TECHNE - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment <p><em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">TECHNE</span></span></em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> , la rivista scientifica di SIT </span></span><em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">d</span></span></em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> A, la&nbsp; </span></span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Società italiana di tecnologia architettonica</span></span></a><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> , soddisfa gli obiettivi della società lavorando, a livello nazionale e internazionale, per promuovere la conoscenza e i metodi e le tecniche della tecnologia architettonica, al fine di proteggere e migliorare l'uomo ambiente creato e per promuovere applicazioni innovative e confronti interdisciplinari. </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">La rivista pubblica articoli su ricerche e applicazioni innovative, nonché saggi e relazioni. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Gli autori lavorano nel mondo accademico e nelle strutture di ricerca nell'area della progettazione architettonica, dell'industria, delle attività imprenditoriali e delle organizzazioni clienti, pubbliche e private. </span></span><br><em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">TECHNE&nbsp;</span></span></em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">si rivolge a un mercato target interessato a discutere punti di vista rilevanti e critici e acquisire conoscenze utili per lo sviluppo di progetti attraverso un confronto di diversi approcci.</span></span></p> Firenze University Press en-US TECHNE - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment 2239-0243 <p>Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (<a href="">CC-BY-4.0</a>)</strong>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a></p> Note <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In a time of great urban transformations linked to the rapid and uncontrolled growth of cities, talk about “public space”, focusing on the aspects related to the project, construction and management, it is undoubtedly a central theme in the debate that, in this matter, recalls multiple cultural and scientific interests, other than socio-political ones. The role of Technology of Architecture as a discipline capable of addressing its complexity with an innovative approach in terms of both reflection/vision and research/experimentation is confirmed on this topic, placing itself in a proactive dialectical relationship with the other disciplines of the project. The interesting contributions presented in this issue of Techne. </span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">A theme, therefore, that evolves with the socio-economic and environmental changes of cities and buildings, differently articulated in various international contexts, in which the concept of “public space” intended as a space for the community, accessible, stimulating and safe, in able to foster social and above all fair relations, does not always correspond to a desired and pre-established model but requires renewed attention to the place taking into account the complexities and changes, very rapid, linked to the changed needs of the community.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In the European reality and in particular in our country, the public space has consolidated over time through physical and cultural sedimentations that have characterized the evolution of the historic city: although with different destinations and uses, it has always taken on a strong value social connotation, meeting place, knowledge, exchange. With the second industrial revolution, urban expansion outside the historic core and the birth of the “industrial city” brought about a significant change: wider streets, for new commercial exchanges, tree-lined avenues, gardens, squares, and urban parks lead to an improvement of quality of life and relationships. However, the lack of adequate urban planning with the consequent wildfire development of the city, determines a slow but progressive loss of aggregating function. </span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">A substantial change in the concept of public space has manifested itself since the first decades of the last century: on the push of the theories of the “functional city”, supported by the Modern Movement, large neighbourhoods are mainly designed for public residential construction, the idea of space is conceptualized “open” – not built, empty and without specific function – with the conscious intention of reducing the negative effects, often of a sanitary type, determined by the compactness of the historic and industrial cities. A premise, however, to the precariousness of future urban suburbs.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">In the years following the post-war period and in conjunction with the economic and building boom, the role of public space underwent a substantial modification due to the rampant building speculation and the absence of adequate urban planning, conspicuously bent to precise economic interests; it is reduced or distorted due to the effect of forced cementing, progressively losing identity and recognition: no longer a place for and for the community but for alienation and degradation where social tensions feed; a very evident condition in the suburbs of the big cities that still pay, especially on a social level, inconsiderate choices. As Fabrizio Schiaffonati (1994) claimed, «[…] a metaphor for modern complexity, the scene of the representation of its lacerating contradictions».</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">From some decades, the renewed interest in the regeneration of urban and peri-urban neighbourhoods has reopened, in the scientific world, the debate on the “quality” of the public space which must guarantee accessibility and connectivity, flexibility and ease of use, livability and safety, as well as maintenance and management as closely as possible. A different design approach is therefore urged to which technological culture is particularly attentive: the theme of the “equipped” place at the service of the community has already been addressed since the 1980s, with attention to the material, fruitful and performance aspects, in a balanced time- cost-quality. Today the topic is enriched with additional values, in particular environmental ones, in which the sustainability of the interventions and that, very current, of the adaptation to climate change add up and compare to rethink their design through innovation, including digital, preluding to a new use. A way, therefore, to «[…] reinterpret the potential of ecosystemic service […] of technological design […] able to respond to the growing demand for well-being and environmental quality»<sup>1</sup>.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">These brief premises give relevance to the 3 topics proposed by the <em>call for papers</em><sup>2</sup>, stimulating the presentation of theoretical, methodological and research contributions, representative of the contemporary debate on the topic.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The first, which identifies it “as an ordering element for urban phenomena”, mainly focuses on experimenting with innovative processes, including collaborative ones, aimed at temporary and/or permanent configurations or at the transfer and application of advanced material-type technologies and immaterial. The second, which interprets the “public space as an environmental infrastructure”, functional to the pursuit of urban sustainability objectives, identifies issues related to the use of <em>nature based</em> design solutions or in a “green” and “blue” key to face the social and social challenges environmental and climate change. The third, focused on “public space and governance”, suggests a critical analysis more closely connected with the management of the same: from the regulatory and procedural tools that allow the creation and “care” of the public space, to the advanced bankruptcy procedures for the project and the realization of the interventions; from design innovation to management of the construction phase.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Topics thus very timely that led to the <em>submission</em> of a large number of abstracts, 114 in total, as it shows the great interest of the scientific community. Of the 21 articles selected after the <em>double blind review</em>, 14 are focused on research and experimentation, 7 on essays and points of view, with a slight prevalence of the topics of the second topic.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">To strengthen the content of the issue, the Dossier offers interesting contributions from national and international scholars who, analysing from different points of view «[…] the new configurations of the open space that derive from the transformation of social demand and the methods of perception and fruition»<sup>3</sup> confirm the progress of research on the various aspects of urban and environmental quality of open spaces and of which the Technological Area is the bearer, making well known the need to raise the level of awareness on the social value of public space.</span></p> Maria Teresa Lucarelli Copyright (c) 2020 Maria Teresa Lucarelli 2020-03-03 2020-03-03 7 8 10.13128/techne-8299 Public space and the contemporary city. A narrative of places, time, relationships <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The reconfiguration of the post-modern city promotes the public space as a place of excellence for material, social and sensorial exchange, restoring the primitive and noble taste of a sphere aimed at collective practice, an ideological model of lifestyles, and a recognised narrative form of evolution and growth of the city.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">This space, at the moment, in search of an intimate new identity, is attempting to regain the meanings attributed to it in the past within the Italian cultural context, i.e. urban archetype, meeting space, symbol of the most significant social nuclei; and a geographical, organisational, morphological centre of the city, or a nodal element of its natural module of growth and reading.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">Architecture has the task of transforming the immaterial entity of dialogue and socialisation into the material layout of squares, the stones of public spaces, and the streets and districts of cities. Architecture translates the collective consensus into forms and spaces, identifying the theatre in which people spend most of their active existence. The public space is a place of dialogue, read and interpreted as a form of comparison, an absolute context of expression of the city’s culture and of a society that is increasingly easy in terms of communication.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The morphological, functional, and organisational criteria of the open space are no longer deciphered as a negative sphere in the urban fabric but elected as a generating element. These aspects once again characterise the main proposals for transformation of the most emblematic urban systems of Europe, giving the <em>square</em> the role of amplifying the values and contradictions of an architecture that is no longer monodirectional from a linguistic and functional point of view.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The forms of construction and use of public space, the blurred boundaries between the private and public spheres of a situation where places for work, homes and spaces for social interaction interpenetrate, and question the definitions themselves while acknowledging their multiplicity and complexity.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The public space through its architectural soul, services, and variables related to safety, usability and comfort, identify the indicators of highest incidence in relation to the quality of the urban context. It represents a cultural value par excellence, both in historical cities, where it is part of the relationship between the characteristics of the architectural heritage and the processes of its enhancement, and in the context of new interventions, within which, the collective space itself becomes the collector and condenser of the main energies of a place.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">Environmental protection, health and safety, mobility and accessibility to services, to which the strategies for a consistent physical densification of presences are now added: these values embody the centrality of new emerging needs, ending up being configured as essential rights of proper planning.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The concept of accessibility of public space, its tendency towards total fruition, must and will have to innervate the multiple sectors of the individual levels of the local government. Environmental and urban planning and design, culture, training, mobility, psycho-physical well-being, technological innovation, work and security are the essential cornerstones aimed at ensuring a widespread diffusion of places and flows.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The positive influence generated by the collective space pervades the perception of the quality of life and the consequent physical and psychological well-being of people in the confined and open anthropised spaces. Public space once again becomes a sphere of identity and a meeting place, faithful to the need to articulate the urban structure and diversify the practices that manifest themselves in it.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">In some situations, the regenerative path of spaces is the result of a unitary process, while in others it represents the sum of individual and targeted actions, aimed at pursuing results in the spheres of accessibility, technological evolution, and mobility, by means of a logic that pursues an easy relational capacity and a consistent practice of socialisation.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The level of quality of life, in relation to the urban environment, is introduced through the evaluation of the advantages and opportunities to which each citizen can aspire, especially considering aspects related to the services present and their degree of permeability, the economic sustainability generated and the social equity resulting from these lines of action.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The United Nations highlights the important role of open public spaces, emphasising the value of design on a human scale, with configurations of places able to strengthen cohesion, inclusion and sharing, thus promoting cooperation between stakeholders and those responsible for the governance of the territory. Public space coincides with the space of collective life in which different complex social groups converge, and their differences are highlighted and enhanced. </span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The architecture of the future must be characterised by a growing participation of users in the organisational and formal definition of public space: certainly not for morphological issues – we defend our profession – but in order to define a framework of demands and performance that monitors the relevance and usefulness of solutions.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">In this sense, there are two polarisations, opposite to each other, that can deal with the decision-making practice. On the one hand, a deterministic and centralistic vision sees the political decision-maker and the professional as an essential combination, sufficient for making a decisive, lasting mark on the fabric of the city by introducing ideas and concepts resulting from the dialogue between these two actors. On the other, a sort of extended <em>Placemaking</em>, based on a practice of shared design of public spaces, was already theorised in the 1970s by the “Project for Public Space (PPS)” movement arising the experience of several activists such as Jane Jacobs, William White, Jane Addams and others. This practice, which has involved more than 50 countries throughout the world, invites the inhabitants to collectively re-imagine and reconfigure the city starting from public space, taken as the “beating heart” of the city and delegated to formulate the identity of the place in favour of an entire community.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The public space is to be understood as a collective spatiality confined within the edges of the built area and beyond, which then creeps into the urban layout and also lurks in the essential semi-public parts of the project: the courtyards, private gardens and the spaces around residential buildings. It is a dynamic and fluid element without solutions of continuity, a moving environment that leads us to a temporal reading of the places designed, and the activities that take place within them.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">Acting on the identity and morphological-spatial reconfiguration of voids and the performance and environmental requirements of open space means intervening on the landscape, urban and otherwise, which Italian and European culture identifies as the primary cultural asset on which to base any action of transformation, protection and enhancement of design instances.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">Public space is a primary factor in the city, and can compose and organise, giving meaning and order to the main activities of social life: «On the other hand, conceiving of the foundation of the city by primary elements is, in my opinion, also the only possible rational law; that is, the only extraction of a logical principle in the city to continue it» (Rossi, 1966).</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">Today, encouraging a debate about the reconstruction of public space means tending towards the creation of conditions for the moral and civic rebirth of the community, entrusting to the city — and its extraordinary capacity for welcoming, sharing and sociality — the role of gauging an urban democracy of which public space is the backbone. The most representative meaning of this is in the shape of the square, elevated in literature to a social and anthropological space which, going beyond its nominalistic and physical meaning, becomes a place of convergence of relational and emotional tensions.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">At its origin is the need to offer opportunities for meetings, exchanges of knowledge, experiences, and the implementation of a project for common growth. The square is the extreme purpose of setting up a representative area of the customs and practices of a community, pointing out the founding reasons of aggregative will, and the aims to be achieved collectively.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">Starting from the original matrix, it is known that the square is not only identified as a physical place. It represents the mirror reflection of the culture of a community, a living organism, since «it welcomes the innovations linked to the spirit of an era before other urban places» (Pisani, 1990). In the square, physicality and immateriality, transit flows and currents of thought are intertwined: it is the privileged place of encounter, dialogue, and social exchange, able to make up for the physical vacuity that often connotes its spatiality.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">This semantic versatility is confirmed by Italo Calvino (1972) when he states that «[…] every time you enter the square, you find yourself in the middle of a dialogue», a social and cultural dialogue that springs from the possibility represented by the public place to host the unfolding of social life, evoking the collective identity of a community.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">For a century, architects, urban planners and historians have complained about the «death of the square», an end characterised by the difficulty of comparison between the reasons of social modernisation and the historical form of the square and of experiencing it. Its functional matrix has seen the places under examination progressively suppressed by the static or dynamic occupation of cars, as well as physical and visual media, altering the conditions that have made the square the vital centre of the historic city for centuries. These factors have never disappeared, but were simply transferred into other polarities, more domestic or in places with a more markedly recognisable and often multiple functionality, so as to ensure a mixture of uses certainly close to the contemporary need to save time.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The debate on the <em>loss of the centre </em>has been fuelling urban planning and urban composition for years: there are those who accept it as a modern form that supports the expansion of the <em>forma urbis</em> towards the shapeless suburbs, and those who counteract this trend by means of redevelopment and reconversion actions aimed at reshaping space according to contemporary ways of living.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The socio-cultural rebirth corresponds to a re-birth of the concept of open space, which identified the Middle Ages as the epicentre of the culture of the square. People faithfully observed the practice of urban pauses, during which they gathered near the monuments, as Paolo Portoghesi (Pisani, 1990) says, allowed them to breathe.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">At this time of radical social transformation, the square acquired the role of urban instrumentation, of compositional means of choice for a surgical redevelopment of the urban fabric. In evolutionary terms, the reorganisation of the urban layout that took place in the nineteenth century determined the violence of the genetic nature of the square and the imposition of a functional vocation that was never innate to its origin: the urban pause.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">This is a consolidated concept that can be traced back to the evident indifference towards the design of open public space manifested in the Modern Movement: it is as representative for the rationalist culture and the technological dimension acquired, as much as it is detached from the value of the square as a spatial element. The myth of functionalism and the construction technique revolution opened up new worldviews in the 1920s, expressed in polemical attitudes and utopian sentiments.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The past is held up for its lack of lasting values, in favour of the exaltation of a mechanical and technological purism that can be made tangible in artefacts with a clear value of use: the identification of a productive function of free and open spaces is difficult and of no interest to the new modernist dogmas. In this way, there is a substantial division with significant relational consequences between full and empty spaces: buildings and public space separate each other.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The architectures, freed from the corridor road, are transformed into scientifically functional volumes in their morphological characters, oriented according to conforming codes, investigated in the details of distribution and in the figure of the individual housing units. The urban void, first forged by buildings into streets and squares, becomes a prisoner of zoning, of the standard, of ethereal relationships between purist masses that communicate with each other or, even more so, that relate to a distant landscape whose measure is lost.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The development of a line of thought aimed at a critical review of modernist dogmas, observed in Italy since the 1950s, sanctioned the revision of the rationalist lesson also on the urban scale: the result is a slow, constant recovery of the historical memory of the square, and its counterparts, as a central node for the redevelopment of the existing city and the design of a new city.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The post-war condition, characterised by the theme of reconstruction and the treatment of the large voids forcibly created also within the historical city, highlights with great energy the cultural crossroads on which some reflections can be based.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The 8th CIAM congress, convened in London in 1951, addressed the problem of the city’s nucleus: in this context, the definition of urban space proposed by J.L. Sert appears to anticipate a topical condition. The city is born in its public spaces, in those areas he defines as empty spaces: in them resides the heart of the city, the latter understood as the real urban condition (Sert, 1952).</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">“Squares, agoras, and amphitheatres in the open air represent, from this moment on, the desperate attempt use an autonomous, artificial and separately constructed element to stop the inevitable tendency towards dispersion and isolation that modern architecture seems to fatally tend towards” (de Solà-Morales, 2001).</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The lack of continuity of attention to the <em>architecture of the square</em> has prevented the formulation of a common perspective: this lack has led many designers of the current scene to devote themselves to individual research looking for tangible opportunities for experimentation. This shows a fruitful willingness to investigate, which at the same time imposes new and different interpretations each time and demonstrates the difficulty of defining a shared orientation for the redevelopment of the urban structure.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">In a scenario in which the operational rules and planning tools are expressed with great indecision, what appears extremely clear is the need to give back to public space the value of structure, of focus of the urban fabric, of a connecting hinge between private life and public function, and of an instrument that can regenerate a weak and sadly optional civic consciousness.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">In this way, a process of typological and structural metamorphosis of the open space is affirmed, which progressively replaces the physical recognition of the square as an enclave with residual spaces, places of traffic and places of consumption: an abrasion also of the territory that devalues the historically consolidated semantics, generating a dynamic of identification of the socialisation space – not through the specification of physical canons, but through the recognition of the flows and relationships that it generates. In this sense, the square, understood as a place of transit, subverts its original nature: along with its endogenous function, defined by a process of formation connected and enslaved to a specific building or function, the contemporary square is replaced because it is a place where flows converge, renouncing a peculiar destination and welcoming in itself a new multiplicity of meanings (Favole, 1995).</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The plurality of uses and functions to which the square must respond decentralises the current reflection on the evident need to associate changing functional destinations with different squares, adjacent to each other and well thought out. Talking about a system of squares – or of public space as a system – becomes an essential operation: a sort of functional attribution, defined in accordance with an overall project, which envisions the complexity of the intervention in the definition of the individual, and vice versa.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">This design strategy creeps into a systemic conception of public space, absolutely relevant in the new urban conformation, which consists of nodes and flows. It brings to completion a network of squares similar to those that the building processes of the past effectively proposed and implemented through the juxtaposition of urban blocks, giving them logical continuity. Set upon by the anonymous symbols of a widespread globalisation and characterised by a constant loss of functional meaning, open spaces translate the reliable measure of the degeneration of values, hierarchies, and symbols into spatial images.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">Places of commerce are turning into actual attractions and socialising poles, increasingly abstract from the context and responding to apparently random dispositive dynamics. Indeed, contemporary structures hardly manage to maintain a recognisable urban form for long, and this prevents the formulation of long-term strategies.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The addition of these and other reasons led planners and designers to approach the theme of the square, and more generally the city’s open spaces, through two dichotomous attitudes. On the one hand, a tendency to limit the concept of open space to a simplistic operation of superficial window-dressing through actions that can be summarised in the concept of street furniture, often by falsifying already limited objectives. On the other hand, is the habit of dealing with the theme of the square by means of logic attributable to the family of large urban infrastructures and delegating them as simple elements of passage and sorting nodes.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">In this context, it seems logical that the square, which is designed in terms of redevelopment of the existing or new intervention, must respond to the need to identify and enhance «spaces “between things” that are significant because they are equally used by those who live there, whether they are places and provide opportunities for meeting, attendance and “aggregation”» (Secchi, 1993).</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The void thus becomes the bearer of a multiplicity of meanings, not only because of the memorial and identifying value it assumes in sociological terms, but also because materially and physically it manifests itself as the place of penetrability, possibility and flexibility, giving rise to unexplored design potential (Espuelas, 2004).</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The design of the public space represents, in its depth, the design of a landscape. In other words, it is an interaction between things that establishes a connection between what exists and what is in progress, in a continuous growth of multiscale relationships and dynamics, within an overall project of common space.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">In such a scenario, open green space plays an increasingly important role in the process of territorialisation of the sustainable city, no longer conceived as a transposition of natural space within the urban fabric, but as a place of activity, a new square in the leisure society. The functions of green areas, their new horizons of use, in relation to the opportunities linked to urban sustainability, represent design scenarios of primary importance, aimed at contributing to the improvement of leisure time usage as an area not of waste, but rather central to the citizen’s quality of life.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The city changes with unexpected speed: its spaces become victims of abandonment, redesign, redevelopment and epochal addition. Logics of <em>temporary urbanism</em>, favoured by the weakness of previous urban policies, which have given way to urban uncertainties that are often visible and verifiable: these restore importance to the human dimension as the central soul of the project, a true barometer of the widespread perception of uncertainty that engages modern society.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">It follows that the action of designing a space intended for the community cannot disregard the involvement of figures capable of becoming bearers of widespread knowledge who are able to incorporate, across the board, environmental, technological, physical-technical, anthropological, and sociological reasons in the propositional activity.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">A public space must not only be able to impose order on «the spaces that constructive density and functional diversification make it difficult to reconcile» (Espuelas 2004), but it has a profound reason linked to its role as an activator of social flows. It is a space that, deprived of its own function, therefore in the absence of users, loses its deep meaning of connective tissue.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">Consider, for example, the musings of Peter Zumthor, from one of his 2003 notebooks, when he tells of a morning sitting in a square in the sunshine, trying terminologically to define the added value that he acknowledged in that space, and identifying it in the atmosphere as an element of emotional perception. Public space is made of people, men and women, society: in this recent period of forced physical confinement and prohibition of free access to public spaces, this assumption seems to us to be absolute.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The square is a synthesis of the convergence of flows, relational exchanges and emotions. It is a meeting of visions and visuals, a place where points converge. It is the result of the urban area that surrounds it and qualifies it, but it is always an individual space, which cannot disregard a subjective reading. It can only be guided by excellent design and disposition that is able to correctly channel the visitor’s perception towards the sensibility that he or she follows the most.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">«Given the semantic and operational scarceness of public spaces in responding to the increasingly urgent need to provide different spaces for a changing society, the aim is no longer merely to build an effective urban form, but to investigate the relationships between mobility, collective spaces and private spaces» (Aymonino, 2008).</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">«Architecture is the fixed scene of man’s events; charged with feelings of generations, public events, private tragedies, and new and ancient occurrences. The collective element and the private element, society and the individual, stand both separately and combined in the city, which is made up of many small beings who seek their own settlement, and together with this, one with this, their own small environment which is more suited to the general environment» (Rossi, 1966).</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">Architecture is the subject of the dialogue. Public space and public architecture define architecture in its highest essence. A pulsating architecture of stratifications and relationships that form the life-blood of the city, determining the evolution of its shape and the shaping of its use: the square and the collective space define the primary places where public events and private experiences meet each day.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">Public space interprets movement, time and change, because public space is never the same as itself, but is the expression of a continuous revolution and a repeated change: a narrative structure, a time of storytelling and experience that, while marking different episodes, varies its nature according to the themes encountered.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">Contemporary life promotes the development of a dynamic public space, as a key connecting element between experiences: a unique opportunity to reactivate social flows, coagulating in itself the salient moments of collective life, including cultural exchange, the market, transit, play, but also rest, a time of meeting and contemplation.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">It is an entity that will increasingly have to consolidate space, reconnect places, share time, qualify rest, and strengthen relationships.</span></p> Emilio Faroldi Copyright (c) 2020 Emilio Faroldi 2020-05-05 2020-05-05 9 16 10.13128/techne-8852 Public space and urban quality Alessandra Battisti Elena Mussinelli Marina Rigillo Copyright (c) 2020 Alessandra Battisti, Elena Mussinelli, Marina Rigillo 2020-01-28 2020-01-28 17 23 10.13128/techne-7933 Interactive design for responsive environments: placing people at the center of the design process Belinda Tato Jose Luis Vallejo Elena Castillo Marco Rizzetto Copyright (c) 2020 Belinda Tato, Jose Luis Vallejo, Elena Castillo, Marco Rizzetto 2020-01-28 2020-01-28 24 33 10.13128/techne-7934 Munich - re-connecting spaces. Public spaces as environmental infrastructure, functional to the achievement of urban sustainability objectives Iris Dupper Copyright (c) 2020 Iris Dupper 2020-01-28 2020-01-28 34 44 10.13128/techne-7935 Lyon: the integral design of the public space Laura Valeria Ferretti Copyright (c) 2020 Laura Valeria Ferretti 2020-01-28 2020-01-28 45 56 10.13128/techne-7936 The public realm initiative for the Boston Seaport District, USA Ada Tolla Giuseppe Lignano Copyright (c) 2020 Ada Tolla, Giuseppe Lignano 2020-01-28 2020-01-28 57 64 10.13128/techne-7937 Urban relations and contemporaneity <p class="p1">The public space represents the center of gravity of the reflection and practice of the disciplines that confront the city and its evolution.&nbsp;Over time, the public space has translated the moods and instances of each era, identifying the main scenography: from a privileged place to relationship life, to a place of representation and cultural animation, of economic vitality and social identity.</p> <p class="p1">The development dynamics of the contemporary city have started processes aimed at the redefines of the image and functioning of the urban space as a collector element of relationships and architecture.</p> <p class="p1">The interventions, aimed at adapting the public space to the needs of a new society, are functional to the construction of an urban landscape that global competition and new trends always tend to enhance through the filter of the distinctive character and its rate of innovation.&nbsp;A process that, starting from the metropolitan areas, ended up investing also the medium and small cities, increasing the degree of attractiveness, identity and strengthening the sense of belonging of citizens.</p> Marco Introini Copyright (c) 2020 Marco Introini 2020-02-04 2020-02-04 65 85 10.13128/techne-7977 Semi-public urban spaces: evolution and appropriate design process criteria <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The paper analyzes the main regulatory experiments for Privately Owned Public Spaces (POPS) in North America and Asia, comparing requirements for implementation and outcomes. It also underlines the need to make these spaces representative of the social and environmental complexity of a public place, presenting the original proposal to include in the exchange conditions regulations that guarantee ecosystem services equivalent to the loss for the community due to the bonus granted. The reflection leads to three main aspects for the edition of updated regulations: the construction of integrated networks of spaces, the consideration of the urban ecosystem and the meta-design of thematic cultural guidelines.</span></p> Renata Valente Copyright (c) 2020 Renata Valente 2020-01-15 2020-01-15 86 95 10.13128/techne-7813 Downtown Project, tech-oriented utopia. Creative classes in the governance of public space <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Downtown Project (DTP) is a private initiative to redevelop Downtown Las Vegas, in partnership with the public administration. Its creator and promoter is Tony Hsieh, CEO of Zappos, a company that sells shoes and accessories online.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The idea behind DTP promotes the interaction in the urban fabric among people through “collisions”, “connectedness” and “co-learning”, in order to improve productivity, innovation and urban redevelopment within the urban fabric. Almost ten years later its beginning, the DTP, after an initial rapid development, has not yet fully achieved the objectives it had set itself, but it is an exemplary case study to define the emerging characteristics of the city’s alternative governance processes such as the public space.</span></p> Maria Canepa Davide Servente Copyright (c) 2020 Maria Canepa, Davide Servente 2020-01-13 2020-01-13 96 103 10.13128/techne-7823 Urban security for the quality of public space <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This paper aims to critically review the emergence and evolution of design methodologies aimed at improving security and quality of life in cities. It analyses important experiences internationally, particularly in America where they first experimented with an environmental approach to urban security, and in more evolved European contexts. It then looks at Italy following the recent Legislative Decree of 2017 and successive additions and the UNI Regulation of 2010 which sets out a clearly structured design approach which has not, however, been implemented.</span></p> Roberto Bolici Matteo Gambaro Copyright (c) 2020 Roberto Bolici, Matteo Gambaro 2020-01-15 2020-01-15 104 113 10.13128/techne-7824 Quality vs quantity. Is it possible to quantify the quality of public space? <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Despite the common practice and the regulatory requirements related to the urban planning of our cities continues to define environmental quality through compliance with urban planning codes, the inadequacy of this parameter is increasingly evident. For this reason, numerous urban regeneration programs, and above all urban sustainability assessment standards, evaluate the environmental sustainability levels and livability, as if they were a project indicator. The paper describes the most consolidated indicators and proposes the use of the livability indicator of the public space promoted by the Urban Ecology Agency of Barcelona with some modifications that make it more consistent with the Milanese and Italian context.</span></p> Valentina Dessì Lisa Astolfi Copyright (c) 2020 Valentina Dessì, Lisa Astolfi 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 114 124 10.13128/techne-7846 Projects for the temporary reactivation of public space: what legacy? <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The expressions tactical urbanism, place making, pop-up city, open-street projects distinguish highly relational projects, which generally constitute the result of bottom-up operations, carried out with the participation of the population, with or without the support of institutions. Starting from the detection of approaches found in literature and the identification of international case studies, the essay focuses on a qualitative analysis of intervention models, proposing an evaluation matrix that identifies significant indicators to assess the effectiveness of projects over time. The evaluation matrix also takes advantage of the experience of a collective that promotes projects of public spaces through new forms of interaction between inhabitants and common goods.</span></p> Barbara Camocini Laura Daglio Giulia Gerosa Stefano Ragazzo Copyright (c) 2020 Barbara Camocini, Laura Daglio, Giulia Gerosa, Stefano Ragazzo 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 125 133 10.13128/techne-7828 European digital platforms for the care of public space and co-design <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In the last decade, there has been a rapid development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), which provide for an active involvement by citizens in the care and maintenance of public space. In particular, digital participatory platforms (DPPs) have become increasingly important in fostering dialogue and interaction between citizens and the Public Administration. The contribution focuses on the issue of public space and its governance, critically analyzing some best practices of European DPPs, from the point of view of their impact and degree of success, in order to bring out the objectives, the processes and co-design actions, the technologies they use and the specificities that make them innovative pilot projects at international level.</span></p> Francesca De Filippi Cristina Coscia Grazia Giulia Cocina Copyright (c) 2020 Francesca De Filippi, Cristina Coscia, Grazia Giulia Cocina 2020-01-15 2020-01-15 134 141 10.13128/techne-7825 Space, Sport, Society. The practice of sport in the design of contemporary public space <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In the current socio-cultural scenario, the practice of sport represents one of the main drivers of development, given the inclusive connotation it incorporates and the functional and spatial qualification potential that it expresses. Literature on this subject, and the many experiments in the field, serve to highlight how sports activities today are a central tool in the promotion of an “open city” ethic, namely one that is liveable and safe. Equally, in modern times, the city’s public infrastructure system represents an increasingly important factor for urban and social quality, requiring programmes and strategies capable of redefining places and their modes of use according to the themes of health and environmental quality. On the basis of these premises, this paper aims to analyse the recent evolution of the methods of planning and design of public space in relation to sports practices understood as a “comprehensive social reality”, as areas where urban and social regeneration policies based on the desire to promote health education actions, social inclusion and programmes for the physical qualification of the built environment are applied.</span></p> Marta Cognigni Maria Pilar Vettori Copyright (c) 2020 Marta Cognigni, Maria Pilar Vettori 2020-01-20 2020-01-20 142 152 10.13128/techne-7832 Accessible Venice: an interactive urban mobility map <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Venice’s urban morphology does not allow for autonomous movement for people with impaired mobility, a problem which has been taken on in recent years via a number of projects which have improved the potential for movement along pedestrian and water-based routes. </span></p> <p class="p2"><span class="s1">This paper presents the results of research which, starting from a study of previously implemented changes, has mapped the town in GIS environment and planned a mobility support application which can be personalised to user needs. The tool is designed to help users wanting to move around Venice choose a pedestrian and ferry itinerary which takes account of fixed obstacles and the high water phenomenon.</span></p> Valeria Tatano Rosaria Revellini Massimo Mazzanti Copyright (c) 2020 Valeria Tatano, Rosaria Revellini, Massimo Mazzanti 2020-01-09 2020-01-09 153 161 10.13128/techne-7784 Micro-regeneration of public space in marginal areas: comparing processes in Guatemala and Peru <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The article reviews and compares two cases of participative design processes in Central and South America neighbourhoods: Mixco (Guatemala) and Alto Peru, Chorrillos (Peru). Both processes aim for a micro-regeneration in public open spaces, involving students, faculties, local communities and other stakeholders, through data analysis, interviews, surveys and visits. The existing public spaces created without planning and intervention of professional architects, and not following official regulations have become realms for social life. They need particular attention for achieving social equity and inclusion. Pedagogically, participatory design increases the relevance of teaching experiences in architecture schools worldwide, but it shows some limits.</span></p> Francesca Giofrè Cristina Dreifuss-Serrano Copyright (c) 2020 Francesca Giofrè, Cristina Dreifuss-Serrano 2020-01-15 2020-01-15 162 169 10.13128/techne-7819 Sustainable urban regeneration in consolidated cities. Tetuan-Amalich Square, Santander, Spain <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The purpose of this text is to analyze a built project, the Tetuan-Amaliach Square. This experience is the result of an urban regeneration project called “Microspaces” promoted by the City Council of Santander (Spain). In addition to identifying other projects of interest in the city, this paper aims to highlight new design strategies derived from the themes and the criteria present in the current debate. These new variables to consider are; collaborative working practices, inclusiveness and security. Through an analytical process, the conclusions aim to include a critical dimension that will allow to underline the issues that require improvements in future initiatives.</span></p> Héctor Navarro Martínez Copyright (c) 2020 Héctor Navarro Martínez 2020-01-09 2020-01-09 170 178 10.13128/techne-7809 Multicriteria evaluation of the public space: a method for public administrations <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The management, maintenance and improvement of public spaces requires multi-criteria assessment tools, sensitive to socio-environmental conditions which are often neglected in the decision-making process of Public Administrations. The research proposes a multi-scale assessment system consisting of eight indicators. The indicators contribute, through the visualization on a GIS basis and the tabular computation to define a progressive assessment path that goes from the city scale to the analysis of a selected green space and its equipment. This experimental method takes into account the life cycle of the endowments of public spaces, the normative constraints, the morphological features of public spaces and the qualitative/quantitative social needs of green urban spaces.</span></p> Corrado Carbonaro Giuseppe Roccasalva Copyright (c) 2020 Corrado Carbonaro, Giuseppe Roccasalva 2020-01-20 2020-01-20 179 190 10.13128/techne-7834 Experimental processes for the governance of the public space. Guidelines for the sustainable project of dehor in the historic center of Naples <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The definition of the principles regulating the use of public spaces with outdoor catering activities is part of the ongoing process of governance and enhancement of cultural tourism and urban quality in the main Italian “art cities”. The urgent need to reconcile local economic development with the need of inhabitants, visitors and stakeholders must provide for appropriate methods of accessibility, perception, safety and use of public spaces. The research that focused in a few sample areas of the Historic Center of Naples UNESCO site, has defined metadesign guidelines to facilitate works, governance and procedures based on the principle of shared choices between the bodies appointed to control the permits to occupy public spaces, thus setting an experimental regulatory process.</span></p> Valeria D'Ambrosio Copyright (c) 2020 Valeria D'Ambrosio 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 191 202 10.13128/techne-7831 Environmental quality of the historical city: the wind strategy challenge <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The research focuses on the potential and limits of natural ventilation, analysing with a critical look possible design effects in a specific field of investigation, the historical city. The proposed <em>wind strategy</em>, through the calibration of existing instruments (computational and parametric), the definition of new and specific morphometric factors, the definition of prescriptive and performance indicators, speditive sheets of analysis and planning direction, aims to provide tools more effective and responsive to the peculiarities of the historical fabric, which help designers and administration to integrate the <em>wind factor</em> from the earliest stages of thought out transformation of the consolidated urban space.</span></p> Gaia Turchetti Copyright (c) 2020 Gaia Turchetti 2020-01-13 2020-01-13 203 212 10.13128/techne-7818 Placemaking for the regeneration of the Costanzo Ciano neighbourhood in Piacenza <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This article provides insights on the urban regeneration project conduced in the densely populated centre of the “Costanzo Ciano” neighbourhood of Piacenza. Financed by MIBAC - Ministry of Heritage and Culture through the Creative Living Lab programme, the project is configured as a participatory urban regeneration action (Placemaking) aimed at testing various possible solutions for a more structured future renewal intervention. The organisational formula adopted distinguishes through the active involvement of the inhabitants at both the design and realisation stages. The output consists in the product to which the inhabitants have contributed but also, and most importantly, in the social relationships which have been formed, through which, the functional plan for the future renewal intervention has been laid out. The experience coherently follows the URBACT method principles while its cultural and practical implications refer to both the “dilemmas” theme1 posed by the current European debate regarding the strategic development of public spaces and the Placemaking tool in the Living Labs 2.0 formula2, for an innovative governance straddling theory and practice.</span></p> Daniele Fanzini Gianpiero Venturini Irina Rotaru Carlo Parrinello Angelo De Cocinis Copyright (c) 2020 Daniele Fanzini, Gianpiero Venturini, Irina Rotaru, Carlo Parrinello, Angelo De Cocinis 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 213 222 10.13128/techne-7830 Accessibility as design tool: a comfortable environment through the public space <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The paper describes the methodological approach proposed within H2020 ROCK project, on the adaptive reuse of public spaces in the historic city, particularly focussing on accessibility. The methodology is applied in a test-bed site of the historical context with the aim to identify integrated and effective strategies capable of shifting attention from the single building to the urban scale, following a performance-oriented approach. The goal is to contribute, through a light infrastructure, enabling technologies and new services, to the definition of a barrier-free built environment suitable to satisfy the citizen’s environmental well-being in an equitable manner. The integrated approach involved users and key factors such as: disabled associations, sectors of the Municipality, representatives and operators of cultural institutions.</span></p> Jacopo Gaspari Valentina Gianfrate Giovanni Ginocchini Mauro Bigi Copyright (c) 2020 Jacopo Gaspari, Valentina Gianfrate, Giovanni Ginocchini; Mauro Bigi 2020-01-13 2020-01-13 223 231 10.13128/techne-7786 Computational design based approaches for public space resilient regeneration <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In urban areas, the issue of resilient-based design for adaptation to climate impacts is one of those where the interdependence between technological innovation, resource governance and sustainable development strategies is relevant. Public spaces are a key system for testing the most effective strategies for reducing climate impacts through approaches that use computational design tools in climate adaptation actions. The paper presents the results of the Athenaeum Research Project funded for 2017-2019 by Federico II University entitled SIMMCITIES_NA, <em>Scenario Impact Modelling Methodology for a Climate change-Induced hazards Tool for Integrated End-users Strategic planning and design</em> - Napoli.</span></p> Mario Losasso Mattia Leone Enza Tersigni Copyright (c) 2020 Mario Losasso, Mattia Leone, Enza Tersigni 2020-01-20 2020-01-20 232 241 10.13128/techne-7815 An adaptive infrastructure for resource efficiency: public spaces of the UCBM Campus in Rome <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This contribution addresses the theme of the design of outdoor public spaces as a way to define a system of places which, in the contemporary city, in addition to interacting with the built fabric in terms of mutual microclimatic feedback, also configures a support infrastructure for the efficient use of material and intangible resources on a settlement scale. An adaptive infrastructure, which integrates networks for the collection and distribution of the flows of energy, water, materials that pass through the settlement itself and must be supplied, balanced, dynamically disposed of, the potential of which is explored in the case study presented: a multidisciplinary design experimentation within the UCBM Masterplan International Design Competition for the development of the Campus Bio-Medico University in Rome.</span></p> Eliana Cangelli Paola Altamura Copyright (c) 2020 Eliana Cangelli, Paola Altamura 2020-01-20 2020-01-20 242 255 10.13128/techne-7826 Retrofitting public space for the environmental and ecosystem quality of “greener” cities <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The scientific community has for some time seen a growing awareness that to effectively impact the city’s environmental and ecosystem quality, it is necessary to act not by the sum of point-by-point interventions (as those albeit virtuous ones on the scale of improving the efficiency of the individual buildings have been for decades), but systematically on the urban fabric and on significant parts of it. This is what is represented in the research and in the related applicative experimentation, the result of the combination of two financing operations - the third-party one of a major national body, and the university financing won in a selective competition. These financing operations aim to develop retrofitting actions for public spaces, applied to an area of Rome with established and decayed settlements. The essential idea is to build a use model of “types” of technological/design interventions for their implementation and future application to other settings with similar characteristics, albeit with the essential adaptivities to differences, in such a way as to give the experimentation the role and character of a constant development in progress in methodological approach and in defining strategic and operative frameworks.</span></p> Fabrizio Tucci Valeria Cecafosso Copyright (c) 2020 Fabrizio Tucci, Valeria Cecafosso 2020-01-24 2020-01-24 256 270 10.13128/techne-7827 Healthy urban planning and design strategies to improve urban quality and attractiveness of places <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The link between the urban contexts’ features and the Public Health outcomes, opens to a challenging scenario about the <em>Urban Health</em> issue. The research purpose is to describe a critical literature review, aimed to correlate the <em>Public Health</em> outcomes with the environmental risk factors, and for each of them, define <em>Evidence-Based Design Strategies and Actions</em>, capable to reduce those risk, improving the urban quality and attractiveness of places. Furthermore, the main focus of the paper is to underline the cities’ ability to be resilient to the on-going climate change phenomena, and the definition of the urban context’s features representing best practices i.e. of <em>Nature-Based Solutions</em>, to enhance the ecosystemic quality, and to reach healthiness, safety and security of the urban spaces.</span></p> Stefano Capolongo Maddalena Buffoli Andrea Brambilla Andrea Rebecchi Copyright (c) 2020 Stefano Capolongo, Maddalena Buffoli, Andrea Brambilla, Andrea Rebecchi 2020-01-21 2020-01-21 271 279 10.13128/techne-7837 Mass and lightness: urban quality along the Aurelian Walls in Rome. Walking through walls <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This study focuses on the system of the Aurelian Walls with reference to Rome’s regulatory plan, which indicates its role as green infrastructure in service of the areas adjacent to the historical centre of Rome. A proposal is made to reinforce the system with an environmental focus as an opportunity to regenerate open spaces for interaction, using the mass of the walls as an environmental device as well as a memory and symbol of historical Rome. The objective is to reuse the wall as an urban contour line to generate humidity and thermal comfort by virtue of the insertion of green elements and functional devices in areas of the city pervaded by stone, cement, and asphalt.</span></p> Maria Federica Ottone Roberta Cocci Grifoni Graziano Enzo Marchesani Copyright (c) 2020 Maria Federica Ottone, Roberta Cocci Grifoni, Graziano Enzo Marchesani 2020-01-13 2020-01-13 280 289 10.13128/techne-7821 The new entrance to the Camí d’Onda Air-raid Shelter in the historic center of Borriana, Spain <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The Spanish Civil War was the first military conflict with air raids used against the civilian population. Franco’s subsequent dictatorship neglected these infrastructures and most of them were destroyed or buried. Nowadays many Spanish municipalities have decided to recover and place value on shelters as symbols of concord. Those that have survived have remained covered up and any trace of their original entrances was erased by new urban operations at the street level. This is the case of the Camí d’Onda Air-raid Shelter in Borriana, Spain, whose original entrance ramp completely disappeared in the mid-1940s. The authors took up the challenge of designing a new access which should meet many constraints which involved historical, social, technical and urban design aspects.</span></p> Ivan Cabrera i Fausto Ernesto Fenollosa Forner Begoña Serrano Lanzarote Copyright (c) 2020 Ivan Cabrera i Fausto, Ernesto Fenollosa Forner, Begoña Serrano Lanzarote 2020-01-09 2020-01-09 290 297 10.13128/techne-7790 Cities and public spaces <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>Isotta Cortesi.</strong> <em>In the history of European cities, public spaces have often been a manifestation of civil and religious munificence revealed through architecture. Today’s public spaces reflect a political dimension which may be considered to represent citizens, to germinate community relations. In effect, today’s cities and communities are defined through the magnifying glass of open space projects.</em></span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>Cino Zucchi. </strong>This is a complex issue because in discussing the relationship between the physical element of a city and the fluid life of its people we risk reaching a foregone conclusion. Historical eras are recounted through the architecture of the times – the Colosseum for Ancient Rome, the Cathedral of Chartres for the Middle Ages – as if civilization had petrified its values in architecture. We believe that monuments and even urban spaces are the crystallisation of a general philosophical thought; an idea of identity poised between a vision of the world – what the Germans call <em>Weltanschauung</em>, a concept that transcends the individual and draws on the collective – and its forms. On this topic much exhaustive literature has been written, for example on the linear urban system of Rome, with its imposing thoroughfares linking the basilicas, at the time of Pope Sixtus V<sup>1</sup>, or Adele Buratti’s<sup>2</sup> studies on urban spaces in Milan at the time of Charles Borromeo. Think also of Baron Haussmann who, transforming the medieval city into its bourgeois counterpart, moulded the tangle of barricades of the Paris Commune into new boulevards. The long history of civilization as an expression of social and religious covenants reveals how the history of architecture encompasses the history of the world. With the phrase «<em>Ceci tuera cela</em>»<em><sup>3</sup></em>, the Archdeacon Frollo records the transformation between the spoken word and the written word: human thought, petrified in the encyclopaedia of narrative sculptures of the Parisian Cathedral, vanishes with Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press. <em>«</em>The book of stone, so solid and so enduring, was to give way to the book of paper, more solid and more enduring still. In other words, “Printing will destroy Architecture”». This has not been the case, however, and by analogy, I wonder about the rapid transformations occurring in our time in terms of interpersonal relations and of communications, since incessant successions of images prevail over the written word – which is why today, as in the past, “architecture is so important” as a definite permanence of values.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">One of the latest films by Spielberg, <em>Ready Player One</em>, shows us a degraded, polluted world in which humanity is dispersed in a landscape of containers; it is a catastrophic vision of a not so distant dystopia in which each man has a virtual Avatar, heroic, beautiful, different, whose transfigured identity makes reality more acceptable – a situation that is more real than ever before in the isolation we are currently facing. This parody is far more realistic than we might think; it provides a means of alleviating the boredom of our suburban life by impersonating heroic characters and adopting disguises. </span></p> <p class="p2">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>I.C. </strong><em>The Milan school responded to and interpreted the theories and hopes of the post-war New Architecture Movement. These ideas are clearly evident in the city’s public spaces: Milano Verde (1938) designed by Pagano, Albini, Gardella and Minoletti; QT8 designed by Bottoni (1945-70); the districts of Feltre (1957-60),&nbsp;designed by Baldessari, De Carlo,&nbsp;Gardella&nbsp;and&nbsp;Mangiarotti, and coordinated by Pollini, and Cesate (1949-56),&nbsp;designed by Albini, BBPR and Gardella. Here, public spaces have become progressively more than a mere question of relations – which, by favouring typological variation, sees buildings as part of a unitary system – but the key element underlying urban design, determining the rationale behind Italian cities, particularly in the experimentations of the late 20th century.</em></span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>C.Z.</strong> The problem lies in the nature of the open space, in its essence between structure and form. Today there is much talk, in newspapers and blogs, of the city, in its broadest sense, as a social place, as the coexistence of people (residents, city users, etc.) and cultures. In short, cities are a sort of mosaic. In nineteenth century cities, the same district could be inhabited by people from different ranks; they were structured around an idea of total accessibility; they were the cities depicted by Pisarro, such as the turn-of-the century Paris that still promoted the idea of one city for all. Satellite neighbourhoods, the settlement model of post-war Milan, were instead based on the idea of giving shape and content to villages, often isolated in the countryside, and offered new settlers, mostly former farmers, some of the forms of social solidarity provided in their place of origin. These neighbourhoods included community centres such as churches and schools, the difference being that the only reason for going to districts such as Gallarate or Gratosoglio was to go home, thus making away with the concept of total accessibility that underlay the historical city. While central to Milan’s great districts, public spaces in this city only partially meet Le Courbusier’s idea of extended, widespread greenery, therefore making a less original contribution to the metropolis in terms of form and structure.&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">In the QT8 district, Piero Bottoni introduced two important themes of centrality which gave life to the specific nature of the great districts of Italy, and Milan in particular. The first is the concept of “the vital street”, expressed in one of Bottoni’s sketches of Gallarate, which confirms Italy’s original contribution to the theme of “the street” lined by skyscrapers and moves away from the city forest of Le Corbusier, who believed that «<em>il faut tuer la rue corridor</em>». The reintroduction by Piero Bottoni of the concept of “vital street” proved central to the future history of Italian cities. </span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">The second concept is visible in the layout of the districts of Feltre and S. Ambrogio<sup>4</sup>. While many European residential models upheld the repetitive supremacy of bands running along a heliothermic axis and separated by greenery, in some districts of Milan buildings seven or eight stories high form a large garden court that embraces and shapes the public space. The residences are not simply set inside a widespread forest, without structure or form. Instead, they reinforce the value of internal and external spaces. These, however, cannot be considered mere courtyards or equated to historical layouts as they express a vaster scale compared to consolidated models and redefine the idea of enclosure though a reinvented concept of space and form. </span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">Working on the theme of public space gives rise to different considerations, depending on whether you are dealing with consolidated, semi-central urban areas or with urban structures shaped around the main street model, such as that of the early 20th century. With regard to Milan, especially noteworthy is the Beruto<sup>5</sup> plan, later known as the Pavia Masera Bertini plan, which extended the city’s street maze indefinitely, sometimes including a more open form of construction. There are some interesting cases where the urban plan is structured around the street/housing block matrix of the late 19th century. For example, in Albini’s district, the housing block, although traced out in the 1930s plan, is shaped by residential units, laid out diagonally, that do not create an urban front but generate an open construction where a continuous curtain would be expected. A strange hybrid: open construction set in a pre-designed layout.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">In my experience, the design of open spaces in the suburbs or in semi-urban conditions requires significantly different design tools to those required for historical city centres. The monument to Sandro Pertini<sup>6</sup> which gives onto Via Monte Napoleone, tracing out a symmetrical square edged by mulberry trees and benches, was not conceived in anthropological terms of sociality, but yet has revealed its unexpected potential as a public space accommodating citizen as on a stage set. However, if the same space, with the same figures, were set in a peri-urban district, it would have a different function, not least because of the lower building density. Consequently, issues such as density, trade and the multiple presence of users make the shapes of spaces function differently, which is why the historicist model of the Italian square has not worked in the suburbs – and why Charles Moore’s Piazza Italiana in New Orleans is essentially a caricature. </span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">What is a happy city? There are spaces we love, and these have specific atmospheres. In <em>Pattern Language</em>, Christopher Alexander<sup>7</sup> tries to list these by decoding existing models, resulting in a dictionary of almost universal states of well-being. In actual fact, there is a universal state of well-being that for me means “being protected, living in a space that envelops you, while yet affording a long vista”, the ever-present enjoyment of an open, wide-sweeping perspective. An architect must give shape to an almost ancestral idea of space. There is no doubt that in designing a public space using elements as subtle as light and shadow, it is possible to create proximity through the choice of a stone that warms in the sun. Indeed, in designing part of Portello’s public space, we designed a bench that effectively performed the double role of spatial element and social catalyst. </span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><em>Superkilen<sup>8</sup></em> in Copenhagen and <em>MadridRio<sup>9</sup></em> in Madrid are two major present day attempts at converting a public space. <em>Superkilen </em>is a remarkably interesting project moulded both by the graphic designs on the ground and by the dispersion of monuments, objects of our modern world. <em>Superkilen </em>is not a De Chirico-style square staging open air spaces enclosed by architecture, but is rather the combined presence of objects, surfaces and a program. However, it is now clear that creating themes using multi-ethnic symbols does not generate inclusion; instead, the ethnic appropriate of places generates exclusion. What was supposed to engender integration has become an exclusive search for identity, generating territorial conflict. </span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">I consider myself a socially engaged architect who sees projects in relation to the life, quality and welfare of inhabitants. The open space project involving the Lavazza neighbourhood in Turin – a private space yet open to the city for civic uses – is used by Lavazza office employees for their lunch break but is also a part of the city. In particular, I designed a fountain, a very thin layer of water, that invites users to wade through it barefoot, but also to sit nearby, lie down or work at the computer. «I intentionally designed a fountain with no deterministic intention: this is a welcoming, suitably sized place, enriched by the sound of water that allows for different modes of behaviour but does not set out to determine them. The fountain is an expression of anthropological culture linked to what may happen and is not program-based». Cities and public space projects designed for inhabitants should respond to precise characteristics, but yet accommodate variations and differences. </span></p> <p class="p2">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p3"><span class="s1"><strong>I.C. </strong><em>In order to imagine how a public space should integrate with the unexpected, I always think of an extraordinary paradigm, the Tanner Fountain<sup>10</sup> by Peter Walker, which modifies space through the arrangement of gigantic boulders, and has triggered unexpected behaviour in people, thereby giving the public space a new and playful dimension, playfulness acting as a dynamic and essential element towards improving the suburbs. In this way, Walker introduced in the public space of contemporary cities the concept of the unexpected, a sort of indeterminacy.</em></span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>C.Z. </strong>The architect’s job is to create a good project, endowed with the features necessary for a public space to be viewed by the population as an added value. I do not wish to support the autonomy of architecture, but Florence’s extraordinary Renaissance palazzos were woven into the fabric of the city through the seating for public use lining their base. Italy’s Renaissance cities and even its medieval ones always had a hospitable dimension, and this illustrates the concept of democratic architecture. All good architecture must be public. </span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">To return to the importance of the playful dimension of a project, I do not believe this to be a prerogative solely of contemporary architecture. Piazza di Spagna, for example, is much more hospitable, dynamic and playful than many other recent squares; the scene depicting Anita Ekgberg bathing in the Trevi Fountain brings the baroque back into our daily lives. </span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">An extraordinary example of an architect who took great care of his city is Ljubljana’s Jože Plečnik. His triple bridge is a masterpiece of urban design because it is both a bridge and a square; from afar it connects two parts of the city, but close up it becomes an element of the landscape and an intrinsic part of the river.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">Returning to contemporaneity, we should ask ourselves what are those parts of our profession that are perhaps not quite universal, but that, in some respects, transcend eras and places; those constant elements that may be found in Alexander’s almost cosmic book. These states of well-being are almost pre-cultural; they have to do with an ethology of space, that is, the coexistence of security and freedom of movement which lies at the basis of our double need to be protected and at the same time to be curious; the coexistence of the instinct for protection and discovery. The sense of the unexpected connected with the desire for exploration is one of the fundamental components of the public space project. The other important theme of public spaces is that of bringing together. Today, the metropolis is a space for the multitudes and for extemporary meetings. Piazza del Duomo, for example, is no longer a piazza for the Milanese but rather the place where new waves of migrants go to meet and get to know other people. </span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">“The needle and thread” instalment in Piazza Cadorna is an example of the trend common to many European cities of creating an urban landscape that has moved away from the paintings of Pisarro. <em>Times Square </em>is an extreme case; here, architecture no longer exists, hidden as it is by moving images. The European City as we know it has two layers, a deeper one that we identify with the late 19th century city and another, superimposed with amusing sculptures. This multiform or hybrid character of European capitals is interesting because the project tools are no longer merely traditional: think, for example, of the transformations achieved by lighting public spaces or of the temporary images projected onto building facades, turning them into screens for increasingly sophisticated virtual projections. This is a new aspect of the European city, of the nature of objects and events, which is not necessarily contained in books on the history of architecture.</span></p> <p class="p2">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>I.C. </strong><em>Cities, as we know them, have historical and contemporary centres, but also landscaped areas and residual rural spaces. Today it is these same natural fragments which, absorbed into the whole, act as the basic starting point towards a re-definition of a new unity. The presence of water basins (lakes, rivers, lagoons, etc.), orographic elements (mountains, hills, etc.), and both spontaneous and cultivated vegetation (woods, forests, meadows, agricultural fields, etc.) provide ample reasons for adopting the name “Landscape-City”. The Landscape-City not only encompasses every open space where nature is present, even when degraded or abandoned, but connects them so as to construct a comprehensive whole in which environmental systems trigger processes necessary to re-appropriate places sometimes quite inaccessible, thus returning them to the life of the city and of its citizens. The Landscape-City is intended as a new settlement model, based no longer only on well-established anthropocentric dimensions but rather open and capable of sustaining a biocentric dimension. In such a scenario, man is no longer the only object/subject of the designed space, which instead welcomes a multiplicity of living beings, elements of ecosystems, with man as the judicious, conscious figure. What do you think? Can we talk about some of your projects in these terms? Certainly, the Tirana project seems central to this issue<sup>11</sup>, with the river serving as the connective element for rethinking the city, or again the Sette Bellissimi Broli<sup>12</sup> project in Milan. Today, the concept of Landscape-City can be seen, for example, in Strasbourg, Toulouse and Bordeaux, and even in Milan with the Darsena project, which was long awaited but has set in motion such a process of side effects as to trigger the reopening of the Navigli. This issue of the landscape city revitalizes an essential relationship: that of the constructive dimension of architecture and its ethical dimension in terms of the resources that make life possible.</em></span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>C.Z. </strong>The Landscape-City is the main issue of this millennium, and to this end I wonder whether, given a city’s mutation and even its inertia, it is possible to generate environments that preserve all its <em>serendipity<sup>13</sup></em> – the quality, the emotion, the richness of the unexpected in the urban experience – and at the same time embody all our ideal environmental values. This is certainly a very profound and complex issue, deeply studied also during the last century, through the “garden city” and “green city” paradigms, such as that of <em>Broadacre City</em>. The key, in its current formulation, is to combine, substantially, population density with environmental quality, inventing exemplary interventions such as those already applied for decades in Lyon, and again in Madrid with the re-appropriation of the Manzanares River. The Landscape-City reconnects with its natural borders and undergoes complete reinvention. Another example is Bordeaux, where the great <em>Mirroir d’Eau<sup>14</sup></em> provides a sense of the nature of the places through an interpretive scaling of the river, of the monument and of individuals. </span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">There exist certain images which I consider representative of the unique nature of the European city, which encloses in its “genetic code” – that is to say, in outstanding works – both the formal structure of tree-lined spaces and the urban quality of architectonic spaces, and these are the <em>Place des Vosges</em>, the <em>Crescent </em>in Bath and the <em>Cours Mirabeau</em> in Aix en Provence. Michel Desvigne’s project, the Sette Bellissimi Broli for Milan’s railway yards, was planned on a natural, tree-oriented system intended to design urban fabrics, and not only represent an ecological resource. The project is site-specific, each individual place being seen as part of a whole in which vegetation generates spaces, and a relevant reference is decidedly that of Alphand’s <em>Promenade des Paris,</em> with its urban use of vegetation. Stefano Boeri’s project was perhaps more visionary, its general strategic dimension being able to project on a large scale a jungle-type idea of nature, a city of skyscrapers, sheep and woods. Though I do not see myself as a conservative, my own vision is more in line with the 19th century tradition, where it is vegetation that traces urban forms. I oppose the conception of vegetation as a complement of construction, but also as an antidote to the city. Without doubt, Stefano was brilliant in fusing two contrasting concepts, the skyscraper and large scale vegetation. The world fame awarded to Milan’s Vertical Forest was first of all due to its name, but also to the blending of two traditionally opposing views. A loss of historical memory, however, must be mentioned, and particularly indicative is the introvert <em>Ford Foundation</em>, Emilio Ambasz’s experimentations and even the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and the more recent 2007 <em>Huerta Sociopolis</em> tower by MVRDV in Valencia. What was exceptional in Milan was that the Vertical Forest was constructed, engineered, and diffused. </span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">For my generation, Plaça dels Paisos Catalans in front of the Sants Train Station by Piñón and Viaplana<sup>15</sup> in Barcelona, epitomizing the overturning of all concepts of the traditional square, became at once the reference model for designing new public spaces. It was composed, not by a row of urban facades, but of surfaces, of fine sculptural elements and roof shelters casting shadows on the ground. As a result of this project, we started taking ground into renewed consideration, abandoning the iconic element for a phenomenal one made of light and shadow, where the fragments became meridians. Aldo Rossi’s Frontiveggie square in Perugia was conceived during these same years but repeated the historical type of square, its architecture lining it like an auto-representative monument, an expression of metaphysical desolation. I am all for clarity in urban forms, which must, however, be invented and not nostalgic. </span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">Berlin was another interesting case, as the war had severely damaged its urban structure and reduced it to rubble. This situation gave rise to IBA, and the rediscovery of the street and of urban form. The <em>Sanierung</em> IBA favoured also spontaneous interventions from below, such as, for example, Tempelhof Park<sup>16</sup>, its precise expression showing a vitality missing in the monumental work. The attraction of the city lies in the complementary nature existing between activities and spaces on the one hand and the representative and the monumental on the other, as is also the case at Porta Genova in Milan. There are parts of cities, such as railway yards, requiring a new urban layout (as at Porta Nuova), but a city also needs small-scale retouches to its traditional structure. </span></p> <p class="p2">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>I.C. </strong><em>In our present day, when architects are specialists, your work seems to go against this trend. Your projects embrace time (past, present and future), the various levels of the city, and then, by means of projects involving the ground, reach the architectural details. In fact, one of the main prerogatives of the open space project is the sudden drops in levels, while the architectonic project shows them as gradual, successive sequences.</em></span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><em>The projects show a clear understanding of the changes public spaces require. In fact, our modes of behaviour, our relationships and our expectations have greatly changed over the last few decades, and the value of a city’s historical approach to the square, street and park is coexistent with the modern idea of public space. This consists in the mingling of themes, ground projects, the playful dimension, identification of form, and the dynamic, fluid nature of the public space. Your design for the S. Donà di Piave Park<sup>17</sup> answers present day necessities: active dynamic relationships and fluid movement. </em></span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><em>Your work, with its architectonic and landscaping projecting, blends North American, North European and Milanese cultures, and sees the city against its landscape in the wake of a Milanese culture on a par with this tradition.</em></span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><em>The Villette<sup>18</sup> park, an expression of future innovation, stands as the last great universal exposition, a summation of pavilions. Villette is a pelouse with objects, a program of activities for people as they wander from pavilion to pavilion. It is the last great park intended as a summation of beautiful, original figures. From then on, unlike in the built-up Parisian model, public space began no longer to be seen as a summation of architectonic figures but rather, through a dynamic dimension embracing consideration of people’s lives, as a ground construction.</em></span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>C.Z. </strong>Throughout the history of architecture, the complementary nature between the pleasure pavilion and greenery, between architecture and the park runs through both the Italian and French geometric garden and the English naturalistic model. </span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">I am particularly drawn to <em>Sharawaggi<sup>19</sup></em> (used in literature for the first time in 1685 by Sir William Temple in his <em>Upon the gardens of Epicurus</em>) and its principle of spontaneity in projects. It represents an idea of beauty only seemingly casual, counterpoised to the regular, linear geometries of symmetry, an artistic irregularity. In other words, that unexpectedness stemming from the Oriental tradition of exotic garden is carried over to the forms of architectonic projects. The term Sharawaggi underwent various ups and downs in its history, alternately appearing and disappearing. Appertaining mainly to Anglo-Saxon culture, it pops up again in 1764 in Horace Walpole’s <em>The Castle of Otranto</em>. It indicates that a thing is beautiful if it possesses a sense of the natural, and it became both theory and practice in English landscaping. Pevsner<sup>20</sup> discussed it in his picturesque <em>townscape</em> theories.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">To revert to the question of the link between the pavilion, that isolated architectonic figure, and the open space project, <em>Villette</em> is both a good and a bad example of a very architectonic model, and it is most definitely inadequate towards fulfilling the aspirations set out in the 1982 competition for choosing the “21st century park”. It is an ordered summation of spectacular architectonic figures, and is intended for entertainment, for spectacularization of the <em>Ville Lumiere</em>, where people only want entertainment. Nowadays, one goes to the park to relax but also to be stimulated; the new style city user wants to be galvanized and the city becomes a vast entertainment space. A historic model in this sense is the Tivoli Garden in Copenhagen, a philanthropically themed park of culture and an attractive social environment. </span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">Today in Milan an interesting case is that of Petra Blaisse’s <em>Biblioteca degli Alberi<sup>21</sup></em>, where path structures express incisive geometry but where, at the same time, landscape project and artistic expression meet in a sort of “Public Art”, recalling Mary Miss’s interventions at <em>Battery Park</em><sup>22</sup>, or Martha Schwartz’s figurative pop. </span></p> <p class="p2">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>I.C. </strong><em>Your open space projects, such as the Lugano tunnel and the public spaces in Cerea and Gratosoglio, restore a synthesis of knowledge tending towards the recognition of form with an innovative uniqueness involving the place, the time and the city. How is it possible to interpret the relationship between the need for a recognizable form and the aspect of unexpectedness, the variety of use of the public space by citizens?</em></span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>C.Z. </strong>Landscape Design, with its great success and excellent projects, is one of the most exciting phenomena today. It was certainly the Barcellona Olímpica in the 1990s that started it all in Europe. Remembered for the design and the quality of its open space projects, it has come to the fore more recently as an idea of combining urban structure with pure invention, as seen, for example, in Madrid Rio.</span></p> <p class="p2">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>I.C. </strong><em>Perhaps you would like to mention a present day or past Milanese maestro whose reflections regarding public space are original both in research and in projecting?</em></span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>C.Z. </strong>I would like to speak of Maurice Münir Cerasi<sup>23</sup>, a Milanese Turk, who wished to work with Mies van der Rohe. Having studied in Florence and worked with Giovanni Michelucci, he began teaching in Milan and was of great importance for my generation, though held aloof by the School establishment. Cerasi was absolutely seminal for students, although he later transferred to Genoa without much success. He wrote various books, among which <em>“Lo spazio collettivo della città”</em> is really pertinent to the theme. Its content, original for its time, overturned the autobiographic vision of architecture as monument. Much of the architectural world, such as, for example, Domus’ Ermanno Ranzani, has drawn on his vision. I worked briefly with him after my degree but was not in time to become a real student of his. Cerasi was a master with students and «he showed in masterly fashion, in professional practice, in teaching and in writing, that specialized or sectorial instruments are not needed in designing greenery, public spaces or buildings, but that it is essential to use architectural instruments to vitalize the civic significance of a city».</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">He designed the Parco delle Cave Nord at Paderno Dugnano, the Parco della Martesana, the park at Muggiò and the project for the layout of the lake and hill for the Parco Lambro in Milan. His teaching regarding public spaces was absolutely innovative and original. Maurice Cerasi held the question of public spaces as being of the greatest importance.</span></p> <p class="p4">NOTES</p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>1 </sup>Fagiolo, M. and Madonna, M.L. (Eds.) (1993), <em>Roma Di Sisto V. Arte, architettura e città fra Rinascimento e Barocco</em>, Edizioni De Luca, Roma.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>2</sup> Mazzotta Buratti, A. (1982), <em>La Città rituale:&nbsp;la città e lo Stato di Milano nell’età dei Borromeo</em>, Franco Angeli, Milano.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>3</sup> The expression, which translates as “this will destroy that”, is a fragment of text taken from the second chapter of Book V of <em>Notre Dame de Paris</em> by Victor Hugo, first published in Paris in 1831. </span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>4</sup> The S. Ambrogio district, in south-west Milan, was designed by Arrigo Arrighetti,&nbsp;Eugenio Gentili Tedeschi,&nbsp;Nicola Righini and&nbsp;Egidio Dell’Orto, and built between 1964 and 1966.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>5</sup> This is the first town plan for the city of Milan, drawn up by the engineer Cesare Beruto and implemented in 1889. It was followed up and integrated, in 1912, by the technical municipal team of the engineers Angelo Pavia and Giovanni Masera with extended radial roads and new ring roads that simplify the urban plan in a reductive way.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>6</sup> This work by Milanese architect&nbsp;Aldo Rossi, built in&nbsp;1990, marks the end of a pedestrian area at the crossroads of two important road arteries:&nbsp;Via Monte Napoleone&nbsp;and Via Alessandro Manzoni. Conceived as a peaceful Lombard square in which to meet, have a sandwich or take a group photograph, it is made up of a double line of Lombard mulberry trees, now vanished from the local landscape, as well as stone benches, lamp posts and paving blocks of porphyry or pink granite. At the far end of the square stands the cubical staircase [...]» in Ferlenga, A. (Ed.) (1999), <em>Aldo Rossi. Tutte le opere</em>, Electa, Milano.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>7</sup> Alexander, C. (1977),<em> A Pattern Language, Towns, Buildings, Construction</em>, Oxford University Press, New York. Christopher Alexander worked as a Professor of Architecture at Berkeley. After reading Architecture and Mathematics at Cambridge, England, he completed his studies at the MIT and at Harvard. Born in Austria, he emigrated to England where he currently lives. His manual stems from an observation of historical city models. The book provides rules and images-models and at the same time suggests that the specific place conditions the choice of patterns. Its purpose is to collect and structure information about good practices, providing an anthology of examples that collects and organizes knowledge in an abstract way, by means of re-processed images. The text describes the methods for putting together detailed designs crossing different scales of magnitude: from whole regions, through to cities, districts, gardens, buildings, rooms, furniture, door and window frames, and down to the very doorknobs. The architectural systems illustrated are derived from classical models, used in fact by many architects, and chosen for their beauty and practicality. </span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>8 </sup><em>Superkilen</em> is the public space project that won the competition (2008) to redevelop an open space in the Nørrenbro neighbourhood of Copenhagen. The design team comprised BIG, Superflex and Topotek 1, and construction was carried out between 2010 and 2014. Some of the project publications include: Steiner, B. (Ed.) (2013), <em>Superkilen: a project by Big, Topotek 1, Superflex</em>, Stockholm/Oslo, Arvinius+Orfeus Publishing; Bridger, J. (2013), “Life on the Wedge”, <em>Landscape Architecture Magazine</em>, n. 9, pp. 86-99.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>9</sup> The urban regeneration project involving the banks of the Manzanares, by WEST8 and MADRID RIO, stems from a 2005 design contest. Construction took place between 2006 and 2011. Publications illustrating the project include: Dobrick, C. (2010), “Madrid Rio”, <em>Topos</em>, n. 73, pp. 28-35; West 8 (2012), “Madrid Rio”, <em>Lotus</em>, n. 150, pp. 64-75; Porras-Ysla, F., Burgos, F. and Garrido, G. (2015), <em>Landscapes in the City: Madrid Rio: Geography, Infrastructure and Public Space</em>, Nashville, Turner.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>10</sup> The project, designed in 1984 by Peter Walker, a major American landscape architect, is situated in a pedestrian area of the Harvard campus. This fountain enriches the public space with vital elements intended to be inhabited, explored and crossed. Made up of stone and water, this geometrical space calls to mind the rural, rocky landscape of New England. The fountain, designed in collaboration with the sculptor Joan Brigham, arranges 159 granite boulders in concentric circles, overlapping asphalt paths and the pre-existing lawn and incorporating the nearby trees. Water emerges from the centre of the circle – during spring, summer and autumn in the form of mist and in winter in the form of vapour from the university’s heating system – and obscures the central stones, creating a contemplative landscape in every season. The project won the 2008 <em>Landmark Award</em> of the <em>American Society of Landscape Architects</em> and of the <em>National Trust for Historic Preservation</em>. </span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>11</sup> The project, developed in 2012, provides for the transformation of the capital’s urban plan along the Lanë River. Having grown without plan in recent decades, it conversely generates a linear system of new public spaces capable of increasing environmental quality. Cino Zucchi Architetti collaborated with One Works, Gustafson Porter (as regards landscaping), Buro Happold London and Antonello Stella Architetti.&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>12</sup> In 2017, five groups (Stefano Boeri Architetti, Mad Architects, Mecanoo, Miralles Tagliabue EMBT and Cino Zucchi) participated in a consultation regarding disused Milanese railway stations, with a view to developing transformation strategies for the city. The stations’ renovated spaces form new links between the extended city and individual districts. In Cino Zucchi’s vision, parks and gardens are not merely citizen services but veritable urban planning instruments. Scalo Farini has become a park crossed by winding paths and pedestrian walkways over the railway tracks; Porta Romana features a sloping lawn, a market square between the train station and the bus station; Lambrate traces out a large, semi-circular green “<em>crescent</em>”.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>13</sup> The word <em>serendipity</em>, coined by Horace Walpole in the late 18th Century, refers to a fortunate yet accidental discovery, loosely derived from the Persian tale “<em>The Three Princes of Serendip</em>”, the old name for Sri Lanka.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>14</sup> The <em>Miroir d’Eau</em> was designed by Michel Corajoud and built in 2006. The shallow water reflects the Place de la Bourse and the quays of the River Garonne. The project takes in the reflection of the sky, the monuments and people in 2 cm of water placed above granite slabs, with sprays of nebulised water reaching a height of 2 metres. Michel Corajoud, the designer behind the transformation of around five kilometres of the banks of the River Garonne, said he drew inspiration for his project from seeing Piazza San Marco in Venice under water.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>15</sup> The design of the square dates back to 1981-83. The works of Albert Viaplana i Veà together with Helio Piñón between 1947 and 1997 were an expression of Catalonia’s architectural experimentation.&nbsp;From the late 1970s, their projects, rooted in the Escuela de Barcelona, embodied simplicity, minimalist and conceptual research. The <em>CCCB, Centro de cultura contemporánea de Barcelona</em>, built between 1990 and 1993, is considered their masterpiece.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>16 </sup>Ever since <em>Tempelhofer Feld</em> opened as a public space in 2010, it has offered the city of Berlin 300 hectares of open spaces in the city centre. From here, planes used to take off for destinations worldwide, but now the area offers a rich leisure time offering, such as skating, hiking, gardening, picnics, birdwatching, kitesurfing, mini golf and community gardens.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>17</sup> Built between 2004 and 2007. </span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>18</sup> The international competition was launched in 1982 with the aim – to quote the goals of the competition notice – of establishing, through the winner, the 21st Century Park model. Bernard Tschumi’s project certainly betrayed this expectation and excluded the most important French landscape architects of the school of Versailles, subsequently reintegrated in the themed gardens of Promenade Cinematique. Instead, the proposal put forward by Rem Koolhaas with Elia Zenghelis, Kees Christiaanse, Stefano De Martino, Rurd Roorda, Ron Steiner, Jan Voorberg and Alex Wall and with the landscape architects Claire and Michel Corajoud undoubtedly held the greatest theoretical and innovative value. Publications illustrating the outcome of the competition include: Hayward, M., Lombard-Valentino, C. and Barzilay, L. (1984), <em>L’invention Du Parc: Parc De La Villette, Paris Concours International = International Competition 1982-83</em>, Paris, Graphite; Baljon, L. (1992), “Designing Parks: An examination of contemporary approaches to design in landscape architecture”, in Gordon, C. (Ed.), <em>Amsterdam</em>, Architectura and Natura Press; more recently OMA (2015), “Masterplan Parc de la Villette”, <em>Lotus</em>, n. 156, pp. 44-49; Repishti, F. (2015), “Layers”, <em>Lotus</em>, n. 156, pp. 50-51.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>19</sup> It was first used by Sir William Temple (1628-99) in his text <em>Upon the Gardens of Epicurus</em> (1685) to describe the Chinese way of planting gardens in an apparently haphazard manner, “without any order or disposition of parts”. The term became popular in the mid-18th century to describe how the Picturesque, with its irregularities and its asymmetry, can instil surprise. </span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>20</sup> Lang, S. and Pevsner, N. (1948), “Sir William Temple and Sharawaggi”, <em>The Architectural Review</em>, n. 106, pp. 391–392.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>21</sup> BAM, a contemporary botanical garden in the heart of Porta Nuova, in Milan, was designed by Petra Blaisse, with her firm Inside/Outside, and Piet Oudolf, and won the “International design competition <em>Gardens of Porta Nuova - Garibaldi Republic area</em>”.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>22</sup> <em>South Cove</em> is an artistic project by Mary Miss, located on the artificial shores of the Hudson River at Battery Park, reclaimed in order to build the new Battery Park City neighbourhood between 1984 and 1987 and, after recent restorations, even more perfectly integrated into the city’s public space.</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><sup>23</sup> Maurice Cerasi (1932-2015), architect and professor of Architectural Composition first at the Politecnico di Milano and then, from 1986, at the Faculty of Architecture in Genoa, wrote several books and essays, including: Cerasi, M. (1976), <em>Lo Spazio Collettivo della Cit</em>tà, Mazzotta, Milano; Cerasi, M. (1969), <em>La Lettura dell’Ambiente</em>, CLUP, Milano; Cerasi, M. (1990), <em>Periferia e Progetto dello Spazio Pubblico</em>, Seminar ERASMUS, Genoa-Barcellona; Cerasi, M. (1985), “Problemi di Progettazione del verde e degli spazi aperti - introduzione metodologica”, in <em>Parchi Naturali/Urbani</em>, Regione Lombardia Conference, Milano; Cerasi, M. (1985), “Contributo sulla problematica dei parchi, <em>Seminar “Il Sistema del verde nel progetto di sviluppo dell’area Provinciale Milanese </em>promoted by the Milan Province. He designed and realised numerous parks, public spaces, residences and council housing. His projects have been published in magazines and international collections such as “L’Architecture d’Ajourdhui” (October/November 1972, n. 173/1976), <em>Domus</em> (n. 673/1986, n. 706/1989, n. 709/1989), <em>Lotus International</em> (n. 54/1987), <em>Architektur+wettbewerbe</em> (n. 130/1987), <em>World of Environmental Design - Nature Conservation and Land Reclamation</em>, Barcelona 1995, <em>Houses</em>, Links International, Barcelona, 1997 and in national magazines. His works dating between 1974 and 1988 were collected in “L’Industria delle Costruzioni”, n. 207, 1989. He drew up several studies and research projects for public institutions: in 1966, a “Study of the environmental values of the Lodi area” on behalf of the Lombard Institute for Economic and Social Sciences and of the Province of Milan; the “Territorial Plan for the Coordination of the Ticino Park” (1976 to 1980); a research “Project for the use and protection of the environmental system of the Alta Val Nure area” in partnership with the Politecnico di Milano and the Provincial Administration of Piacenza (1983-84); the research project “Recovery of plain-based quarries in urban and semi-urban areas”, for the IRER (Lombard Regional Institute of Research) in 1985.</span></p> Maria Pilar Vettori Copyright (c) 2020 Maria Pilar Vettori 2020-04-24 2020-04-24 398 312 10.13128/techne-8519 Reviews <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><em>The public space. Design, construction, management</em>.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>A meeting point, sometimes even conflicting, between interdisciplinary skills that extend its defining structures – in line with the evolutionary traces of the contemporary concept of public space – and the new ways of living, perceiving, managing and therefore <em>thinking</em> about it. The enhancement of urban space and the public sphere are at the center of attention of the contemporary debate as themes of interest to architects, philosophers, sociologists and anthropologists (to name a few: Habermas, Innerarity, Bauman, Augé, Gehl), as complex “places” to break down (Vadini, 2017<sup>1</sup>). The term “public space” identifies several places, which show a broad and composite image of what is perceived as “everyone’s space”: not only squares, gardens and parks, but also buildings, often imagined as new squares, and paths, towards the hill or towards the countryside. Public space, therefore, understood as <em>right</em> is an innovative concept that can trigger forms of social protection from below and increase the quality of life and housing for families, young and old<sup>2</sup>. </span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The most obvious need is that of a new understanding of the common space, not only as something that can be governed and open to all, but as an essential aspect of our world that expresses, encourages and exemplifies new forms of social relations and shared experiences.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>An example of this are the neighborhood Laboratories, launched in 2017 in Bologna, thanks to the <em>Urban Innovation Plan</em>, which among the priorities highlighted the need to understand public spaces, such as <em>places of proximity</em>, where people and communities of different cultures, ages, passions can increase their social capital. Many European cities such as Bilbao, Marseille, Barcelona, ​​Copenhagen have invested in public space in their urban regeneration strategies, recognizing the improvement of the quality of relationships as a determining factor for social rebalancing and the perception of happiness.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>In these cities, Bauman’s theory<sup>3</sup> of <em>emptying public space</em> is particularly evident and bringing individuals and their relationships back to the scale of physical proximity is the challenge that the contemporary city must take to aspire to be truly <em>smart </em>(Briguglio, 2016<sup>4</sup>). </span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">Compared to the evolution of the debate in progress, the Reviews section proposes three texts selected according to a method that refers to three areas related to public space: the first strictly disciplinary, with reference to the Technology of Architecture, the second character more general but attributable to the Architecture Area, the third as an essay on the Theme. The connection between the concept of <em>smartness</em> together with that of <em>healthiness</em> is the common thread that introduces the disciplinary text – reviewe by Antonello Monsù Scolaro<sup>5</sup> – “<em>Smartness e healthiness per la transizione verso la resilienza. Orizzonti di ricerca interdisciplinare sulla città e il territorio</em>” Franco Angeli, 2018 edited by Filippo Angelucci<sup>6</sup>.&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The text, starting from the debate emerged during the international conference<em> e-agorà. For the transition toward resilient communities</em>&nbsp;(Torino, 2016) reconstructs a first framework between new theoretical positions, methodological experiments and applied research experiences, with respect to the paradigms of <em>smartness</em> and <em>healthiness</em> as the main vectors towards resilience. </span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">Monsù Scolaro highlights the <em>interdisciplinarity</em> as a factor of social innovation with respect to these issues, noting how the points of connection between the two terms represent the new trajectories that describe the dynamic concepts between cities of the future and quality of life.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">The loss of the principles around which the concept of urban quality is built is reproduced in the general text, kindred to the Architecture Area – reviewed by Roberto Giordano<sup>7</sup> – “<em>Urban Connections in the Contemporary Pedestrian Landscape</em>” Routledge 2019, by Philip Pregill<sup>8</sup>.<br>The author describes the relationship between design strategies and enhancement of the urban context with the characterization of public spaces intended for user activities at different intervention scales, indicated in the text as: <em>arterials, collectors, locals</em>. Giordano addresses the issue with a critical examination that starts from the current scientific debate on the urban design and focuses on the conjugations of the expression <em>connections</em> as a junction mode between existing and changing places within the urban scene, through the different variations that Pregill gives in the various dedicated chapters. The third volume, as an essay on the Theme, concludes the investigation of the aspects that most characterize the relationships between urban space and the public sphere, with the text – reviewed by Andrea Tartaglia<sup>9</sup> – “<em>Colin Ward Architettura del dissenso. Forme e pratiche alternative dello spazio urbano”</em>, Elèuthera, 2016, edited by Giacomo Borella<sup>10</sup>. He takes care of the interventions of C. Ward, recounting the reflections on the alternative practices of the urban space of one of the main observers of the hidden social history of urban planning and living in the second half of the twentieth century. Tartaglia highlights its salient features, focusing attention on the reasoning around the “fine grain” of the historic stratified city over time to which the modern contrasts “coarse grain fabric of the rebuilt and financially profitable city”. The need to regain possession of the city and to “do it yourself” underlined by Ward, becomes the background to bring real needs and targeted interventions closer together. An approach, therefore, in which the current problems of the contemporary city are recognized and reread between the real needs of users, changes in the quality of life levels and the role that public space can play in its design, social, cultural and sometimes unexpectedly <em>ephemeral attitudes</em>.</span></p> Francesca Giglio Copyright (c) 2020 Francesca Giglio 2020-01-21 2020-01-21 313 314 10.13128/techne-7869 Filippo Angelucci, Smartness e healthiness per la transizione verso la resilienza <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In the preface to the 2016 digital edition of the book <em>Les mots et le choses</em>, first appeared in 1966, M. Foucault<sup>1</sup> recalls that his work was inspired by a Borges text, in which he ‘disordered’ the categories of thought and the correspondences which we are normally used to. Foucault, from the Borges text, glimpses «the suspicion of a disorder worse than the incongruence and the juxtaposition of what does not match; it would be the disorder that spreads the fragments of a large number of possible orders in a dimension without law and geometry, the <em>heteroclite</em>». «In the <em>heteroclite</em>, things are ‘laid down’, ‘set down’, ‘laid out’ in such different places that it is impossible to find a space that embraces them all, defining under each other a <em>commonplace</em>». In this sense, <em>smart city</em>, <em>healthy city</em> or <em>resilient city</em> could be considered heteroclite expressions, because of –<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>through approaches different from the usual – they force us to trace elsewhere the solution to the problems now embedded in the cities.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Nowadays, cities have become a jumble of “grey areas” that have favored “top down choices”, all too often facilitating speculative interests which – in return – have progressively denied (sometimes to zero) the human dimension of the space project, both reducing the space of the social relation and excluding the environmental dimension from the urban texture. Hence, cities “drawn on paper” turn into unhealthy and increasingly fragile ones; exclusive and non-inclusive, especially towards the weaker social classes (elders, children, women, disabled people, etc.); increasingly less inviting for the density of the built environment, the loss of nature, the lack of common meeting spaces.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The progressive loss of urban quality and, in particular, of livability leads to a fine parallelism with the descending parable of hospital quality: as a times’ mirror, the hospitals have interpreted and translated the scientific and technological evolution, to date, as a more efficient large equipment – the “<em>machines à guérir</em>” of foucaultian memory – capable of healing its “guests”, but losing the original and founding human dimension of care.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Florence Nightingale, considered the pioneer of modern nursing care, in 1859 emphasized «the positive effect of beauty on illness», suggesting that the beauty of hospitals should increasingly make them familiar places for the patient, contributing to his (quick) healing.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Currently, the design of hospitals, important public health units, cannot ignore the criteria to make them gain back the quality they’ve lost over the years, through the design of green spaces, places of communication, rest and reception; also paying attention to the quality of indoor spaces, growing wellness and indoor comfort. The hospital of the future (more and more, especially in these times) requires a careful design approach, like the one of the “city of the future”, both based on a <em>human centred perspective</em>.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Therefore, the design of the “future cities” must consider the abovementioned issues by developing new ideas and scenarios, working in thematic areas through technologies, tools and materials, to make our cities better and more interconnected, inclusive, circular and healthy, but low-impact and less energy-consuming. Hence, in the introduction to his curatorship, Filippo Angelucci reminds us that the term <em>smartness</em> should assume «a multi–dimensional intelligence, which contributes to the convergence of interdisciplinary adaptive aspects regarding technology, users and artifacts, city and territory». The curator, appropriately, dwells on further important issues related to the design of “healthy” spaces for the inhabitant, which represents the dimension in relation to which the city must measure its inclusiveness, accessibility and liveability: in summary, its <em>healthiness</em>. Starting from the studies of Holling, Folker and Walker related to the size of socio-ecological systems in the resilient city of the future, with an intensive speculative effort, Angelucci sets out the design pathways, joined-up and synergistic, related to the concepts of <em>smartness</em> and <em>healthiness</em>; right off attempting to reconnect theoretical apparatuses with operational practice, to define the possible paradigms to preside over the innovative approaches, required to “cure” our cities.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The book edited by Angelucci is divided into three sections: “Resilience, adaptation and innovations”; “Connections and re-connections between the territory and the city” and “Strategies, scenarios and applications”. It is a careful and painstaking selection among several contributions, coming both from the session “Smart Territories and Healthy Cities” of International Conference INPUT-2016- e-agorà ε-agorα <em>for the transition toward resilient communities</em>: <em>the 9th International Conference of Innovation in Urban and Regional Planning</em>, held in Turin on 14<sup>th</sup> and 15<sup>th</sup> September 2016, and from the research carried out by some members of the cluster “Accessibility of the Environment” of the SIT<em>d</em>A.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The collection attests the quest of connections and “hidden” <em>self-healing</em> relationships with the city, through theoretical treatises on cultural, decision-making and behavioural processes; both through the innovation of approaches and methods to support the design and by referring to experimental applications to re-enact the relations between cities, inhabitants and buildings.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">As a whole, the volume takes up the complex challenge to define the new design paradigms of the existing city, tracing an operational pathway based on an eco-systemic and <em>human centered</em> perspective within design processes.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In conclusion, getting <em>smartness</em> and <em>healthiness</em> – as a new qualitative categories for the city of the future – obliges designers and technicians «who will be engaged to accept, culturally and ethically, a new sense of design, to formulate open and flexible modification hypotheses», to recompose the system of interrupted relations between territory, landscapes and inhabitants, optimizing natural and artificial resources, that today the city offers as a possibility – hopefully not the last one – to reinstate to things the sense of words.</span></p> Antonello Monsù Scolaro Copyright (c) 2020 Antonello Monsù Scolaro 2020-01-21 2020-01-21 315 316 10.13128/techne-7870 Giacomo Borella, Colin Ward. Architettura del dissenso. Forme e pratiche alternative dello spazio urbano <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The human being, when his/her action is not governed or imposed by superstructures, acts according to necessity, organizing to best respond to needs. The action of many individuals who operate in this way can lead to the creation of alternative forms and aggregations that configure as urban space. Forms that, if observed without prejudice, can stimulate interesting thoughts on the structure of our cities and on the rules that should/could govern their design, but also on the role of the project and of the architects.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Certainly, the explicit anarchic matrix of his social and philosophical thought, as well as the life itself of Colin Ward (well summarized in the book’s introduction by the curator), is also the interpretative key with which this “militant architect” investigates architectural and urban phenomena<sup>1</sup>. The observation of reality and its elements is the generating principle of every thought and every interpretation that coherently never become pure abstraction, but always maintain a close contact with the factuality of the investigated cases.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The selection of texts by Colin Ward, made by the curator of the anthology Giacomo Borella, allows us to grasp the many facets of the author’s thought, but at the same time stimulates thoughts and questions of great relevance. The various chapters that compose this collection, in fact, are not in themselves conclusive but open to alternative visions. The analyzes of spontaneous phenomena of settlement developments never fall (or almost never) in a romantic aesthetic of the informal, but instead emphasize how such need-based processes are able to respond effectively to needs and often with more suitable outcomes that not through planning and design actions structured, governed and financed from up.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Even the figure of the architect loses meaning if is unable to solve people’s problems by putting him/herself at the service of communities. It is not a coincidence that a chapter is dedicated to the figure of Walter Segal, as an example of the correct action of the architect – who performs a service in and for society and does not impose an abstract and superficial vision – and one to William Richard Lethamby, an example of ability to concretely overcome the traditional education and training models.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">For Ward, effective models of development and anthropization can be found in the reality by observing “do-it-yourself” settlements in response to pressing needs, as in the case of Basilton, but also with ludic purposes such as at Pagham Beach.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The reasoning around the “fine-grain” of the historic city stratified over time is of great interest. “Fine-grain” to which the modern <strong>«</strong>coarse-grained fabric of the rebuilt and financially profitable city» is contrasted. City no longer understandable to the population and above all detached from the real needs and in which it is the same quality of life that is penalized. Even the Cathedral of Chartres becomes an opportunity to reflect not only on the role of the project but also on the social impacts that certain relational, organizational and constructive models can produce.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">It is also true, as Borella sums up, that <strong>«</strong>the underlying theme of Ward’s work on architecture and the city is the hidden social history of living, with particular attention to popular and unofficial forms of building and transforming places<strong>»</strong>. But his analyzes go beyond reporting, indirectly becoming an underlying complaint against models of implementation and governance of urban forms even in its most modern participated versions. In fact, even if the texts reported in the anthology were elaborated by Colin Ward between 1962 and 2002, they are characterized by the extreme contemporaneity of the contents and of the themes dealt with. Necessity is the central element that must give meaning to the action of people and architects. But these are needs that require long-term responses even in situations where self-construction governs. Ward rejects models characterized by iconic interventions or solutions built on ideological bases by an elite that shuns any confrontation and even any contact with who will instead be the final user of the city. But his libertarian vision does not find an adequate answer even in the most recent “tactical” models of intervention on our cities. Models that, while defining themselves participatory, produce ephemeral solutions, in which interventions of slight aesthetic superstructure are then subject to very rapid degradation processes. The need to <strong>«</strong>interrelate the design phase – that is decisions to the social demands of services and facilities at the urban level for the satisfaction of individual and collective needs – with the expression of the wishes and propensities of users, and more generally of the users of such goods» (Schiaffonati, 2019<sup>2</sup>) requires instead cultural rigor, strategic vision and absence of ideological prejudices. The do-it-yourself underlined by Ward does not mean acting randomly and extemporaneously, but arises from taking note of the slowness and inaction of the deputy administrative bodies; often not even able to understand the social demand.</span></p> Andrea Tartaglia Copyright (c) 2020 Andrea Tartaglia 2020-01-21 2020-01-21 317 318 10.13128/techne-7871 Philip Pregill, Urban Connections in the Contemporary Pedestrian Landscape <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The urban project reflects a scientific feature that can be considered as the harmonious outcome between concepts related to both planning and architectural scale, starting from a process of site analysis where rules and metrics are taken from.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The urban context is also to be understood as a more or less large portion of landscape, mostly anthropized and natural; it is influenced in its development by the exchanges that are generated among fields ranging from the urban economy to the procedural dimension, passing through mobility, the definition of identity of places, and arrive at the rational management of resources, safety, accessibility and well-being of users (Losasso, 2017).</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">More specifically, the development of urban space, and consequently the way the built landscape changes, has significant effects on the type and quality of the activities carried out by its users (Gehl, 1987 - Dessì, 2007) and on the possibilities of preserving and implementing the functional connections between parts of the city and between city and territory (Lynch, 1990).</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Philip Pregill deals with many of these topics, exploring the relationship between the old and new features of the city and the built landscape, in the book mainly intended as part of the physical space for pedestrian activities. The sidewalk, the one we walk on every day, assumes thus the role of a strategic indicator, able to gauge the social, environmental and physical changes of the contemporary city.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The author shows interest and skill in matching the theme of design and enhancement of the urban context with the characterization of public and semi-public open spaces; here intended as spaces designed for stationary activities and on-the-move activities of citizens.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">He does so in seven chapters, wherein the term “connections” is five times used in the header; demonstrating that one of the main duties of pedestrian areas is precisely to connect existing and developing places within the urban scene.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In the beginning, the book emphasizes the importance of designing urban spaces organized through hierarchical grids. It describes some cities historically designed mostly according to orthogonal urban models; cities in which it is possible to grasp the distinction between main and secondary axes.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Three types of urban landscape are defined in order to carry out pedestrian activities: the “arterials”, described as access avenues and main connection between poles of the city; the “collectors”, defined as city axes of the second level concerning the arterials, and aimed at connecting poles that characterize a neighborhood; the “local connections”, considered as the one that links the previous categories to the everyday living places.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Each urban connection is described through an inductive approach, as defined by the author; in other words, it is intended to design the new or enhance the existing one according to a cultural and scientific heritage made up of examples, good practices and technical reference standards.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">At the same time, however, another method is highlighted defined by Pregill as deductive. A system focused on bottom-up phenomena; e.g. experiences of tactical urbanism and guerrilla gardening are accurately described in the book.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Thus, culturally different approaches coexist, because of the complexity of the theme. Technical standards can make an urban space adequately lighted or well-organized in terms of mobility, but it is often the citizens’ participatory designs that contribute to making a part of the built landscape as unique and identifiable, helping to strengthen the sense of belonging of the users.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Pregill provides the reader with an interdisciplinary interpretation of the urban space, conceived as the result of a typological, compositional and landscape control and as a scenario within different types of users require the meeting of needs related to safety, usability and, more generally, livability.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The pedestrian landscapes are therefore the outcome of an anthropocentric vision of the project. They are designed for the physical and psychological well-being of people in relation to the various spaces in which they perform dynamic or static activities. A vision in relation and analogy with research topics close to the technological design culture.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The last chapters of the book deal with the development of contemporary and future connections of pedestrian landscapes. Both deductive and inductive approaches are also proposed. On the one hand, the author suggests smart cities and smart streets as reference models able to improve the services of urban space, as well as information technology as an opportunity to shape places that can change their configurations according to certain safety and well-being requirements. On the other hand, it recalls the core role of the user as a holder of individual experiences capable of influencing the urban identity of a place, beyond the number and quality of the technological gadgets it is equipped with.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Finally, in several parts, the book encourages solutions to tackle, or at least mitigate, one of the main contemporary challenges such as climate change. The pedestrian landscape thus becomes an opportunity to reduce urban heat island or urban flooding.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The urban spaces, where possible, should be designed according to proper orientations and morphologies able to minimize the rising temperatures. But most importantly, Pregill recognizes in the vegetation use systemic properties. Vegetation can perform a variety of functions: it shades the walking and standing areas; it can reduce the superficial temperature of urban materials (starting from the sidewalks); it can improve the rainwater drainage through rain gardens.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">On the whole, the book provides a collection of useful instructions for a variety of stakeholders; although it is primarily aimed at the academic community, many paragraphs deal with strategies and solutions useful to public authorities, designers and architects engaged in various fields: urban, architectural and, last but not least, technological. Strategies and solutions capable of developing new urban and contemporary landscape models designed for living, not just for rapid transits. </span></p> Roberto Giordano Copyright (c) 2020 Roberto Giordano 2020-01-21 2020-01-21 319 320 10.13128/techne-7873 A new green deal for climate challenges and urban regeneration <p class="p1"><span class="s1">A zero-emission Europe by 2050, this is the objective declared by the President of the European Commission Ursula von der Leyen during the plenary of the EU Parliament last January. The European “green deal” is based on a thousand billion investment plan for the next ten years in which Europe will have to play a leading role in achieving zero climate impact by investing in technological and innovative solutions, involving citizens and harmonizing interventions in key sectors, such as industrial policy and scientific research.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In Italy, issues relating to climate change and the related environmental implications are today at the center of a public and media debate like never before. Tackling the climate crisis and relaunching the country’s sustainable development based on the green economy jointly appears to be the only unavoidable way forward.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The future of our metropolitan areas therefore depends on the ability to encourage adaptation to the major changes taking place through a general rethinking of the city theme, in which interest is concentrated on the value of public space and on the resilience of urban contexts that present conditions of natural or anthropogenic vulnerability. The urban public space project therefore appears to be a strategic area of intervention as a device to protect the city from environmental emergencies, an ecological resource for improving the quality of urban life and fighting pollution and – indirectly – for promoting social cohesion and collective identity actions.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The programmatic and planning responses that try to face this emergency situation must necessarily and consciously recognize the ecological and environmental value of open spaces. «An evolutionary step that brings to the center of future design reflections – which interpret the city as a complex organism – the decisive contributions of environmental and landscape culture, of environmental functioning in terms of usability, comfort, safety, use of resources, integrability, environmental protection and welfare» (Clemente, 2017).</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In this direction “CLEVER Cities” (Project financed with Horizon 2020 funds and with an experiment on the city of Milan) with the motto “Regenerating cities with nature” focuses attention on the decisive role that nature can play in improving environmental quality, biodiversity and the welfare of citizens in a process of urban regeneration through Nature-Based Solutions<sup>1</sup>.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Downstream of these preliminary considerations, this issue of the Rubric has identified Bonifico Group Srl as a qualified interlocutor, a historical reality operating in the landscape development sector with settled botanical knowledge and agronomic practices that expresses a high rate of innovation in naturalistic engineering interventions, design and construction of roof gardens, irrigation systems and water management, maintenance of urban and infrastructure greenery.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In the following pages, through a dialogue with Dr. Eduardo Bonifico, General Manager of the Bonifico Group, some arguments are developed on very topical issues and related to the company’s know-how through some exemplary projects carried out.</span></p> <p class="p2">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>1.</strong> <em>Recent urban redevelopment projects and interventions, related to the public space project and the vegetation system, have radically changed the face of some European cities, creating real “new landscapes”; I think of the “Madrid + Natural” program, developed through a collaboration between the Municipality of Madrid and Studio Arup Associates, consisting of guidelines to tackle the global problem of climate change through multiple local solutions that include green projects for buildings, green infrastructures and open spaces in the city of Madrid What skills and innovations does the Bonifico Group use for urban redevelopment projects?</em></span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The Bonifico Group provides, among others, planning and construction services for green spaces in urban areas for both public and private clients. To deal with the growing complexity of the projects and the requisites required, the company uses an interdisciplinary approach that intertwines different skills; from the architectural, landscape and engineering ones of the project to those related to the evaluation of economic, financial and environmental sustainability. The experiments that we carry out and constantly develop are divided into two main categories: application, with the development of the most effective and efficient design solutions in the specific urban contexts where the Bonifico Group carries out the redevelopment of public open spaces; methodology, with the construction of a system of appropriate technologies in relation to the variation of the combined data of the environmental context and the biophysical and microclimatic characteristics.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Our expertise aims to increase the accessibility and environmental quality of urban public space, thanks also to the ecological and intelligent management of the water and to the green enhancement in bioclimatic terms.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">I refer, for example, to Dominique Perrault’s project for Piazza Garibaldi in Naples in which the role of the Bonifico Group was to reconstruct spaces of “nature” in the anthropized context. Twenty thousand square meters of greenery, the first urban “urban forest”, with 130 trees of various essences, equipped with basketball courts, five-a-side football, skateboard track, playground for children and a cavea for open-air cinema and shows. The surface arrangement is configured as an Urban Green Infrastracture (UGI) to underline the scalar dimension of investigation referred to the urban context. The presence of widespread vegetation in the square offers another great advantage: the reduction of the heat island effect, a persistent problem in urban centres; green and soil permeability are one of the possible solutions, because the heat absorbed by solar radiation does not accumulate.</span></p> <p class="p2">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>2.</strong> <em>This century has opened under the banner of awareness that the Earth is fragile and must be defended. The energy crisis and the protection of the environment are global emergencies, and the challenge is to create architectures with zero consumption and zero emissions, gentle machines to explore the relationship between building and nature in which, paraphrasing Renzo Piano «the roofing of buildings is metaphorically a roof that breathes to the rhythm of nature, or rather a portion of park that flies». Over the years, the Bonifico Group has dealt with important projects relating to green roof; what were the benefits brought to the structures and the surrounding environment?</em></span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In an industrialized society subjected to the pressures of continuous economic development, the territory undergoes rapid and profound transformations. Our goal is to help manage these processes by interpreting the community’s environmental demands. For this reason, thanks to the long evolutionary path in terms of acquiring new skills, we have been engaged for years in the promotion of the most advanced technologies for environmental sustainability, for the reduction of pollution and for the exploitation of renewable energies. In this field, projects relating to roof gardens and the benefits that these structures bring with reference to the mitigation of the microclimate, energy saving, the reduction of atmospheric and sound pollution, the reduction of the flow rate of the water, the growth of the biodiversity and the best performance of the photovoltaic panels on the roof. The spread of green roofs has increased in relation to the growing interest in sustainable architecture and green building. Their classifications (intensive or extensive) depend on several factors: the amount of land, maintenance work, weight and accessibility.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">For example, for the project of the “Vulcano Buono” shopping centre, a work carried out by Renzo Piano in the province of Naples, a green roof system<sup>2</sup> of approximately 80.000 square meters (one of the largest in Europe) was designed and targeted for the Mediterranean climate, able to confer various benefits to the building including:</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s1">- an improvement of the thermal performance of the roof both in winter and in summer;</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s1">- an energy saving favoured by the insulating and draining culture layer;</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s1">- the reduction of noise pollution and its improvement in terms of insulation;</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s1">- greater surface absorption capacity in rainfall and relative regulation of water runoff;</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s1">- an ability to originate natural ventilation by promoting the reduction of surface humidity values;</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s1">- the ability of the vegetation on the roof to retain harmful substances suspended in the air, which are thus absorbed through the photosynthesis process;</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s1">- a faunistic improvement with an increase in biodiversity;</span></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s1">- an improvement of the aesthetic and environmental impact also through specific tree species of Mediterranean area.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">I think all these performances go in the direction of “a roof that breathes to the rhythm of nature” mentioned by Piano.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>3.</strong> <em>As is known, green facades act on the microclimate and influence the physical and technical behavior of a building, contributing on a large scale to stem climate change and atmospheric pollution. The Citicape House, a building designed by the architectural firm Sheppard Robson, will see the largest green wall in Europe consisting of about 400.000 plants with an extension of about 4.000 square meters capable of absorbing over eight tons of carbon every year, producing six of oxygen and lowering the local temperature from three to five degrees Celsius within a few years. What are the experiences of the Bank Transfer Group in this sense?</em></span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">There is no doubt that the design of a green facade introduces a series of aesthetic-formal and environmental advantages in the context in which it fits. In the first few days of 2020, we are in the process of formalizing some projects concerning the use of greenery for building envelopes.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">From the data in our possession, through the use of greening systems with green walls, various benefits are obtained: a decrease in temperature of 4.5 degrees centigrade and energy savings for cooling by 43% and from 4 to 6.3% for heating.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Another benefit of the green wall concerns the lowering of the air temperature of the environment surrounding the building; some estimates calculate a reduction in air temperature between 0.5 and 4.1 degrees centigrade, measured at a distance of two meters from the wall.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">More specifically, some studies have shown that broad-leaved species could provide better performance in capturing the fraction of fine particulate matter, PM1, which is particularly harmful to health, while those with leaves characterized by the presence of epicuticular wax and a particular surface morphology can trap all fractions of particulate matter.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In general, the positive effects of a Living wall on the PMx concentration depend on the specific characteristics of the plants: the shape of the epidermis, the roughness or the level of air pollution in the area.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Vegetation also affects its thermal regulation of the building system, with advantages in both winter and summer. During the cold season it helps to limit heat losses and increase the insulation of the building, also protecting the wall from the wind. Although it is almost impossible to calculate precisely the amount of energy savings guaranteed by a live system and therefore variable, it has been estimated that the layer of foliage is able to increase the thermal resistance of the wall by about 6%.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">During the summer, the green layer through shading ensures the reduction of the surface temperature of the building wall. The solar load on the surface can be reduced by up to 30% and the surface temperature of the facade can also drop by 10°C.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Furthermore, in cases where the green wall is a few centimetres away from the building, an air gap is formed which offers the advantages of a ventilated wall, increasing the thermal resistance of the wall.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">Finally, the performance also in terms of acoustic insulation is amplified since the layer of foliage reduces the transmission of noise inside the building, absorbing the sound waves coming from outside.</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Certainly in the next few years’ part of the company’s business will be oriented towards the study of innovative solutions and products to achieve the European standards mentioned above.</span></p> Alessandro Claudi de St. Mihiel Copyright (c) 2020 A. Claudi de St. Mihiel 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 321 326 10.13128/techne-7883