 10-15 years after leaving school, a time during which, today, almost all knowledge and technical know-how loses much of its actual value: that is, we teach things we do not know, because what the tools, technologies and building materials will be in 10-15 years is not documented yet. We solved the obvious contradiction by teaching “problems” and not “solutions”. Problems do not change, solutions continuously change.</p> <p>The three Vitruvian categories “firmitas”, “utilitas”, “venustas” will still be valid in ten, twenty, thirty years. The ways to grant them in the buildings that will be built in ten, twenty, thirty years will be very different. According to ancient wisdom, the correct and complete expression of a problem is an essential part of its solution.</p> <p>There are other times of architecture that require attention: the time needed to conceive the project, the building time and the expected useful life of the built item.</p> <p>Each historical moment is characterized by specific political, economic and cultural conditions that dictate or imply different priorities and values, conditions to which design responds with specific solutions, forms, techniques and materials. Thus, architectural design in the 1930s in Italy responded to the cultural climate of the fascist dictatorship and the interpretation of the Modern Movement was consequently informed by it. The same is true of 1950s design, which was affected by the urgency and pressure to rebuild the country after the Second World War, while in the 1960s and 1970s, design was affected by the economic boom and the consistent naiveté (l’Italia da bere).<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>On the “useful life” of architectural items there are two significant examples: the buildings built for Italy ‘61 in Turin – the Palazzo Nervi by Gio Ponti and Pier Luigi Nervi and the Palazzo a Vela by Annibale and Giorgio Rigotti – later arguably manipulated by Gae Aulenti, and the buildings of the Regions, buildings that were to last for a six-month service and which are still, with the columns of Nervi, a useless and very expensive, presence after 60 years. The other examples are the buildings for the 1911 Universal Exhibition in Turin, many designed by Raimondo D’Aronco<sup>3</sup> and made of straw and plaster which, at the end of the 1911 exhibition were demolished and the rubble pushed into the Po river leaving the beautiful Valentino Park to the city, one of the elegant present day urban features of Torino. A lesson to learn. The only permanent building built on that occasion was the Medieval Castle, also on the banks of the Po river, a philologically exact copy of a Savoy castle in the Aosta Valley still economically useful today with restaurants, shops, historic workshops and tourists.</p> <p>One cannot fail to admire the long-term vision of Renaissance investments in Italy which, after centuries, still supply millions of euros a year in tourism for a country that has little to do with the Italy of Lorenzo dei Medici and Pope Leo X.</p> <p>Long term vision: this too is a beautiful example of time and architecture, unsurpassed to date.</p> <p>In the 1980s, when I was the dean of the School of Architecture of the Turin Engineering Polytechnic, one of my duties was to welcome the new students to the School, a task which I did with affection and diligence because I considered it a function of great importance. To the class of “matricole” (first year students in Italian) gathered in the main hall of the School at the Castello del Valentino I used to say «In this School we have no certainties and we cannot give them to you, but if you follow what we tell you, perhaps you will be able to live peacefully with uncertainty». The bewildered gaze of some of them still remains with me.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>The concept of living peacefully with uncertainty is an essential scope of teaching architectural design and I still like it forty years later.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>To live peacefully with uncertainty, the essential thing is to accept it and in order to accept it, it is mandatory to control a solid catalogue of knowledge.</p> <p><em>«</em>Where do ideas come from?».</p> <p>NOTES</p> <p><sup>1</sup> <em>«</em>Don’t count the hours if they are not serene», famous motto on an ancient sundial.</p> <p><sup>2</sup> The student is called Sun Xinci.</p> <p><sup>3</sup> 1857-1932, born in Udine, in literature sometimes referred to as the “ottoman architect” because his most important client was the Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamid II.</p> 2020-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Lorenzo Matteoli The times of construction 2020-12-21T20:17:37+00:00 Lorenzo Bellicini <p><em>«</em>From the urban science’s standpoint this meaning can be attributed to permanent works; they are parts of the past we still experience<em>» </em>(Rossi, 1966).</p> <p>In these notes I would like to deal through some hints with the issue of time associated to architecture from three different points of view: time as life of construction works; time as relation between technical thinking and social change; time as length of authorization procedures.</p> <p>The time as lenght of building</p> <p>The opening of these short notes, Aldo Rossi’s quotation, helps me introduce the first of three-time dimensions I would like to imagine. Rossi elaborates on the permanence of the architectural work in the essay “L’architettura della città”, published in 1966 and written at the height of the Italian economic and housing boom. Also, for this reason it seems to be a forward-looking essay which can influence architectural thinking, not only in Italy. Rossy says «Parlando di architettura non intendo riferirmi solo all’immagine visibile della città e all’insieme delle sue architetture; ma piuttosto all’architettura come costruzione. Mi riferisco alla costruzione della città nel tempo» (Rossi, 1966).</p> <p>The book introduces also the idea of locus as identity resulting from historical stratification with a precocious multidisciplinary approach underlying its reflections on the importance of architecture as well as economics and policy-making in the construction of the city. The core of Rossi’s reflection is the city over time as construction and permanence of what, having been conceived and realized in the past, still lives and experiences the crystallization of its own construction through changes. This consideration stems from the fact that the durability of building design products is longer than other types of products. A longer lifetime spanning more generations. The product of building design is something characterized by long durability which is tested and tested again after its conception. This is a fundamental precondition for the project designer: considering the past, designing the new, and integrating the past with the present. Yet, I wonder if all designers actually opt for this approach. Considering the Italian production since the Sixties in the light of its facts and figures, on one hand the conservation of the building environment and on the other hand suburban production can be observed. Undoubtedly, nowadays market conditions are different from the housing boom Rossi had to take into account in the Sixties: nowadays 74% of the value of building production consists in ordinary and extraordinary maintenance works on private buildings. We could say that over the last decade our country has seen only building micro interventions within residential boundaries envisaging the renovation of existing works realized in the past. On the contrary our true challenge is urban regeneration, that is the transformation of parts of the city, whether completely or partially built, that foresees both the integration of past with present and a new design for the ways the city functions.</p> <p>Therefore, if it is true that the issue of long durability is key to the construction of buildings and infrustructural works, then of the city, it is undisputable that, as it is closely related with the concept of structure, it can be interpreted in a broader sense. Eight years before the publication of Rossi’s essay, Braudel was rethinking the Western storiographic approach and the issues of structure and time of society.</p> <p>«Par structure les observateurs du social entendent une organisation, une cohérence, des rapports assez fixes entre réalités et masses sociales. Pour nous, historiens une structure est sans doute assemblage, architecture, mais plus encore une réalité que le temps use mal et véhicule très longuement. Certaines structures, à vivre longtemps, deviennent des éléments stables d’une infinité de générations: elles encombrent l’histoire, en gênent, donc en commandent l’écoulement. D’autres sont plus promptes à s’effriter. Mais toutes sont à la fois soutiens et obstacles. Obstacles, elles se marquent comme des limites (des enveloppes, au sens mathématique) dont l’homme et ses expériences ne peuvent guère s’affranchir. Songez à la difficulté de briser certains cadres géographiques, certaines réalités biologiques, certaines limites de la productivité, voire telles ou telles contraintes spirituelles: les cadres mentaux, aussi, sont prisons de longue durée» (Braudel, 1958).</p> <p><em>«</em>Les cadres mentaux, aussi, sont prisons de longue durée»: in the great French historian’s view, in the end the analysis of history shows that mindsets with long durability are strong constraints hindering development processes. Hence, in those years the European culture experiencing a new awareness of both physical and mental crystallization struck two different attitudes: on one hand it started giving importance to place identity, locus for Rossi, genius loci for Norberg-Schulz, which would profoundly affect a major part of architectural culture and many Italian urban conservation policies; on the other hand, it fostered de-structuration in tune with French historiography.</p> <p>Therefore, there is still much debate on the major issues of permanence and innovation.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>Anyway, if we had to state what the most important urban policy has been in Italy, after all we could only mention the one that in order of importance has envisaged the conservation of monuments and historic architectural works, of city centres and historic urban fabric, of the building product determined by its age, of the landscape (yet its results have not been as good as the ones achieved as far as the built-up environment is concerned) and finally minor refurbishment benefiting from tax incentives (with some energy-efficient retrofitting). Conservation and renovation work on buildings have been the most important interventions characterizing Italian urban policies together with the juxtaposition of new suburbs to the built-up environment and the creation of the dispersed city. Up to fifteen years ago when a new history began: demographic changes entailed by the fall in the birth rate, prolonged housing crisis, property crisis, slump in the expansion of new housing, crisis of the technical quality of management and lack of resources, total lack of attention to the issue of urban regeneration. Meanwhile, as I remarked above, the renovation activities consisted in minor home refurbishment interventions benefiting from tax incentives.</p> <p>The time as relation between technical thinking and social change</p> <p>«The time elapsing from non-construction to definitive construction over time and in space is very short. A barren site sees the creation of a nine-storey slab block or an industrial chimney with unnatural sudden speed-up. Lately, after the building momentum, the urban patch remains finite, unchanged, untouchable, protected by the law and taboo. And if the “way” cities generally develop seems to be weird enough, the “shaping” of suburban buildings definitely provides accidental and unfinished appearance. The city centre is usually considered the most representative area in terms of urban identity. This overestimation has even led to neglect suburbs and outskirts which have become mere bilges housing all kinds of mediocrity» (Bellicini and Ingersoll, 2001).</p> <p>The time of urban growth, according to Giuseppe Pagano, is so rapid, arrhythmic, and unforeseeable that it makes it impossible for public decision-makers, especially in the field of urban planning (as far as urban layout is concerned) to completely supervise projects: «There has been much imaginative debate – he writes – on this hindrance but all the means identified to regulate, control, and coordinate the enormous amount of buildings prove ineffective in the face of private property and its relevant rights» (Pagano, 1976).<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>The plan suffers the rapidity of individual property rights exertion constitutionally characterizing the contemporary society. Therefore, «if the city centre and the rural landscape still seem to be meaningful because they have been shaped by what is most durable and stable over time within the realm of social relations», outskirts become clearly, inevitably, and immediately representative of the contemporary society. «This moral and social discomfort of our contemporary society which fails to be consistent» (Pagano, 1976).</p> <p>The outskirts are shapeless places where design and planning are abortive over time. Urban planning as a discipline exists only within the boundaries of paradox: the need for rethinking transformation more slowly (urban planning is definitely a remedy for the unsoundness of modern urban development) when the essence of transformation is determined by its own rapidity generating different single self-referential shapes that crystallize. All these shapes, in spite of being designed in compliance with one plan, are however single entities (each of which is realized under its designer’s responsibility). Due to this intimate paradox, urban planning has been naturally unsuccessful since its origin: the outskirts, or, we can say, the contemporary city (70% of Italian families live on the outskirts), were created when urban planning as a discipline was born. Yet, in most cases they embody its congenital failures.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>These failures have been more visible in the outskirts developments implemented and managed by public bodies: the public city, expression of a recent past and of the effort to tackle unchecked urban growth by reducing the city to big monofunctional architectural blocks, whose project was officially drawn up for one single building, which today are the most degraded urban areas.</p> <p>Urban planning decision-making should always draw on the analysis of the urban reality followed by the identification of priorities and the project laying down the way the space will be used. The project design is accompanied and lately integrated, preliminarily and definitively, by the decision on the adoption of the urban planning tool. The different stages of the urban planning decision-making include both political and technical steps. Drawing up the plan (for example the General City Plan) in Italy takes around two to three years as regards major cities; the time scale of political decisions first on the preliminary plan evaluation and after on the adoption of the relevant technical tools extends in an unpredictable way: three, four, five, ten years. After five or ten years the world changes. In order to manage city transformation processes (characterized by complexity, fast change, and competitiveness) ever since the Eighties new strategies more aimed at solving specific urban design problems and making urban planning decisions (both technical and political) not so much through the General City Plan but rather by means of major projects to be implemented in a much shorter time-frame have been opted for. In the 2000s, though, given the scenario of the great change (industrial revolution, computability, sustainability, reckless competition), holistic City plans and visions were created projecting the urban scenario into the future (over twenty or thirty years) along important routes of urban redefinition thanks to the opportunity to implement some of their parts according to a precise elongated schedule (Cresme, 2019).</p> <p>However, we can say that urban planning practices are profoundly influenced at the same time by the slowness of planning and thinking, and by the rapidity of social and economic transformations: this complexity is still unsolved today while the scenario is changing increasingly fast. More than a set of photographs, planning should become a product of time-oriented analytical information systems systematically and constantly updated. From the photography to the movie.</p> <p>The time as length of authorization procedures</p> <p>The last point I would like to briefly deal with is the building process meant as synthesis of idea, project, bureaucracy, building site issues, completion and management of the work. What is the significance of a building work? Not so much an economic one. Its value lies in its functionality over time. A house, an office building, a post office, a station, a street, a highway, a harbour, a bridge, etc. are all products whose value is fully expressed as long as they are used and operated. Yet, the building production is subject to bureaucratic and technical constraints. Then, it is worth underlining two aspects of building which today are closely associated with time: on one hand illegal building in our country; on the other hand, the production of public works.</p> <p>Illegal building affecting large areas of our Country typically calls for rapidity and secrecy. A time of robbery, as we should say. Moreover, illegal building timing is exclusively under the promoter’s control: when it is possible; yet it is affected by the rapidity of the builder and the slowness of bureaucratic control. Without projects, without authorization some parts of the Country are being built very fast compared to the control over them that is lagging behind.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>More surprisingly, the realization of public works, more precisely of the big /medium-sized public works and the relevant authorization procedures take a long time. In one of my papers some time ago I mentioned the “procedure benefit” to describe the complicated and cumbersome set of rules and regulations underlying the decision-making processes in our country and the bureaucracy regardless of time (Bellicini, 2013).</p> <p>Due to the lack of time awareness in the people concerned with the authorization procedures and the complexity of the law, the realization of public works is slow, and the cost of the works varies compared to the value laid down in procurement contracts. The magic words of public works are “subject to”: more precisely “subject to long time” in many cases.</p> 2020-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Lorenzo Bellicini The Time in Villa Adriana in Tivoli 2020-12-21T20:18:18+00:00 Marco Introini <p>«The ideas that the ruins awaken in me are great. Everything is annihilated, everything perishes, everything passes. Only time lasts».</p> <p>Denis Diderot, lettera a Huber Robert, 1767.</p> 2020-10-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Marco Introini Toward permanent emergency: Design-Build-Living Reversible 2020-12-21T20:18:22+00:00 Ernesto Antonini Francesca Giglio Andrea Boeri <p>Temporary life has become a topic of discussion in the architectural debate concerning both post-catastrophic events and critical peaks in the housing demand. The strategies adopted to deal with emergency contexts can provide a stimulating testing ground that yields suitable approaches, which can be applied when facing the present permanent environmental crisis at a global scale. This is particularly true for certain post-catastrophe strategies adopted in the poorest countries, where local resources and Low-Tech processes can respond to housing and climate needs, compensating for the limited resources available with the intelligence of design solutions. Some criteria established to map the relationship between quality performance and durability of products are later applied to the critical analysis of three emblematic case studies of emergency housing in extreme contexts to identify their innovation content.</p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ernesto Antonini, Francesca Giglio, Andrea Boeri Temporary architectures inside static architectures 2020-12-21T20:18:28+00:00 Alessandro Claudi de Saint Mihiel <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The circumstances that produce architecture have profoundly changed and, among these, precisely those which perceive and use space-time in a different way in comparison with the past. This paper defines a conceptual reference framework by positioning the time factor in relation to the role of the project as an innovative and operational procedural tool in terms of sustainable conversion of cities. The essay aims to investigate the “addition strategy” as a paradigm of architectural grafting to achieve a balanced relationship between temporariness and permanence. It outlines scenarios in which a new design culture is capable of guiding the processes of transformation of the built environment by placing the idea of impermanence in a perspective that is closer to the current socio-technical condition.</span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Alessandro Claudi de Saint Mihiel The suspended time of the interrupted process: beyond repression, a future for unfinished buildings 2020-12-21T20:18:33+00:00 Maria Luisa Germanà <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The results of the interrupted building processes are ascribable to an anomalous category of built environment, which offers an important test bench for the technological design of architecture. In fact, the finalism focused on achieving the objectives and the linear vision of time are irrelevant when confronted by constructions, whose life cycle has never begun and which are irreducibly extraneous to both the present and the future. The bipolar phenomenon of unfinished buildings suggests a theoretical framework linked to the time variable, intended as a transformation factor and cornerstone of architectural design. Considering their diffusion and evolution, a future is foreseeable for the unfinished buildings, which is different to a certain kind of pretentious demonisation or exaltation.</span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Maria Luisa Germanà The time factor in the design of adaptive architectures 2020-12-21T20:18:39+00:00 Attilio Nebuloni <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Architectures capable of dynamically interacting with the context and change aspects of their physicality are an interdisciplinary research field with many implications on living environments and on design itself. In this area, the designers’ attention is mainly focused on the temporal aspect, on the relationship with project, technology, and construction, framing the discussion on tools and design strategies for the dynamic management of variables, on the one hand, and on innovations affecting technologies and actors of the design process, on the other. In the field of adaptive architecture, the paper proposes a reinterpretation of the meaning of duration, explaining the structure and the key factors that characterise its application approach.</span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Attilio Nebuloni “Living the Flexible Space”. Technological and spatial strategies for new ways of living 2020-12-21T20:18:44+00:00 Maria Luisa Perri Drago <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The analysis of the “living space” and its peculiar morpho-architectural connotations in an uncertain and ever evolving reality implies the use of new paradigms linked to concepts such as temporariness, flexibility, disassembly, recyclability, adaptability and reversibility. Demographic transformations, in addition to ever-changing habits, rhythms and lifestyle, lead the present study to investigate time as a design paradigm of an evolutionary home, seeking a criterion and a methodological approach that is capable of thinking about modifiable spaces, which are not strictly predetermined but open to new ways of expressing the users’ need for customisation.</span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Maria Luisa Perri Drago Reusing Time in architecture. The practice of reusing building products and components 2020-12-21T20:18:52+00:00 Massimiliano Condotta Elisa Zatta <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Signs often appear on the surfaces of the urban fabric, some due to the passage of time, others to the constant alterations of man. This essay reflects on the role the reuse of elements assumes in contemporary architecture and on the contribution this practice can offer to a design suited to the built environment. The analysis will consider the environment both from an ecological perspective and as a “place” constantly modified by nature and man. The study of the reasons for reuse in the past and present, discussing them from the point of view of contemporary professionals, allows an original interpretation of the relationship between the circularity of time and the circularity of material flows with a view to preserving resources.</span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Massimiliano Condotta, Elisa Zatta Siza patina permanenza 2020-12-21T20:18:59+00:00 Barbara Bogoni Elena Montanari <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Designated to “stay” in time and to “contrast” time – the former referred to the chronological meaning, the latter to the meteorological one – the life of buildings sometimes addresses the relationship with their pre-existences through variations linked to time. The essay aims at unfolding this phenomenon in the architecture of Álvaro Siza Vieira, proving his special ability to control the metamorphoses of the built matter. Complementing critical research with the dialogue established with the Portuguese master, the analysis of the evolutive process of some of his works demonstrates how time – intended as “the other architect”, which overlaps and opposes its own action to the one carried out by the builder – does not seem to counteract the experience of Siza but rather enhances the embedding of architecture in the site.</span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Barbara Bogoni, Elena Montanari The time of the city between nature and artifice 2020-12-21T20:19:05+00:00 Elena Mussinelli Andrea Tartaglia Giovanni Castaldo <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Starting from a theoretical framework, the essay explores the use of natural elements in public space design, highlighting the complexity of these components both for their cyclical and temporal characteristics and for their potential as structural elements for urban development within long-lasting temporal frames. The critical reflection focuses on the architectural trends that are characterised by an intensive and undifferentiated use of natural components in the urban project, proposing more sensitive and attentive approaches to environmental pre-existences and to the project’s character of necessity.</span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Elena Germana Mussinelli, Andrea Tartaglia, Giovanni Castaldo The time of the process. Time versus quality in the building cycle 2020-12-21T20:19:12+00:00 Eugenio Arbizzani Carola Clemente <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This paper critically retraces the disciplinary references of management for architecture and the building process. It aims at recovering – and innovating – the traces of the operational heritage of a strand characterising the technological research originally capable of making a great contribution of cultural transfer to promote the qualification of planning and implementation processes of public interventions. Although significant intellectual resources of architectural technology have been dedicated to these issues, following the outcome of the succession of building crises, these claims stemmed from priorities, such as research demand and educational offerings, in the area. The most recent regulatory developments and the introduction of new technologies allow us to reconsider the evolution process of systems and of client structures.</span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Carola Clemente, Eugenio Arbizzani From lifespan to useful life, towards a new paradigm of durability for sustainable construction 2020-12-21T20:19:18+00:00 Francesco Paolo Rosario Marino Paola Marrone <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Evaluating the environmental sustainability of a building, its “lifespan” (total or part or component) and “durability reliability” raises awareness of how the concept of service life itself has evolved towards a “new paradigm of durability”. It is no longer just a qualitative reference to the expected performance over time of a material or product’s conservation, but an assessment of the duration that examines the building’s interactions with the environmental context and climatic loads, pursuing the principles of the circular approach to design. It is a new concept of durability that, through the definition of “transversal” requirements, makes it possible to put together three factors: performance, use of resources, and time.</span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Francesco Paolo Rosario MARINO, Paola MARRONE Constructive strategies and environmental assessments towards temporariness, circularity and reversibility 2020-12-21T20:19:24+00:00 Monica Lavagna Andrea Campioli Anna Dalla Valle Serena Giorgi Tecla Caroli <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Today architectural design is faced with the complex relationship between time and sustainability. In this perspective, the article reports the results of an articulated research activity, which highlights how the need for a temporary location or use of spaces can be achieved with an appropriate level of environmental sustainability, and only through long-term use of resources during the entire life cycle. The concept of “long-lasting temporariness” is outlined, based on the extension of the life of artefacts and on the reuse/recycling of resources at the end of their life, when the reversibility of construction systems, the circularity of materials, and the life cycle management of material and energy flows assume a paradigmatic role.</span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Monica Lavagna, Andrea Campioli, Anna Dalla Valle, Serena Giorgi, Tecla Caroli Time-based design for the habitat of the next future 2020-12-21T20:19:32+00:00 Anna Barbara Ingrid Paoletti <p class="p1"><span class="s1">&nbsp;Today more than ever, our habitats are subject to constant changes and reconfigurations. If the architecture of the twentieth century were devoted to the design of the forms of space, it could be said that architecture of the twenty-first century focuses on designing the forms of time. This is temporal within spatial architecture – that already exists – which through time-based design is re-functionalised, revitalised and re-signified. These scenarios are already underway, as we can verify from the ways we live the spaces using new media. They arise from the simultaneity produced by the coexistence of different realities in the same spaces, but which – on the contrary – also require forms of ubiquity to enter and leave virtual realities and digital worlds. Time-based design creates other hierarchies, compared to the spatial logics that have shaped the buildings we have lived in for millennia, because the possibility of subverting the “consecutive” sequence of spaces means working on the folds of time: a real “habitat”. The materials, therefore, become a new frontier on which time experiments in space. Their increasingly “living” performance is part of the concept of ​​a building, which arises within a temporal and spatial cycle to be reformulated, and which can be computed up to its micro-structure. The theme of time concerns all the scales of the project, from micro materials to the macro dimensions of the city. The latter is redesigned in its new morphologies by means of transport capable of deforming the Cartesian coordinates of space over time, to fold and reshape the planes, and to finally define new proximity and distances.</span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Anna Barbara, Ingrid Paoletti Schedule quality evaluation for Construction Project Management 2020-12-21T20:19:39+00:00 Marco Alvise Bragadin Kalle Kahkonen <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The construction schedule is the most important construction document as it indicates total project duration, project stages and times of activities, costs, logical sequences, quality and safety. Hence, the quality of a phase schedule presented by a contractor must be assessed by the owner’s consultant either before the commencement of works or during the bidding phase. Only few international standards concerning schedule quality exist, and most of them are not specific for construction. A construction-oriented schedule quality evaluation procedure, based upon a set of 75 requirements has been proposed. Three different versions of a construction schedule for a case study of a seismic rehabilitation project have been evaluated with the aim of performing the proposed method’s proof-of-concept.</span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Marco Alvise Bragadin, Kalle Kahkonen Historical character vs performance adaptability: case study of the church Autostrada del Sole 2020-12-21T20:19:44+00:00 Paola Gallo <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The need to “renew” the historical building heritage and, therefore, the possibility of introducing innovative technologies and components capable of ensuring its optimal performance pose the difficult question of assessing whether technological intervention for sustainable performance adaptability should be considered a “threat,” while acknowledging that it efficiently helps to safeguard an existing historical building in the long-term and to preserve its cultural value over time.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>This article presents the case study for the diagnostics, evaluation and maintenance of the Church of S. Giovanni Battista in Florence, designed by G. Michelucci after the catastrophic event of 2015 that partly destroyed its roof. </span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Paola Gallo Update in progress. Urban metabolism strategies: an application case 2020-12-21T20:19:50+00:00 Federico Orsini <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Time acts as a fundamental variable of urban transformation. In fact, changing needs can make an architecture or a technological unit obsolete over time. Precisely, this unexpected deficiency in performance can no longer be interpreted as a limitation but rather as potential to update the architecture itself. This paper fits into this framework and investigates both the potential and limitations of architecture considered an upgradeable system in which time, and the need for changes, become a variable of transformation. By analysing a case study and possible updating strategies relative to a renewed demand framework, the paper underlines the potential that modern architecture offers in terms of updating.</span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Federico Orsini Including climate change time-dimensions in bioclimatic design 2020-12-21T20:19:55+00:00 Giacomo Chiesa Jost von Hardenberg <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Traditionally, green design considers climate as a fixed property of a specific place. Nevertheless, recent changes demonstrate that this vision has to be reversed, considering climate a time-dependent parameter. This paper hybridises climatology and bioclimatic design underlining, thanks to the usage of a very recent high resolution climate reanalysis database (ERA5-Land), the impact that climate changes have on short-term periods, adopting well known building climate-related indicators. European maps are drawn considering degree-days variations (from 1981-95 to 2004-18), while typical mean 24-hour monthly days and bioclimatic charts are adopted for a limited number of locations. Results support the need to adopt climate data time variations during design phases. </span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 giacomo chiesa, Jost von Hardenberg Operational dimension of post-disaster housing temporality and technical control tools 2020-12-21T20:20:05+00:00 Roberto Bologna <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The article illustrates a theoretical research path and project experimentation on post-disaster temporary housing modules in order to verify if and how the temporary dimension of the intervention is strategic for the implementation of the transition towards reconstruction, and in line with requests for environmental sustainability. After a brief introduction on the critical issues and opportunities of temporary living in post-disaster reconstruction processes, the article describes the results of some theoretical and application research, and the effects on technical control tools in recent civil protection emergencies in Italy. In conclusion, the article proposes some useful considerations for the definition of strategic and sustainable planning connected to the temporal dimension of the post-disaster reconstruction interventions.</span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Roberto Bologna ReCycle Norcia - the metamorphosis of temporary housing solutions via permanence and innovation 2020-12-21T20:20:10+00:00 Antonella Trombadore Marco Paolini <p class="p1"><span class="s1">What is the level of in-permanence present in the idea of temporary emergency solutions? How much do these architectural solutions meet living comfort requirements? How long does an emergency last in Italy? We would like to share some reflections on the environmental quality of temporary housing structures by presenting the research experience carried out in Norcia, in close collaboration with the Municipal Administration. The study analysed the potential for regeneration and reconfiguration of housing modules designed and built to respond to the post-earthquake emergency. This is an optimistic vision of the opportunities offered by the cultural contradictions of living (permanence and change) as an exciting new frontier of the project.</span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Marco Paolini, Antonella Trombadore Building on time: the reconstruction of experimental building-yards in France and Italy (1945-55) 2020-12-21T20:20:15+00:00 Angelo Bertolazzi Ilaria Giannetti <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In the aftermath of WW2, Europe – as the main war scene – endorsed the “fast time” approach to reconstruction. Relying on optimising production-and-building processes, this approach was widely resorted to in experimental quarters, regarded as the “starting point” on which to build the technical know-how leading to the industrialisation of building techniques. This paper analyses the French and Italian experiences. They are closely linked, since in the shared choice of reinforced concrete as the most eligible material, the French experimentation provided a pattern for Italian reconstruction; so, they jointly become trailblazing researches about making building science-based and about organising building-yard work.</span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Angelo Bertolazzi, Ilaria Giannetti The time of wood in the Carlo Scarpa pavilion 2020-12-21T20:20:21+00:00 Margherita Ferrari <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The building market offers numerous wood-based products, which are often more performing and suitable for different types of processing, compared to solid wood analogues. Based on the characteristics of this category of products, design tends to seek a durability that is not typical of wood. It, therefore, clashes with traditional practice, which recognises the natural transformation of the material over time and provides for its maintenance and replacement. The restoration of the water pavilion’s wooden parts in the Brion funeral complex provides an opportunity to reflect on the value of time, not only in relation to the material transformation, but also to the construction rationale, through archival research and site investigations.</span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Margherita Ferrari The time of the short twentieth century. Growth of values and decay of matter 2020-12-21T20:20:26+00:00 Stefano Francesco Musso Giovanna Franco <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The article deals with some cultural and methodological reflections developed within a European research project focused on the enhancement of the architectural heritage built in the first half of Twentieth Century. On such a heritage, which has still not been historicised, the community as a whole does not express unanimous judgements of value; at the same time, it is extremely fragile with respect to the aggressive actions linked to the passage of time. In fact, the time of the «short age» acted in different ways, increasing the value of the architectures (with regard to their critical fortune and authorship) but, also, highlighting their intrinsic fragilities and, sometimes, their design and constructive defects. The research just launched aims at defining some criteria, shared at an international level, to identify the most significant buildings/artefacts and the most appropriate methodologies of social inclusion and of technical nature for their conservation and future valorisation. We will do so also taking into account the unforeseeable effects the recent pandemic will have on our lives and cities.</span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Stefano Francesco Musso, Giovanna Franco Innovative management tools of quality performance over time for historical and monumental buildings 2020-12-21T20:20:32+00:00 Roberto Di Giulio Beatrice Turillazzi Andre van Delft Oana Schippers-Trifan <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The success of the strategies for safeguarding, preserving and maintaining the precious assets of the huge European Cultural Heritage still represents a challenge that many countries tackle with limited or inadequate actions or systems, despite the fact that the international community is now aware of the serious risks endangering its heritage. The nature of this fragile context requires the knowledge of data and information other than the technical and construction characteristics of buildings. The paper describes an innovative management tool for inspection and maintenance of historical and monumental buildings, developed within the Horizon 2020 European research project INCEPTION (Inclusive Cultural Heritage in Europe through 3D semantic modelling).</span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Di Giulio, Turillazzi, Schippers-Trifan, Van Delft Maintenance and Service Life Planning: process and interconnection 2020-12-21T20:20:39+00:00 Maria Azzalin <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The horror pleni that Dorfles identifies with «Too much information, too many images, too many noises» is equivalent to the “Tzunami of information” that, according to Floridi, has invested the company in the last decade. Hypertrophy of the sign for the first, infosphere and onlife are the terms from which to start working on the second. A fourth revolution in which the expression onlife defines the new perimeter of our daily activities and ICT technologies, among these the IoT, increasingly configure the environment we live in and influence the processes related to maintaining quality in time and to life cycle assessment. It is not a new theme; the approaches brought about by digital transformation have been innovated. Equally worthy of challenge are the new problems and the new complexities related to interoperability and Big Data Analytics.</span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Maria Azzalin Facing time. Temporary wooden housing units for the non-self-sufficient elderly 2020-12-21T20:20:44+00:00 Francesca Camerin Francesco Incelli Massimo Rossetti <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The paper presents the results of a research funded by the Veneto Region concerning the study of innovative temporary wooden housing units for the hospitalisation and accommodation of elderly people in the case of functional requalification of buildings used as care homes. The project originates from the observation that existing buildings used as care homes may often need to be redeveloped. In this scenario, a temporary housing unit with advanced comfort and energy saving features may, therefore, constitute an optimal solution for the protection of elderly people and, at the same time, to experiment with new models of living, besides possibly adapting them for permanent accommodation.</span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Francesca Camerin, Francesco Incelli, Massimo Rossetti The shape of life 2020-12-21T20:20:56+00:00 Vittorio Uccelli Paolo Zermani <p class="p3"><span class="s2">This is a wonderful opportunity to be able to discuss architecture with one of the most intense architects on the international scene; one whose work deftly interweaves poetry and brickwork, penetrating glances and highly specific references, works of art and local patterns, all parts of a network of knowledge and expertise that engages with a surviving contemporaneity whilst having its roots in the fathomless depths of history.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">Paolo Zermani is a true architect, because he always accepts the verification of construction when ideas become walls that are ravaged by the judgement of time. His line of research has, for years, engaged with a transforming landscape and the variation of its identity, and it is precisely through this </span><span class="s3"><em>critical practice </em></span><span class="s2">– part of the process of his projects – that a role that is key to our discipline is activated, one which architecture seems to have forgotten in recent decades.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">I find the shy, almost secluded nature shown by Zermani’s work very interesting indeed. It is a nature that expresses a contagious conviction, provided that we are willing to plumb its depths, going beyond the surface that now, more than ever, seems to be of prime interest to today’s rambunctious and widely-approved architectural scene.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">I must admit that the work of very architects indeed interests me, regardless of their fame, the scale of their works, and the period of history in which they are, or were, operating; indeed, I do not care to differentiate between the works of contemporary architects and those of the architects of the past. When observing other people’s work, I try to capitalise on the experience, treasuring it through a process aimed exclusively at enriching my knowledge, and with no other purpose than to “learn how it’s done”. And it is through this lens that I view the work of Paolo Zermani.</span></p> <p class="p4"><span class="s2">Materials</span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2">Vittorio Uccelli. <em>Recently, I happened to reflect upon the use of materials in architecture, the processes that lead us to choose them and the techniques that our craft provides us with to represent them. Personally speaking, I prefer to set up a fully-fledged “test run”, observing it at different times of day and in different weather conditions, which allows me to see how it will actually react to the light.</em></span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2"><em>I believe that the conscious use of materials – that is, the choice of certain materials – is a way of passing into timelessness. Certain building materials, such as stone or brick, firmly bind us to the uninterrupted flow of history. And that is why they cannot be represented in advance: because it would be like attempting to anticipate the past, present and future all at once.</em></span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s3">Paolo Zermani. </span><span class="s2">Over the years, a pile of wood has formed between my home and the forest, created by that which the forest naturally returns to its maker. Slowly, the yet-unburned portion of wood in the fireplace is transformed into a dark, fertile ash that becomes one with the earth. From this humus, new trees may spring up. I could say that my house was born in the same way and that this perspective characterises my work. The old brick kilns which emerged from the ground, in this case, indicated the materials for the new construction. </span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">Unfortunately, the apparently prolific relationship we see between architecture and technology is just that: an appearance. The response to the need to equip various types of housing with environmentally-friendly energy efficiency technologies is the most glaringly obvious example of this: a one-size-fits-all supply of bulky equipment with limited actual effectiveness, coloured with some sort of bizarre ‘eco-friendly’ disguise, resulting in the definitive amnesia of the typological character of the building. In the name of the semblance of environmental responsibility, architects conceive farfetched ideas for buildings which subsequently garner support and serve to assuage the clients’ guilty conscience. These false experiments – which pervert the natural vocations of the materials they use by inhibiting, through prosthesis, their technical truth – definitively destroy the meaning of the technologies and typologies available, as they have been provided to us by experience. This misconception distracts us from true research into materials, techniques, into the values of energy, intrinsic to each individual place yet always delegated, in architecture, to the specificity of its own measures of the environment, either untouched or transformed, to their giving and changing, which is neither neutral nor generalisable. </span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">The great process that is inherent to the building material, which has always been characterised and resolved in the continuity between the material structure of the land and the internal structure that belongs to the construction (stone becoming ashlar, tuff becoming block, clay becoming brick), has been abruptly interrupted. This abuse of materials, this jam in the chain of transmission of techniques, formerly linked to the specificities of each place of origin, has therefore stimulated naive support for the more commercial proposals which do not even represent an evolution by contrast.</span></p> <p class="p4"><span class="s2">Persistence and measure</span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2">V.U. <em>I believe that the secret of true architecture – that is, that long-lasting, material architecture that enters into a dialogue with history and is born out of its location – consists of refusing to remain caged in a limited period of time. And therein, perhaps, lies its extraordinary value as a discipline that is free and not bound to its contemporaneity. This is an idea that we can verify continuously, because the great works of the past stand before us, concrete and fateful, complete in their theoretical lesson and their physicality; but also inclined, by their very nature, to become part of another time, perhaps even our time. I believe it to be fundamental to look to the past to try and reveal the secret of that which persists in architecture, because the lasting principles of our craft exist in that dimension. </em></span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2"><em>Persistence is an interesting trait, because it has been put to the test, it has withstood all the trials and tribulations of time, and it is in persistence that history guarantees – by way of a process of selection – a certain quality, a certain truth, and therefore a state of necessity. Whilst pre-existing has a different meaning, because it merely indicates something that was present before, it is not necessarily a property that denotes any sort of qualitative merit. I believe that this is an interesting distinction, precisely because it confronts us with a problem of choice during the design phase: in my opinion, persistent is more interesting than pre-existing, precisely because we can find a measure of persistence.</em></span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s3">P.Z. </span><span class="s2">True: pre-existence taken as a detectable quality, and therefore as persistence, determines the measure.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">Since the times of Roman architecture, Italian architecture has presented a set of clearly-recognisable original features which, acquired by the progressive evolution of the classical style, have constituted a heritage that was drawn upon until the end of the nineteenth century. These features are defined through constant, repeated figures. Other features, in architecture as in the backdrops of pictorial art, define a regional truth, i.e. a corpus of more intimate revelations, capable of helping us to understand the evolution of Italian architecture as a sequence of micro-stories, steeped in stylistic and spatial connotations specific to a setting. </span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">As such, over time the picture outlines an overall Italian identity and a collection of regional identities, all totally heterogeneous and differentiated between themselves, which do not escape the wider scope of a unitary design, but rather contribute to it through differences and distinctions. During the transitional period of the early twentieth century, the Modern style, as far as architecture was concerned, interpreted these differences, revealing itself over the course of a difficult path and until the end of the 1950s, then again with some significant isolated experiences. This is the originality of the Italian condition which, up to a certain point, kept us safe from any type of deviation, keeping the compass of architecture’s autonomy steady, safe in the knowledge that the instruments of the discipline are the same as they have ever been and that they cannot be confused, bent or distorted. </span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">The tragedy of the landscape, brought on by the 20th century, has now changed the distance between things, triggering an alteration of centuries-old relationships. Even our architecture schools are invaded by pitiful reproductions of clichés born out of architectural consumerism. In this context, it may even seem seditious to invoke words such as rule and measure. But it would be unthinkable to replace that system, in the jaws of a crisis, with a derivative solution. We know that we have to fill the riverbed that has these words as its banks with the uncertainties and contradictions of our time.</span></p> <p class="p4"><span class="s2">Construction</span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2">V.U. <em>I see you as a very poetic architect, precisely because you are very concrete. Very poetic and concrete because you create your architecture with brick and stone, cement and iron, yes – but also using the place, the time, the land, the light and the silence as elements of construction on a par with any tangible material. I am very interested in this approach, when you no longer notice the distance between a brick wall and a passing cloud, or between a glimpse of the landscape and a painting. There is no need to add any emphasis to all this poetry, because in any case, once it has been built, it has become reality through the measure that has been found and is therefore prepared to accept the test of human life. </em></span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2"><em>The measure finds its proper place between poetry and material; others might say between heaven and earth. The same measure that guarantees the identity of places, and that will safeguard the Italian landscape from becoming debris “«[...] if we continue to measure it». </em></span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s3">P.Z. </span><span class="s2">When St. Francis wanted to rebuild the church of Portiuncula, abandoned and reduced to crumbling walls, according to St. Bonaventure, he went out in search of money and materials. That concrete act was how he translated the very sense of belonging to the landscape, near the leper hospitals of Santa Maddalena and San Salvatore. Nowadays, in the time of technical reproducibility, architecture – put to the test by the drama of the transformation that is underway – seems unable to find the time to recognise the results of experience or to question the differing nature of each individual act of construction. The oblivion of history and the aversion to rules manifest themselves just as cynically as the indifference to the critical significance of the current state of places and the determination of their desperate resistance.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">And yet, even when the building is new, any construction is always a reconstruction, with all the enormous weight that brings with it. As far back as in the stories of the Bible, with regard to the building of Solomon’s temple, the act of construction was invested with the significance of an exemplary gesture, one of all-encompassing cosmic meaning.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">Italian cities and their landscape have now taken on the evocative structure of a superior mosaic whose pattern presents an equal quantity of gaps and anguished, surviving fragments. Nearly a century ago, Rudolf Borchardt already spoke of “a brilliant totality of rubble”.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"> The twentieth century ignored this consideration, and its desire to immerse itself in the contemporary still to this day produces a certain blindness, a crippling shortsightedness. Guido Ceronetti clearly spoke about the “fragments of beauty” that await us.</span></p> <p class="p4"><span class="s2">Theory and experience</span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2">V.U. <em>Your work interests me not only because I agree with the positions it takes, but more importantly because those positions are constantly called into question and verified by the construction.</em></span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2"><em>To paraphrase Massimo Cacciari, we could say that architecture is a discipline that lies exactly on the threshold, on the border between knowledge, in terms of number, form and disposition, forced – unlike other arts – to continuously reflect upon its principles. This is why any reflection upon the principles of a techne can only occur if tension is maintained between the theory and the test of construction, the first inevitable aim of architecture. On the other hand, building satisfies an ancestral need much like hunting, fishing, gathering fruit, etc.; the need to build a refuge exists within us as members of a living species that naturally seeks shelter. But the comparison with this that this practice expresses, or represents, or stages, goes beyond the mere satisfaction of a need: it interacts with a desire to never die, with the need for eternity. And this destination only becomes real when theory transforms into experience, through construction. A process which, by analogy, we also find in poetry. On the other hand, without a comparison with some form of reality, poetry would mean nothing.</em></span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s3">P.Z. </span><span class="s2">A master of the art of cinema, Andreji Tarkovskij, who lived in the Italian landscape for the last quarter of the last century and measured its changed distances, believed that framing played a fundamental role in the construction of the final story. Indeed, this key operation already contains the meaning of things within itself.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">He allows editing only the fate of making the best selection of that which has already been seen in the shot, precluding it from taking the role of a practice which combines possible solutions and, above all, depriving it from the outset of any gratuitous technical creativity that it may otherwise lay claim to.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">The truth of editing lies in its connection of the time contained in the shots that have been filmed, which already contain the innermost truth of time in themselves.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">And it is time itself, imprinted into each frame, that dictates to the director such and such criteria for editing, whilst, as they say, “you can’t edit together” – that is, it would be a bad fit – any sequences in which a radically different form of the existence of time has been established. So too in architecture, no possibility can be left to the result of a combinatory exercise to be performed at the table, to each inconsistent graphic artifice, and no content can be revealed, corroded in its entirety, by the haste of collages and the sophistication of graphics. A gratuitous game of images attacks the nigh-archaeological substance of a civilisation that wishes itself dead or buried whilst, clinging to the earth and its legend, it insists upon the urgency of a truth.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">Thus the drama of each Italian building or city is defined by precise measures which continue to emerge and cement themselves on the earth, to engage with the passing of time and determine its intensity.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">Nobody can abstractly manipulate its flow.</span></p> <p class="p4"><span class="s2">Scale</span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2">V.U. <em>I share a passion with Paolo Zermani, namely Attilio Bertolucci, a poet with whom each of us has been acquainted with in our own way. Zermani more directly, in his fully-fledged friendship with the poet; mine, meanwhile, is a more deferred relationship, having chosen Casarola as my home precisely because it was chosen by the poet, whose work I love but whom I was never lucky enough to meet, our paths never having crossed in time. But this experience, despite the discrepancy in time, has never lost its power – if anything, it has only helped to reinforce the legendary figure of Bertolucci that I had conjured up and found confirmed in Zermani’s anecdotes. But more importantly, it enabled me to look at the work of both artists with the necessary detachment, given that they are so comparable in some respects.</em></span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2"><em>I refer in particular to the constant change of scale that is ever-present in the poetics of both of them, and which is reflected in the mutual exchange between the general and the specific, the everyday and the exceptional, the private and the public. Between the intimacy of “weekdays” and the whole world. </em></span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2"><em>I believe that this thought has taken architectural shape in the library of Casa Zermani, where the fireplace – the heart and hearth of the house – provides a contrast with the oculus which reveals a close relationship between the centre of the house and the Via Francigena, an ancient road of construction of the territory which has been radiating outwards for centuries, finally reaching its cornerstones. This relationship embodies that mutual change of scale that seems to invite everyday life to aspire to something greater, going beyond not just its place, but also time itself.</em></span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2"><em>On the other hand, what does it mean to open a book, let your mind wander and, through its pages, reach unimaginable places?</em></span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s3">P.Z. </span><span class="s2">Of course, the problem of scale is central to grasping the new measure of things.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">Casarola is the epicentre of the poetry of Attilio Bertolucci, a man with whom I shared a friendship and an outlook. The term ‘epicentre’ frames rather precisely the point of application or the source of a poetic phenomenon which, rich though it may be in measured sweetness, is not idyllic, but rather constantly crossed by subterranean tremors, marked above all by departures and returns. This is where the family home is, the starting point for the poem in verse entitled “La camera da letto” (“The Bedroom”), which increasingly concentrates its gaze as it shifts from the topography of the landscape to the topography of the house: as the narrative flows, we return from that room of the house to the two streets, to the plains, to the cities, Parma and Rome.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">The narrative of the poem and Bertolucci’s entire poetic construction are founded upon the repetition of this double journey, there and back; its speed and its timing; its extended pauses and the ways in which it unfolds. How is it that time and place come together in poetry? And at what point do the words become measures?</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">The initial image of “La camera da letto” has established the meaning of the verses on the threshold of the newly-built house, and thus between inside and outside, and this is the same threshold on which the poet so adores being portrayed.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">It was Pasolini – a guest of the poet on multiple occasions, not only in Rome, but also in the Apennines – who summarised Casarola and the family home’s sense of belonging to a wider landscape, a continuous inside-outside in the time and place of the twentieth century.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">“La lucertola di Casarola” (“The Lizard of Casarola”) is the title of the poet’s final collection of verses, published in 1997, as well as its opening poem.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>Bertolucci returns to the front door of the house and its universal value for a departure that is an ode to life, describing the most defenceless and fragile animal, but one whose body – if wounded – reforms itself over time, the altered measures of which come back together in its new form.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">It was in January of that year, a few short months after construction was completed on my house, that “La lucertola di Casarola” became the first book to grace the library which serves as its heart, the medium through which the things of the house are transferred to the street and those of the street into the house.</span></p> <p class="p4"><span class="s2">A liberated gaze</span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2">V.U. <em>I have always loved architectures that develop an element through which our gaze can be freed and liberated, and with it, our imagination and spirituality. I refer to that element belonging to the construction thanks to which the architecture establishes a relationship with the clouds, the sky, the stars; as is the case with the oculus of the Pantheon, for example, or with the “comet of Sant’Andrea in Mantua”. But as is also the case in many architectures in which windows and loggias, as well as walls and alignments, specific references and landmarks, radiate the architecture into the area in an ideal way. I find these architectural elements to be very interesting when they take on this meaning, precisely because they raise the purpose from mere function to poetic significance, on the cusp of the indecipherable.</em></span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2"><em>I think that in your work, it is possible to identify a sort of circular path, composed of architectures that feed upon these elements, which are at times made explicit and at others unveiled with prudence and discretion. A path which – in my opinion – starts from the round window in the library in Varano and finishes with the skylight in the Temple in Valera, facing heaven. That relationship is one which fascinates me greatly, because on the one hand I see reason projected into infinity by the oculus of “Enlightenment”, whilst on the other, I see spirituality which, like a breath, is invited upon whoever it may be, wherever they may be, once again surpassing time and space – perhaps even eternally.</em></span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s3">P.Z. </span><span class="s2">A loss of sight, be it from near or far, represents a different degree of physical and psychological impairment. According to Aldous Huxley, a loss of sight is a physiological occurrence, but it is the cumulative result of a series of factors that go beyond the sphere of the clinical and in fact have their roots in the soul. Huxley is the same man who, visiting Sabbioneta in the early 1900s, noticed how the inhabitants of this town founded by Vespasiano Gonzaga, farmers and horse traders, lived amongst architectural treasures of the late Renaissance without seeing them. By following this logical thread, perhaps we can claim the existence of a contemporary disease which began a century ago and which has now degenerated, leaving us incapable of recognising the very objects we observe.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">In the Western condition – and more than ever in the Italian condition – it is as James Hillman says: «We cannot imagine anything, or do anything, that has not already been given its form by the archetypal imagination of the Gods». Indeed, even in our disenchanted present time, the form of seeing cannot be separated from the face that the eyecup of a camera or video camera has the proportions of the proscenium of a classical theatre. As a result, at a time when the distances between things are suffering a crisis, the transformation of the landscape that condemns us to an inability to see and recognise seems increasingly to be a “vain escape from the Gods”. We cannot exist without mythical figures which represent the ideal parameters. But if we analyse our disease, Hillman tells us, «disabusing ourselves of the illusion that the archetype is primordially pristine, [...] in other words, if we recognise an original disease of the archetype», the future no longer seems so dark. Even the archetypal myth which we have always taken as a point of reference was, in fact, subject to </span><span class="s3"><em>infirmitas</em></span><span class="s2">. Hillman thus identifies, de facto, a new and reformed visual possibility, a path of refoundation each time it becomes necessary, which takes into account the barrenness and suffering of the present.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">In my work, I seek out these cracks and peer through them.</span></p> <p class="p4"><span class="s2">Expressiveness</span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2">V.U. <em>I think I can state that good architectures always bring two aspects with them. On the one hand, rationality and a certain objectivity in dealing with problems; on the other, they always display an emotional aspect which is tied to the creator’s personal experience. In other words, they contain something that is perhaps intuitable, but difficult to explain. </em></span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2"><em>I feel that your work is also made up of these two “substances”. What is surprising, however, is that in its efforts to be conveyed, all the expressiveness contained within it never resorts to expressionist forms, forced and boisterous, or taking on formal references from outside our discipline. In other words, all the expressive content is conveyed by means of the traditional elements of architecture – of architecture as it has always been and which, for this precise reason, allows for a dialogue between distant eras and different generations. </em></span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2"><em>On the other hand, I think that history always exists in the present in architecture.</em></span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s3">P.Z. </span><span class="s2">Expressiveness is a condition more than it is a form.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">Referring to the transformation and illumination of invisible and confused matter, even Augustine, in his speculation produced from earthly matter to reach the core of the sacred, evoking the words «Let there be light and there was light», is astonished: «So many things have I written with so few words – so many things!».</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">Faced with the shipwreck of the landscape that the twentieth century introduced and that we are still living in today, in which matter as a whole, through the fault of man, is once again becoming similarly imperceptible and formless, new and urgent things must be excavated, written and ordered by art, in order to admit them to a soberly-lit zone of suspension that attributes measure and meaning to reality and pursues its higher truth. The silence I am referring to, with regard to architecture, is not, therefore, a matter of form, even if it affects form. The principle of suspension itself, of distancing from the process underway, expressed with today’s rugged materials, constitutes the fundamental critical condition for design, which, conversely, qualifies its existence in the present reality.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">Suddenly, silence appears and its presence does not impose itself upon the unjustified frenzy of our words, but perhaps it is expressive – perhaps it has something to say.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">As the shadow sustains the light, so too does silence sustain the words that are necessary.</span></p> <p class="p4"><span class="s2">Grounding</span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2">V.U. <em>What is striking in your work is the bold, peremptory way in which the architecture rises out of the earth. The “ground zero” of architecture, in which its highest expression takes shape, in clearly showcasing that primordial act of architecture itself: a wall rising up, bursting out of the earth.</em></span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2"><em>It is this dynamic gesture, in my opinion, that makes architecture foundational. This is how the true construction of a place and an area takes place, starting from the construction of the ground itself. Is the foundation not the one element that architecture can never forego? In other words, the element that resolves the contact between the architecture and the ground, the architecture and the horizon?</em></span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2"><em>At the end of the day, we find everything that clarifies the building where the grounding is laid: we find its position, its alignments, its typological evidence, its relationship with the orography. In other words: we find the ground being translated into architecture.</em></span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s3">P.Z.</span><span class="s2"> Let us reflect further upon the structure of architectural time.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">In architecture, this theme strikes up a surprising analogy between two elements: the foundation and the tumulus. The former gradually falls apart, losing its material unity. The latter is formed at the precise moment at which – with the adventure of the body of man, with the decline of the civilisation that marks its existence – the usefulness of the evidence of the former ends. Between these two states, architecture withstands the changing conditions to continue to feed our need for beauty, for appropriateness, for identification. At the moment of the dematerialisation of the body – transient by definition – the tumulus, a foundation that supports nothing but contains the body itself, is reformed as a way of paying it tribute and respect.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">Indeed, Western culture considers the buried body to be the origin of civilisation. The foundational value of death constitutes the covenant that establishes the value of time, memory and history. It is in the manifestation of time deposited by memory that we acquire an awareness of the transience of life and architecture, but also the challenge posed to the possibility of achieving eternity. It is upon death, therefore, that our sense of time is built, and consequently our sense of the work, and therefore paradoxically the continuity of life. Starting from this unbroken ground, the time of architecture is reformed on each occasion. Architecture has the power to sculpt time, without being allowed to halt its ceaseless march. As for my own approach, I always work with an awareness of this powerful and fragile foundation that falls apart and reconstitutes itself.</span></p> <p class="p4"><span class="s2">Precision</span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2">V.U. <em>The issue of precision in architecture is very important, because it is through precision that we achieve the delicateness that is always adjacent to appropriateness.</em></span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2"><em>Our area needs this sensitivity, as now more than ever, each architectural insertion takes place is fragile, tormented places, just one step away from irreversible disaster. That is why each architectural intervention must be precise in seeking out the rules and proportions that dictate its reasons, that reveal its exact measure, the “word-music”, to borrow from Jorge Luis Borges.</em></span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2"><em>Through the precision of the artifice, by which I mean the flawless coincidence between the form and the due substance, the artist leads us from the visible to the threshold of the invisible in order to reconnect spaces and times in torn-apart territories. «Only thus can we hope that our time flows into the long time of architecture». </em></span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s3">P.Z.</span><span class="s2"> “Art is a weapon”, wrote Iozif Brodskji in 1987, «determined not by the individuality of the artist, but by the dynamics and logic of the material itself, by the previous fate of the means that require (or suggest) a qualitatively new aesthetic solution on each occasion».</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s1">The “previous fate” mentioned by the Russian poet is actually the dictate of language, in the awareness that it is not language that is his tool, but in fact he himself who is the means through which language exists: «the feeling is that of being in direct contact with language, or, more precisely, the feeling of falling into a state of addition to language – to all that which has been expressed, written and obtained in this language. This addiction is absolute and despotic – but it is also liberating. Indeed, as it is always older than the writer, language still possesses the boundless centrifugal energy bestowed upon it by its temporal potential, that is, by all the time that it has before it [...], not only because language is a longer-lasting thing than man, but because it is more capable of mutation than man [...]. Anyone who writes a poem writes it because language suggests – or even simply dictates – the next line to them».</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">With regard to the relationship between thought and work in architecture, and with language and time being considered as two of the founding elements of any architectural expression, we could say that it is through time that the dictate of language expresses itself, changing itself as it does.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">The language we speak has clearly determined the forms around us and live with us, establishing a constructed order for them which time has acted upon and changed, and nowadays, our duty seems to be that of responding to what language has decided should be questioned.</span></p> <p class="p4"><span class="s2">The final horizon</span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s2">V.U. <em>I believe that today more than ever, there is a need for architecture whose ultimate goal is the pursuit of a happy relationship between the building and the skyline; a relationship that declares the need for the architecture to be completed through the landscape and the location, to carry out its task of active criticism towards it. On this subject, one of the most brilliant and poetic – yet also absolutely useful and functional – intuitions that emerges in your work, and that constitutes a real and active criticism exercised by the architecture towards the condition of the territory, defines that vanishing points on the horizon that is constantly moving in relation to the spread of the «wound on the body of the world». I believe that the final horizon, taken in this way, is a means of measuring space and time.</em></span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s3">P.Z. </span><span class="s2">If you look at the plans for my works, you will notice that typologically speaking, they are composed by means of a journey towards the essence of the places being designed. Friendship and mutual exchange with photographers, from Luigi Ghirri to Giovanni Chiaramonte to Mauro Davoli, has undoubtedly contributed to this approach, in which architecture attempts to summarise the sense of the things that the eye – but not the eye alone – perceives.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s4">«Here, in Italy, I witnessed the turn of the century» observed Romano Guardini in his “Letters from Lake Como”, between 1923 and 1925. In nine letters dedicated to the relationship between man and technology, moving between the shores of the lake and the places of Manzoni, observing the changing horizon, Guardini outlines the condition of man in the early twentieth century, confronted with the first true artificiality of existence. Moving beyond nature, man’s age-old prerogative in his relationship with nature itself, is already boundless in a superficial abstraction. “The mechanical process” writes Guardini, «has the same character as conceptual thought. Both dominate objects, coming out of their original relationship with the specific, indicating them all with a sign which substitutes them and thus creating an artificial order in which – more or less – all objects can align themselves».</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">He cites the example of the fireplace, placed at the heart of the Italian home: «In all Italian houses of old, especially in the countryside, you will find an open fireplace in the room. This is also a fact that is connected to the deepest roots of human existence: the once-free fire is imprisoned, its flame enslaved, and it serves to warm others. As such, there is “ingenuity” in this work, and nature has been reworked by man [...] I know the inebriation of fire, the primitive power of the untamed flame. In the case of the fireplace, however, it is entirely diminished – it becomes farther away, detached somehow. This was the price paid for the first work of culture. But nature still remains nearby: there is a real fire, blazing, still lit and kept alive by man».</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">“Now, however,” notes Guardini, «the dominion of man has spread even further». He «instead replaces individual achievements with a summarising, amalgamated concept. [...] As such, man remains within the sphere of substitutions, signs and expedients, in an order that is no longer the primitive, original one, that which is given immediately, but rather a secondary order: derived, composite, abstract, unreal [...]».</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">The continuous shifting of the line that marks out our space and our gaze tells us that real space is growing smaller and smaller, but we are still able to see.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">Now, of course, my work takes a very critical approach in observing this unreality and abstraction, chasing the only form that I believe still makes sense in the remaining horizon: the form of life.</span></p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Vittorio Uccelli/Paolo Zermani Rewiews 2020-12-21T20:22:31+00:00 Francesca Giglio <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><em>Time and Architecture</em></span><span class="s2">. The aspects that involve its dichotomous and synchronic relationship (De Fusco, 2019)<sup>1</sup>, make it a constantly present topic in the architectural debate, intrinsic to any disciplinary aspect. The multiplicity of meanings that the relationship between the two terms can trigger, continuously widens its field of investigation and its interpretation.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>On the interpretation of Time, Vittorio Gregotti, in the last period of his life, wanted to leave a further testimony. He read and recounted it as past, present and future as the structural material of the design in relation to space, place and use. With regret for not having been able to enrich the Reviews section with “Tempo e Progetto”<sup>2</sup>, we want to remember him with his words: «The architectural design is the ability to produce, in the present and in the future, fragments of new truths, which never forget the critical territory of the past, the history of its discipline and its context</span><span class="s1"><em>»</em></span><span class="s2"> (Gregotti, 2020). A concept that is more actual than ever, confronting an epochal period of particular criticality, transition, in which all professional categories are called to give a contribution to tell a Time that is changing, also and above all, in relation to Architecture. Gaetano Pesce’s exhibition, “Il rumore del tempo” (The noise of time) in 2005 at the Milan Triennale, already recounted the omens, with a holistic vision between Design, Music, Art, Architecture, to stage the absolute subjectivity of the relationship with Time and therefore its inevitable relativity.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>Taking up the words of Osip Mandel’štam<sup>3</sup> (2014) “time makes noise when we tell an era” as expressed by dichotomies such as Temporariness/Durability, Reversibility/Permanence that represent and typify our Time – perhaps critical for Architecture – in the new paradigms of interpretation of space, performance, languages, building techniques.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s3">The Reviews section proposes three texts selected according to a method that refers to the topics related to the relationship between Time and Architecture: the first, with regard to the disciplinary field of Technology of Architecture, the second more general but referable to the Architecture Area, the third as an essay on the Theme. Three research experiences with different approaches, which see in the relationship with Time: the Temporariness as a new constructive paradigm, the unfinished as a provocative architectural style and the Physics as the main road to study its theoretical principles. The first text – “Il progetto del temporaneo. Tra ricerca e formazione: dispositivi per l’arte, la cultura, il patrimonio”, by Antonio Capestro and Leonardo Zaffi (2019), Didapress, Florence – is reviewed by Danila Longo<sup>4</sup>. The text addresses the theme of Temporariness through four research sections conducted by the two authors at the Department of Architecture in Florence. The text addresses the theme of Temporariness through four research sections conducted by the two authors at the Department of Architecture in Florence. Temporary architecture is read and proposed as a work programmed to die, which exasperates the constituent elements, accelerates the design and building processes and condenses the cultures of the design. In this context, D. Longo traces the salient traits on the relationship between ephemeral spaces of exhibition design and historical Florentine contexts, on the constructive dimension of temporary architecture, on design experiments and experiences of self-construction and on the final photographic sequence of site-specific architecture, with critical analysis and method with respect to the articulation and concatenation of the themes addressed. The concept of Temporariness, although with a different latent meaning, finds its derivation also in that phenomenon that is rampant in Italy – mainly in the South of Italy – which is the Incompletion. The project of the Unfinished and its relationship with the passing of time is told and read as an architectural style, bordering on the provocative, through critical writings and photographs in “Incompiuto: La nascita di uno Stile”, Humboldt (2018), edited by Alterazioni Video and Fosbury Architecture<sup>5</sup> , reviewed by Matteo Gambaro<sup>6</sup>. The phenomenon of contemporary ruins described and denounced in the text in quantitative and qualitative terms, is treated by M. Gambaro with a spirit that goes beyond the risk of a trivial interpretation. By reporting Marco Biraghi’s words on the unfinished as «typically Italian modus operandi, a de facto style, a malgré soi style», he highlights both the rigorous aspects through which the research activity on the subject has been tackled and the innovative inputs that the subject proposes. The review interweaves in a balanced way the photographic contributions together with the critical essays, underlining also the role of the heterogeneous communicative modalities that the text proposes. <span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>The description of the passage and transformation of Time – in its results on unfinished architecture – is translated into scientific and theoretical aspects in the third text “L’ordine del tempo”, Adelphi (2017) by Carlo Rovelli, reviewed by Alessandra Zanelli<sup>7</sup>. The text is divided into three parts: the first defines time as a complex collection of layers, the second concerns what we know today about time, the third identifies the challenge we can take on for the future. A. Zanelli describes every nuance of the text with incisiveness, telling it as a journey through time and space that forces us to come to terms with three essential aspects of our nature as observers of the cosmos: incessant curiosity, the need to find an order to what we see or think we understand, the desire to connect events through memory. As a corollary of these theories, Rovelli’s studies on loop quantum gravity equations show that the variable Time no longer exists, identifying new concepts of spatiality. </span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s3">The theme of Time will never be exhausted in its contents and its extensions; also present in the candidacy of Parma as Italian Capital of Culture 2020 (extended to 2021) as an instrument of regeneration through culture, of the ability to rhythm the life of cities, and to break down historical and social barriers through processes of sharing and growth<sup>8</sup>, the relationship between Time and Architecture, will continue to be constantly nourished also for and in the idea of the project «which must reveal itself [...], as a long bridge between the critical judgment on the present, the consciousness of the past, and a possible necessary hypothesis of the future» (Gregotti, 2020).</span></p> <p class="p2">NOTES</p> <p class="p1"><span class="s3"><sup>1</sup> De Fusco, R. (2019), </span><span class="s4"><em>Linguistica, Semiotica e Architettura</em></span><span class="s3">, Altralinea, Firenze.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s3"><sup>2</sup> Gregotti, V. (2020), </span><span class="s4"><em>Tempo e progetto</em></span><span class="s3">, Skira.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s3"><sup>3</sup> Mandel’štam, O. (2014), </span><span class="s4"><em>Il rumore del tempo e altri scritti</em></span><span class="s3">, Adelphi.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s3"><sup>4</sup> Danila Longo is Associate Professor of Technology of Architecture at the Department of Architecture of Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s3"><sup>5</sup> Alterazioni Video and Fosbury Architecture are two collectives of artists and architects with Milanese origins and international branches in Europe and the USA.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s3"><sup>6</sup> Matteo Gambaro is Associate Professor of Technology of Architecture at the Department of Architecture Construction Engineering and Built Environment (ABC) Politecnico of Milano. </span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s3"><sup>7</sup> Alessandra Zanelli is Full Professor of Technology of Architecture at the Department of Architecture Construction Engineering and Built Environment (ABC) Politecnico of Milano.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s3"><sup>8</sup> Manifesto, </span><span class="s4"><em>culture beats Time</em></span><span class="s3">, Parma Capitale italiana della cultura 2020.</span></p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Francesca Giglio Antonio Capestro, Leonardo Zaffi, Il progetto del temporaneo. Tra ricerca e formazione: dispositivi per l’arte, la cultura, il patrimonio 2020-12-21T20:22:56+00:00 Danila Longo <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Temporary architecture is </span><span class="s2"><em>«</em></span><span class="s1">an exercise of extreme synthesis» – says Italo Lupi – </span><span class="s2"><em>«</em></span><span class="s1">which, on the other hand, has a remarkable communicative capacity, immediate, within everyone’s reach». In its ephemeral nature, it sums up the theoretical and experimental strength of this kind of architecture that finds its meaning in its own destiny.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This kind of work is born programmed to die. It exasperates the elements of architecture, accelerates the design and construction processes, summarizes the cultures of the project, identifies a dimension of specific design, where the conceptual and creative aspects are connected to the constructive and technological ones.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">These complex elements, investigated in the book by Capestro and Zaffi, are deepened through a clear structure of contents, composed of four thematic sections. It is pleasant to leaf through it. Nevertheless, it must be explored in depth in its effective articulation to understand its essence. It is part of the series “Ricerche di architettura, restauro, paesaggio, design, città e territorio”, conceived by the publishing house to disseminate the results of research in the specific field. And this text is a mix of experiences of research activities integrated with didactic activities on the topic of temporary architectures, and related expressive and technological potential.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The first part, signed by Capestro, is focused on a reflection on the relationship between ephemeral spaces and the historical contexts in Florence that host the installations. The relationship between permanence and temporariness expresses itself in the potential for activation of the places through temporary interventions in significant historic places. </span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">It is a reflection on temporariness as a declination of an apparently ephemeral architecture which measures itself with historical spaces in a light but careful way. It is an applicative possibility that leaves a relative freedom linked to the temporariness of the intervention and that allows to evaluate the results of the design phases, verifying its feasibility, effectiveness and validity. A process that starts from a critical analysis of the context in which the intervention takes place, of the technical and technological available tools, which allows the synthetic evaluation of the relationships between the technologies and the design implications.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The book offers an opportunity to evaluate the effects of alternative training paths that involve the possibility of measuring with the temporary dimension and the practice of self-construction as activators of potentialities and relationships, and that contribute to define different visions of the same place: a process that is completed thanks to the spatial and emotional experience of the visitor. Therefore, the place becomes dynamic; it triggers suggestions, establishes new alchemies and ephemeral architecture becomes architecture of relationships. An architecture that dialogues with the pre-existence, with its dimensions, creating the right proportions in relation to it. It is an architecture that, even if designed to be quickly dismantled, is characterized by own compositional and technological strength, which brings into play different knowledge and cultures of the project, connecting the creative experience to the subjects of conservation and enhancement of places in a complex system of specificities.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The second section – signed by Zaffi – focuses on the constructive dimension of temporary architecture: a path of identification of the technical and constructive aspects, of materials used as concretization of creative thought, of the effects that an obligatory low-cost approach can have on construction processes. These processes are usually simplified to speed up the phases of realization and integrated with modern production technologies. A speed of execution that requires an accurate executive design elaboration and that presupposes an in-depth knowledge of materials, technologies and manufacturing procedures.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The constructive dimension of the temporary architecture considers the conception and the constructive development as integrated moments: an experimental action on reality, which combines the constructive dimension with the conceptual one. The possibility to be eliminated is implicitly considered and validated, and it is considered a further project data, in which dismantling is assumed, with the consequent reuse of the elements.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This experience is based on the constant dialogue and confrontation of the architect with the curators and artistic directors on the one hand, and with suppliers and workers on the other: a relationship that guarantees the quality of the design outcomes, which requires skills and qualified contributions. </span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The third section – signed by both authors – is dedicated to projects, as result of researches on ephemeral and temporary structures developed by the DIDALABS - Laboratory of Architecture and Self-Construction – one of the research laboratories of the Department of Architecture of Florence – of which the same authors are founders and current referents.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">An educational path that focuses on research as design experimentation, design and construction as moments of deepening and verification of a complex process that goes from conception to realization.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">A series of research and didactic experiences have tested the combination of the logic of savings and speeding up of the phases, simplified techniques of assembly (for non-expert workers), with particular digital skills, automated processing and clear and fast construction processes.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The text emphasizes the formative/educational role of the construction-site which, thanks to the involvement of students (and residents, in the case of temporary architecture in public spaces), has itself constituted a participatory and attractive event.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The book closes with the section “Works in progress”, a photographic sequence of site-specific architectures, from their conception to dismantling. A story that deserves its own autonomy, as it is able to summarize differences and similarities between the paths presented in the sections before.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">An iconographic apparatus of particular interest, enhanced by an accurate typographic choice, accompanies the reading. A text that balances texts and images, in a discursive effectiveness and formal elegance that conquer.</span></p> <p class="p2"><span class="s1"><em>Danila Longo</em></span></p> 2020-12-20T14:19:33+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Danila Longo Alterazioni Video e Fosbury Architecture (Eds.), Incompiuto: La nascita di uno stile / The birth of a style 2020-12-21T20:23:18+00:00 Matteo Gambaro <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Sadly, unfinished and abandoned public works represent a peculiarity of the Italian context. They characterize the landscape as an evidence of the predatory culture towards the State, which never seems to be extinct. Even if the theme is not new – widely known by the institutions at all levels, from central state to local authorities – it was never put at the center of attention and specific actions. The numbers of the phenomenon are staggering, counting today about 1,500 unfinished public works spread on the national territory, with a concentration in southern Italy, particularly in Sicily.<br>The publication “Incompiuto: The birth of a style” – published by Alterazioni Video and Fosbury Architecture, two collectives of artists and architects with Italian origin and international branches in Europe and USA – originated precisely in this Region. In 2009, “</span><span class="s2"><em>Incompiuto Siciliano</em></span><span class="s1">” was founded as a participatory Observatory on unfinished public works, animated by reports from citizens and local press, with the support of Lega Ambiente, WWF, ANCE and other organizations. In few years, Incompiuto Siciliano identified 320 abandoned works. This initiative was supported by the section “</span><span class="s2"><em>Sprechi e Incompiuti</em></span><span class="s1">” of the TV program “Striscia la notizia”, with more than 600 dedicated services. In 2013, the observatory gave rise to the regional Information System for Monitoring Unfinished Works - SIMBI, supported by the autonomous Provinces and the Ministry of Infrastructures - MIT. In about ten years, the curators have built an unprecedented analytical and critical map of the “unfinished” phenomenon, selecting 696 irrecoverable works, catalogued according to their locations at national and regional scale, their year and the percentage of construction, their type, size and costs.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The last two criteria highlight the scale of the phenomenon: the total cost for public institutions is 7.389 billion euros, while the physical size of buildings exceed 2,200 hectares. Almost all the artifacts were built in reinforced concrete, giving this material a negative connotation over the years, as a metaphor of illegal and unscrupulous building speculation.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The innovative approach of the book is to combine the quantitative and descriptive references – exposed with scientific rigor and method – with a daring interpretation, giving a new connotation to the “unfinished” as a truly original and autonomous architectural style. This thesis is expressed through a poster divided into 9 points, pushing the reader to understand the phenomenon from different perspectives, according to Edward De Bono “lateral thinking”. This leads away from banal interpretations, bringing out a more complex picture, also focusing on apparently non-logical points of view. Accordingly, the contemporary ruins are emptied of their original and never exercised functions, raised as monuments of the unfinished, integrated with the landscape for their new aesthetic values.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">A rich color photographic reportage contributes to this reasoning by driving us in what could be called a Grand tour of contemporary ruins. At the end of his text, Marc Augé wonders if these art works «still anticipate something of a possible future or if they are only the magnificent rests of an abandoned dream». Those are dry pictures, with cold and sharp colors, didactic and empty of emotional interpretation, coherent with the scientific rigor with which the catalog of 696 unfinished works was composed.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In addition to the curators’ text, the book is complemented with other short critical writings, often biographical, by well-known authors. Gabriele Basilico, with a photographic observation on the city of Giarre, which competes with Rome and Nuoro for the number of unfinished works in one city, Marc Augé, Robert Storr, Wu Ming, Antonio Ricci, Paul Virilio, Leoluca Orlando, Salvatore Settis and Marco Biraghi. This last, with extreme realism, states that the unfinished is basically “a typically Italian modus operandi” that brings together virtues and cunnings, great art works worldwide known for the inexplicable waste of public resources. Therefore “uno stile di fatto”, a style “malgré soi”. The last part of the text is dedicated to the logbook, a journey along the peninsula made of notes, memories, suggestions, and short photographic stories, also connected by the unfinished leitmotif. As for example minor art works integrated with the context and in some cases existing only in the official documents and the memories of the inhabitants, no longer tangible.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The book is full of insides and critical food for thought, highlighted with heterogeneous communication methods, with no immediate interpretation. However, it represents an important tool for a broader reflection of the phenomenon, which can finally involve the silent public institutions, with truly concrete objectives. The graphics and composition of the book are not particularly convincing, which should communicate – by the curators’ need – an aesthetic of the unaccomplished, characterized by imperfections, multiple paper’ weights in different sections, poorly justified texts and repaginated sheets with signs of previous binding. The sensation that you feel, flipping through the book, is more of reuse than unaccomplished, however the thesis that underlies the publication is so brave and strong that it does not require an expressive emphasis perhaps a little over structural.</span></p> <p class="p2"><span class="s1"><em>Matteo Gambaro</em></span></p> 2020-12-20T14:20:17+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Matteo Gambaro Carlo Rovelli, L’ordine del tempo 2020-12-21T20:23:38+00:00 Alessandra Zanelli <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Carlo Rovelli’s book is a journey through time and space that brings us to the essence of the human being and, I would like to say, of the technological man who lives in us. The path of knowledge that the author offers us goes beyond his recent discoveries as a scientist and obliges us to deal with three essential aspects of our nature as observers of the cosmos: unceasing curiosity, the need to find an order for what we see or we think we understand, and the inevitable desire to connect events through memory.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>The power of his reasoning and the ability to clarify difficult phenomena even if only to guess lead us on a fantastic journey whose destination seems impossible to know. But the ultimate goal is certainly travel.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The first part of the book helps us to distinguish how the concept of time was understood by modern physics: to then dive into the multiplicity of times we live today. «What we call “time” is a complex collection of structures, of layers» (p. 11) The more scientists have studied time with the methods and tools of modern physics and more time, like a speck of snow between their hands, has gradually flaked, layer by layer. Today we can easily detect with current measuring instruments that there is a theme of slowing down time in physical space. The non-uniqueness of the measurement of time is an achievement of Einstein, even if the watches of that time were not yet able to record it. We now know that there are innumerable measures of time for each point of space, there are infinite times and «every phenomenon that happens has its own time, its own rhythm» (p. 29). Modern physics therefore describes how things evolve in their relative times and how times also evolve with respect to each other (p. 33). The second part concerns what we know today, in a contemporary dimension that seems to have lost almost every trace of “temporality”. The physics of which Carlo Rovelli is expert, or quantum gravity, is as if he had before him a lunar landscape made of motionless sands and a landscape at the ends of the peaks of the earth where we only see snow and sun rocks. With current tools these landscapes appear beautiful, extreme and timeless. The third and final part of the book is about the challenge we can face in the near future. In the timeless world we interpret today, there must be something that allows us to define an order between past and future, glimpsing a point of origin and a direction of flow of time. This by Rovelli appears as the wish of the researcher whose curiosity is infinite and unstoppable. In this regard, he says: «Our time must somehow emerge around us, on our scale, for us» (p. 12). So in the third part he proposes a journey back to the lost time of the first part, “chasing the elementary grammar of the world” and finding time as an approximation sometimes useful, sometimes clear, more often still confused what we are, or of what we still don’t know.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Let’s ask ourselves what we are interested in knowing about the weather. Today it is demonstrable that for everything that moves, time passes more slowly. Again, Einstein was able to guess this truth many years before the experiments conducted between those who are on the ground and those who fly on a jet plane provided a measurable demonstration. «The “proper time” does not only depend on where you are, on the proximity or not of masses, it also depends on the speed at which we move» (p. 75). This is the disruptive conclusion of contemporary physics is that “now” no longer means anything.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>Rovelli warns the reader that this notion is really hard to understand; in a simple way it suggests that we think that our “present” is like a bubble close to us, which derives from our experience and that we absolutely must not think that it can be extended to the whole universe around us. </span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">After having unhinged all our consolidated way of living in time, from here on the author helps us to create in our minds an admirable illusion of new systems.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Let’s discover the “temporal structure of the universe” (p. 82) where special relativity describes each present event as a point from which two opposing conical structures take shape, one concerning past events and the other events future. </span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Now the question becomes, what exists in the universe? Let’s go back to the young Einstein, who after a few decades from a world agreement reached by the industrialized nations to divide the globe into time zones, realized that it was not possible to make such synchronization exactly. Aristotle affirmed that time is the measure of change and we call time the accounting of this change. Then Newton unhinged this certainty and showed us that time flows even when nothing changes, even going so far as to describe in mathematical formula that time flows regardless of what changes and what moves. To both these definitions of scientist-giants of the past must be added a new astonishing certainty, continues Rovelli: «we can think that there is the great Newtonian canvas on which the history of the world is drawn. But this canvas is made of the same substance from which the other things of the world are made, of the same substance from which stone, light, air is made» (p. 123). These substances are today defined by scientists as “gravitational fields” and constitute the plot of the physical reality of the world.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">What Rovelli is working on today are loop quantum gravity equations. In these equations the time variable no longer exists. One searches for order in a fragment of the universe, one searches for coherence between pieces, no longer a unifying design of the universe, until one glimpses a new elementary minimal form of time (p. 215).&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">We are increasingly fascinated by Rovelli’s studies when he comes to describe the phenomena that regulate the relations of adjacency between the grains of space. Today the links between the grains of space are defined with a term borrowed from mathematics, spin – or the group of symmetry of space – while the single ring of a spin network is defined precisely as a loop, from which the theory takes its name, in which Rovelli delves into an essay entitled “Reality is not what it appears to us”. For the moment, we must be satisfied with observing this thin and mobile canvas woven from the elementary grains of the universe. </span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">At the small scale, the theory describes a “quantum spacetime”, while at the scale of the spin nets we can for now observe a furious swarm of those who appear and disappear (p. 212). Loop quantum gravity is the current way of finding coherence in the universe of space and time for us human beings who are however a piece among many in the cosmos in an irreversible entropic process. In the apparent disorder of the cosmos, phenomena self-regulate, mix, flake away in a transformative dance of growing entropy. Who knows, these overwhelming concepts of spatiality are not a starting point to revolutionize even the spaces of architecture.</span></p> <p class="p2"><span class="s1"><em>Alessandra Zanelli</em></span></p> 2020-12-20T14:21:35+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Alessandra Zanelli The design of the building envelope between innovation and experimentation 2020-12-21T20:24:00+00:00 Alessandro Claudi de Saint Mihiel <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Peter Galison, philosopher of science, says that surfaces are not as we often describe them, that is, membranes that enclose spaces. The surfaces are active and highly structured parts, with a degree of complexity that allows them to size and order the matter, alter the optics or become biologically active. Actual technological developments, along with science innovation, refer to new meanings of the concept of surface, in terms of the interface between two “environments” brought into contact, in which forms of energy and information exchange take place. This new notion applied to transparent surfaces manifests the level of contamination in progress: the “limit surface” favours osmosis, interaction and communication processes in the environments it interfaces. The delimitation of space becomes commutation, and the once rigid separation, thanks to the new soft and hard technologies, turns into the possibility of transition of a continuous exchange activity.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The appearance of the façades and surfaces hides a secret transparency, a thickness without thickness, an imperceptible quantity. The Construction procedures evolution and the use of advanced technologies for transparent envelopes or partitions and of IT systems for the management of building performance, have allowed a profound change of view in the conception of the project and of its realisation, producing manufactured products that interact with the environment and adapt themselves according to material and immaterial flows. In many cases, the transparent envelope, thanks to innovative solutions, interacts with external environmental flows (air, light, solar radiation, etc.), contributing to the improvement of the general conditions of users’ well-being.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Thus, technological innovation applied to the envelopes or to other parts of the buildings, gives a picture of the transformations taking place in the design solutions for glass surfaces, intended as a sensitive and selective interface with the environment.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The evolution process of the building envelope shows how the trend is towards systems with a greater adaptability to the variation of external climatic conditions. In this regard, adaptive façades can react to stimuli or external forces in many different ways: they can in fact modify shape and geometry, color, transparency, permeability, etc. The link between the façades of complex buildings and the energy produced from renewable sources is often essential, also with reference to the achievement of the ever closer zero energy goal.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In this perspective, the Smartwall project identifies an original line of work in the project of innovative façade components for the building industry, through which the industrial partners involved benefited from university research by initiating virtuous processes of technological innovation, opening up to new sectors of the market and focusing on new production chains.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Experimental and applied research was conducted thanks to a competitive call POR Calabria 2014/2020 for Axis 1 - “Promotion of research and innovation”; Specific objective 1.1 “Increasing business innovation activity”. The project covered the entire industrial development process aimed at creating a prototype of an external door frame profile. The system is based on the integration of traditional components and mechanics with intelligent systems technologies aimed at ensuring high levels of indoor comfort with reduced energy consumption.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The contribution of architecture research and technological design refers to some methodological and operational issues in the relationship established between the many dimensions of innovation and the architectural project. On the one hand we find<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>the themes of environmental design, in which the conception of the habitat is not limited only to the physical-formal aspects, but also to the intangible determinations of the project, oriented towards an idea of ​​environmental governance; on the other hand, the complex problems of innovative techniques and materials are identified, as well as the processes, methodologies, procedures and topics for the sustainable project, developed according to the project implications and the necessary methods of its technical control.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In light of these considerations, we can state that the activities and perspectives of research and design experimentation outlined in the following contribution, referring to the different cultural, innovation and sustainability dimensions of the project, can offer concrete answers in theoretical and practical terms to the current and future<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>challenges, proceeding towards a vision of the project increasingly detached from technical specializations and brought back to its centrality, thus responding significantly to issues such as energy efficiency and saving.</span></p> <p>L’apparenza delle facciate e delle superfici nasconde una trasparenza segreta, uno spessore senza spessore, una quantità impercettibile. L’evoluzione dei procedimenti costruttivi e l’utilizzo di tecnologie avanzate per chiusure o partizioni trasparenti e dei sistemi informatici per la gestione delle prestazioni degli edifici, hanno consentito un profondo cambiamento di visuale nella concezione del progetto e della sua realizzazione, producendo manufatti che interagiscono con l’ambiente e che si conformano tenendo conto dei flussi materiali ed immateriali. In molti casi l’involucro trasparente, grazie a soluzioni innovative interagisce con i flussi ambientali esterni (aria, luce, irraggiamento solare, ecc.), contribuendo al miglioramento delle generali condizioni di benessere degli utenti.</p> <p>L’innovazione tecnologica applicata quindi agli involucri o, in maniera meno spinta ad altre parti degli edifici, restituisce un quadro delle trasformazioni in atto nelle soluzioni progettuali per le superfici vetrate, intese come un’interfaccia sensibile e selettiva con l’ambiente.</p> <p>Il processo di evoluzione dell’involucro degli edifici mostra come la tendenza sia rivolta verso sistemi con maggiore adattività verso la variazione delle condizioni climatiche esterne. A tal riguardo, il modo con cui una facciata adattiva può reagire a degli stimoli o a delle forzanti esterne sono molteplici: esse possono infatti modificare forma e geometria, colore, trasparenza, permeabilità, etc. Il legame tra facciate di edifici complessi ed energia prodotta da fonti di energia rinnovabili è spesso imprescindibile, anche con riferimento al raggiungimento del sempre più prossimo obiettivo “zero energy”.&nbsp;</p> <p>In quest’ottica, il progetto, Smartwall individua una linea di lavoro originale attraverso il progetto di componenti innovativi di facciata per l’edilizia attraverso il quale i partner industriali coinvolti hanno beneficiato della ricerca universitaria avviando processi virtuosi di innovazione tecnologica, aprendosi a nuovi settori del mercato e puntando su nuove produzioni.</p> <p>La ricerca sperimentale e applicata è stata condotta grazie a un bando competitivo POR Calabria 2014/2020 per l’Asse 1 - “Promozione della ricerca e dell’innovazione”; Obiettivo specifico 1.1 “Incremento dell’attività di innovazione delle imprese” e ha riguardato l’intero iter di sviluppo industriale finalizzato alla realizzazione di un prototipo di profilo di serramento esterno. <strong>&nbsp;</strong>Il sistema è basato sull’integrazione della tradizionale componentistica e meccanica con le tecnologie degli intelligent systems finalizzate ad assicurare alti livelli di comfort indoor con ridotti consumi energetici.</p> <p>Il contributo della ricerca e della progettazione tecnologica dell’architettura è riferito ad alcune questioni metodologiche e operative nel rapporto che si istituisce fra le molte dimensioni dell’innovazione e il progetto di architettura. Da un lato si rinvengono le tematiche della progettazione ambientale in cui la concezione dell’habitat non è limitata ai soli aspetti fisico-formali, ma anche alle determinazioni immateriali del progetto e orientata a un’idea di governance ambientale; dall’altro, si individuano le complesse problematiche delle tecniche e dei materiali innovativi oltre che dei processi, delle metodologie, delle procedure e dei topics per il progetto sostenibile, sviluppate secondo le implicazioni sul progetto e le necessarie modalità del suo controllo tecnico.</p> <p>Alla luce delle considerazione fatte si può affermare che le attività e le prospettive di ricerca e sperimentazione progettuale delineate nel contributo che segue, riferite alle diverse dimensioni culturali, di innovazione, di sostenibilità del progetto, possano offrire risposte concrete in termini teorici e applicativi alle sfide in atto e a quelle future, procedendo verso una visione del progetto sempre più sganciata dagli specialismi tecnicistici e ricondotta verso la sua centralità, contribuendo in modo significativo a rispondere a tematiche quali l’efficienza e il risparmio energetico.</p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Alessandro Claudi de Saint Mihiel