TECHNE - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment <p><em>TECHNE</em>, the scientific journal of SIT<em>d</em>A, the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Italian Society of Architectural Technology</a>, meets the Society's aims by working, at national and international level, to promote knowledge and the methods and techniques of Architectural Technology, so as to protect and enhance the man-made environment, and to promote innovative applications and interdisciplinary comparison.<br>The magazine publishes articles on innovative research and applications, as well as essays and reports. The authors work in the academic world and in research facilities in the area of architectural design, industry, entrepreneurial activities and client, public and private organizations.<br><em>TECHNE&nbsp;</em>addresses a target market interested in debating relevant and critical points of view and acquiring useful knowledge for the development of projects through a comparison of different approaches.</p> Firenze University Press en-US TECHNE - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment 2239-0243 <p>Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (<a href="">CC-BY-4.0</a>)</strong>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a></p> Note Maria Teresa Lucarelli Copyright (c) 2019-02-19 2019-02-19 7 8 10.13128/Techne-24772 Horizontality and Verticality. Architecture between rooting and sky conquering Emilio Faroldi Copyright (c) 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 9 15 10.13128/Techne-25092 Going underground. New dimensions for new urban models <p>The dialectic between vertical and horizontal urban development models seems to leave out the depth of the underground. The increasing urbanization, the consequent strong density as well as growing environmental concerns push the search for new models of development towards the subsoil frontier. Recognized resilience properties and a strong potential for sustainability indicate the underground as a natural destination for strategic infrastructures, consolidating its reputation as a surface service layer. Instead, we want to illustrate how the underground can contribute incisively to the revision of urban models by introducing new spatial and performance parameters, both in new and historic contexts, and how it is now urgent to achieve integrated planning and planning of the environment in all its depth.</p> Filippo Lambertucci Copyright (c) 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 68 77 10.13128/Techne-23832 Ambiguous effects of regional regulations on zero land consumption and on verticality in architecture <p>The aim of this paper is to highlight that the primary goal of certain regional planning laws – i.e., to limit land consumption – is contradicted by the legislative provisions they contain, which state that the maximum acceptable land consumption should comply with the previous General Regulatory Plan. Moreover, the paper is intended to suggest what innovative regional planning strategies should be adopted. The goal to promote “vertical” development, through strategies of densification and volumetric replacements fostered by reward policies, is not commonly found in regional laws, which, instead of reducing “horizontality”, confirm the surfaces established by the previous General Regulatory Plan stating that they “may be confirmed and/or adapted as urbanized areas and as areas intended for residential purposes, in the new preliminary document” (own translation) (Regional Planning Law 19/02 – Region Calabria).</p> Francesca Moraci Celestina Fazia Copyright (c) 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 78 85 10.13128/Techne-23873 Vertical/horizontal Milan: notes on urban quality in the recent transformation cycle of the city <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Interpreting some dimensions of the horizontal/vertical relationship in the transformation cycle of Milan, this article develops a reflection on the current urban planning phase of this city referring to some of its specific characteristics.</span></p><p class="p1"><span class="s1">Despite the emphasis on the common debate as well as the scientific one, considering the vertical development of Milan, this paper argues that the increasing quality of the city, as perceived in recent years, derives from its improved ‘horizontality.’</span></p><p class="p1"><span class="s2">This article, also resorting to sources from the local debate, argues this thesis in a discussion on peculiar features of some of the most recent, and the near future, transformations of the city, including those of the former trade fair site (City Life project), Garibaldi-Repubblica area (Porta Nuova project), and the abandoned railway yards.</span></p> Bertrando Bonfantini Copyright (c) 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 86 91 10.13128/Techne-23887 The contemporary project of the tall residential building, between density and intensity <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The essay investigates models and techniques of intervention for increasing the urban density, illustrating how the tall building can be a still useful device in the densification processes, and what circumstances it should face also in relationship with its evolution in the European architecture of the XX century. Several recent case-studies allow to highlight the role of the technology, addressed not only to overcome height limits, but also to actuate regenerative operations on existing tall buildings, and the necessity of associating, to the increase of density in the urban fabric, the development of an intensity of uses and relationships that can arise and intertwine in it.</span></p> Matteo Moscatelli Copyright (c) 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 92 99 10.13128/Techne-23890 The chinese ‘high and slender’ condominium <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The vertical dimension in the urban structure of Chinese megacities is the unique key that has allowed to cluster millions of people in highly concentrated areas. The exponential growth of Chinese cities since the ‘80s of the last century has been possible thanks to social and land policies in support of urbanism developed through models of constructions that have favored the vertical dimension alone. The essay, after having retraced the history of vertical urbanization in the Chinese metropolis, puts a critical emphasis on the typology of the Chinese condominium.</span></p> Luca Maria Francesco Fabris Gerardo Semprebon Copyright (c) 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 100 109 10.13128/Techne-23892 Designing contemporary skyscrapers. Remarks on the technical and architectural evolution of tall buildings <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In recent decades the number of tall buildings has increased exponentially, worldwide. When considering buildings surpassing the 200-meter height threshold, only a select few were constructed in the years before 200, while in 2017 alone, 144 buildings with this height were completed (CTBUH, 2018). New tall buildings are very different from what was built in the past and these design changes have derived from a number of factors: new technologies, new architectural styles, and above all, an unprecedented attention to the social issues and the well-being of the occupants. These changes, which continue to be introduced in order to adapt to the newest demands of the market, must go through an “experimental” phase to verify if they will serve as a successful, distinctive feature for tall buildings of the future. Skyscrapers have been used in books and movies to represent the corruption and redundancy of modern society; as they adapt to modern needs, are they now perceived as a new urban Eden?</span></p> Dario Trabucco Copyright (c) 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 110 118 10.13128/Techne-23894 Horizontal vs vertical. The public space in section <p>The section as an investigative tool to analyze, through deep-seated models and paradigms, the nature of the public space, historically oscillating between horizontal linearity and vertical development. Today the adoption of the concept of Loos’ “raumplan”, declined in an urban key, is proposed – through addition and subtraction operations – as a method of strategic intervention in defining a complexity not only spatial, but also semantic of the value of contemporary use of public space. From the redesign of the section it is possible to trigger new cycles of use and sharing for a connective public space, which can determine the regeneration of infrastructures or the realization of new social habitats by virtue of integration and hybridization between different levels.</p> Filippo Orsini Pasquale Mei Copyright (c) 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 119 132 10.13128/Techne-23895 Industry 4.0 and manufacturing in the city: a possible vertical development <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Deindustrialization has moved factories and jobs elsewhere, creating voids, not just space, in Western cities. The definition of the fourth industrial revolution incorporates the tendency of modern manufacturing to produce with innovative methodologies and systems, exploiting the ever-increasing development of ICT technologies and adapting it for factory applications. The production plant changes, both for the conformation of several systems that interact with each other and for a consequent occupation of the spaces. The article analyzes the evolutionary scenario of industrial production and describes the ways in which some activities can develop vertically, creating the conditions for a location in the city.</span></p> Andrea Ciaramella Alberto Celani Copyright (c) 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 133 142 10.13128/Techne-24009 The systemic approach in sustainable environmental planning: references to the ecology of living systems <p>The article investigates the possibility of adopting indicators and analytical methods characteristic of the living systems ecology to understand different territorial metabolism phenomena. In addition to explore and orient deep sustainability processes in the transformation of the urban fabric, supporting a circular and self-sustaining economic model. The interpretation of the horizontal / vertical theme is twofold: on one hand, the material substrate of the design process is observed by a high level, such as enabling to grasp systemic connections necessary to eco-environmental scale; on the other hand, the construction of interactive networks promotes the emergence of new configurations in decision-making processes. The in-depth analysis of the analytical tools applied to natural metabolic processes combines the choice of horizontal or vertical physical configuration to achieve the following objective: maximizing the work obtainable (ie. the service provided to live, feed and move) with the same solar energy used. This constitutes the main law that regulates the evolution of natural terrestrial ecosystems (Odum, 1996) and represents the fundamental criterion for defining profound sustainability in the planning / design production processes of the built environment (Daly, 2008).</p> Matteo Clementi Carlotta Fontana Copyright (c) 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 143 151 10.13128/Techne-24027 Horizontality and verticality in architectures for health <p>The paper proposes a reflection and a point of view on the design of the contemporary hospital and the architectures for health according to “vertical” or “horizontal” typologies. The aim is to identify in various configurations, the relationships between the quality of the spaces and specific requirements in relation to the most recent developments in medicine both from the organizational and functional points of view and the social component. The method consists in defining a framework of demanding and performance comparison of different hypotheses, supported by indirect and direct analysis of the outcomes, through an analysis matrix related to case studies, considered as best practices among the architectures for health.</p> Stefano Capolongo Grazia Cocina Marco Gola Gabriella Peretti Riccardo Pollo Copyright (c) 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 152 160 10.13128/Techne-24028 The architecture between horizontality and verticality Eliana Cangelli Maria Pilar Vettori Copyright (c) 2019-03-27 2019-03-27 16 21 10.13128/Techne-25060 Landscape ethics. A borderless way of thinking Massimo Venturi Ferriolo Copyright (c) 2019-03-27 2019-03-27 22 28 10.13128/Techne-25061 Hybrid dispositifs. Beyond the idea of vertical and horizontal Paola Scala Copyright (c) 2019-03-27 2019-03-27 29 34 10.13128/Techne-25063 Mischbebauung and the vertical city Adalberto Del Bo Copyright (c) 2019-03-27 2019-03-27 35 39 10.13128/Techne-25064 Rome babylon Rosario Pavia Copyright (c) 2019-05-20 2019-05-20 40 46 10.13128/Techne-25065 Horizontality/verticality: research paths and themes for the project Aldo Norsa Copyright (c) 2019-03-27 2019-03-27 47 51 10.13128/Techne-25066 Horizontality and verticality: Hong Kong Island and Brasilia Marco Introini Copyright (c) 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 52 67 10.13128/Techne-24841 Urban recycle. Regenerative strategies for the “horizontal city” <p>This paper proposes the first steps and subsequent developments of an experimental approach – through the actions carried out by the Reggio Calabria Operational Unit in the “Re-Cycle Italy” PRIN1 and developed in further subsequent research – aimed at regenerating the degraded landscapes2 in the urban margin areas of the “horizontal city” in Southern Italy. The result of the research is a proposal of a settlement model in which to hypothesise an “ecological transition”. From the “horizontal city” that exploits primary resources and produces urban waste and fragile territories, to a model of “metropolis landscape” that is based on modern widely shared principles of urban recycling, sustainable development, sharing and participation, circular economy and the care of the landscape.</p> Vincenzo Gioffré Copyright (c) 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 161 170 10.13128/Techne-23874 Baugruppen. Innovation through collaborative infrastructures <p>In the 1990s in Berlin the Baugruppen movement developed an innovative housing project as a “typological” experimentation. Several case studies will be analysed based on the users’ needs, the self-made construction, affordable options, collaborative housing, and creative participation. Once this model has been known a potential alternative can be applied to the shortage of housing options in Europe. This paper analyses several case-studies realized in Berlin which could be defined as a compact “vertical village” or “vertical mat-building” by land consumption reduction. Adopting the theoretical approach of the Baugruppen, the case studies will be evaluated through five key points: common infrastructure, personalized spheres, variable volume, hanging gardens, and shared common spaces, to validate their “typological” experimental quality.</p> Virginia De Jorge-Huertas Copyright (c) 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 171 182 10.13128/Techne-23879 Environmental design strategies in different-density-urban contexts <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The paper deals with the dichotomy between the horizontal and vertical development of the built environment in urban contexts while taking into consideration different densities and settlement logics by following the specific approach of environmental and technological design. The research focuses on two well-known environmental parameters, wind and sun, identifying specific performance indicators related to natural ventilation (pressure coefficient and wind speed profile) and envelope-related energy needs (percentage of openings, shape and orientation of a spatial unit). For each indicator, a sensitivity analysis was carried out taking into consideration density and building height variations to evaluate the design choices from early-design phases.</span></p> Giacomo Chiesa Copyright (c) 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 183 190 10.13128/Techne-23883 Parks and envelopes: reconceptualizing the intersection of public and private interests in HK <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This article aims to demonstrate that building envelopes can be designed to improve the performance of public open space in Hong Kong. It investigates how such improvement can be used to negotiate between objective and regulation in planning standards. Addressing a research site with a publicly accessible pocket park in the Mong Kok area, the article explores generative potentials at the interface between the building envelope and the zoning envelope. The objective is to demonstrate that architecture can overcome the conflict between public and private interests in urban development by shaping profitable real estate that also promotes community welfare. The research methodology for this article adheres to design research.</span></p> Per-Johan Dahl Copyright (c) 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 191 201 10.13128/Techne-23886 Energy effects of buildings density with solar access analysis <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The energy and environmental benefits due to the solar radiation availability in the urban contexts are very important for the microclimate and the environmental quality of cities, where spatial distribution and dimensions of buildings play a fundamental role. Understanding the effects produced by different building volumes is an important aspect and the solar access analysis represents the specific field of study. The study proposes a design methodology, developing a framework with criteria, aspects and example applications, with the aim to evaluate the energy effects related to the different volumetric configurations.</span></p> Matteo Iommi Copyright (c) 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 202 212 10.13128/Techne-23888 Envision the construction sector in 2050. Technological innovation and verticality <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The contribution proposes a reflection on the role of typological and technological innovation in the design and implementation of vertical architectures through the analysis of technological scenarios of 2050. In the Anthropocene era, where the effects of human action shape the terrestrial environment, it is necessary to ask ourselves how we can implement the design and constructive processes to give life to architectural performative models that can positively influence the technosphere. Hence the need to study innovative methods through which to define new design paradigms. About that, the focus of the research is placed on the relationship that exists between computation, digital fabrication and the implementation of existing vertical models of development.</span></p> Angelo Figliola Copyright (c) 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 213 221 10.13128/Techne-23900 The high rise building in the development of the chinese city. A research experience <p>The research activity started with the project for an international two step competition in China and was developed into an experimental research funded by the competition promoter. It has defined sustainable models, typologies and technologies for high-rise residential settlements in Chinese cities. The high-rise building and the technological implications, which affect the morphological structures, are the subject of study of influential research centres in the perspective of reducing energy consumption, through morphological control solutions and at the envelope scale. In this specific he definition of some technological systems, replicable in other application contexts, was a decisive element for the development of the research following the competition project.</p> Spartaco Paris Roberto Bianchi Copyright (c) 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 222 231 10.13128/Techne-23980 Up-one: problems issuing from upward extensions of 1950-1900 residential buildings <p>Though presenting typological and construction-related features different from other European countries, Italian residential buildings as a whole fail to meet the performances required by the European Union before the 2050 deadline. Among the hypotheses meant to upgrade residential buildings, adding floors is regarded as capable of meeting the demand for new lodgings without any further soil consumption as well as of being the driving force leading to the overall upgrading of the building. The research has been aimed at focusing on the problems arising from upward extensions within the Italian seismic context, by means of digital environment surveys, defining intervention guidelines that can be applied to adding floors to 1950-2000 buildings.</p> Angelo Bertolazzi Marco Campagnola Giorgio Croatto Agata Maniero Umberto Turrini Alberto Vignato Copyright (c) 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 232 240 10.13128/Techne-24005 Rain(e)scape. The presence of water as order and figure. The case study of stagni di Levante in Ostia <p>Stagni di Levante in Ostia is a reclaimed area with high risk of flooding: a flat territory where is an inhomogeneous fabric of single-family houses, a low-density horizontal landscape devoid of services and public green areas. In Urbanistic Plan (PRG), the zone is defined as “unplanned or spontaneous nucleus”, but it borders to the north with planned districts. The research unit has connected these two different types of settlement, introducing elements of verticality and functional mixité in a horizontal and mono-functional area; at the same time, the project aims to characterize the huge mass of agricultural soil and to solve the problem of frequent flooding, determined by the overabundant seasonal rains.</p> Manuela Raitano Copyright (c) 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 241 250 10.13128/Techne-24016 Interpreting horizontality. Minor centers, intervention strategies and sustainable development <p>This paper presents the results of a research carried out within the framework of an Agreement between the Department of Architecture of the University of Naples Federico II and the Municipality of Aquilonia (AV). Inserted in a context of international and national studies aimed at identifying fresh cultural, strategic and operational models for new urban qualities, the research proposes ways of interpreting the city for the definition of intervention criteria also connected to a governance strategy based on the concept of networking. Moving from the specific nature of the Italian hinterland, which can be recognised as a set of horizontal cities within a vertical landscape, the research makes use of the concepts of system and network to investigate the development potential of lesser Italy.</p><p> </p> Mariangela Bellomo Angela D'Agostino Copyright (c) 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 251 263 10.13128/Techne-24017 Rooftop architecture and urban roofscape: designing the new vertical city <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Rooftop architecture reveals great potentialities in favoring a new interpretation of urban spaces and new ways of living the city. Thanks to the redefinition of the morpho-techno-typological characteristics of urban-fabric, the verticalization and concentration of the city and its skyline, rooftop architecture creates unexpected spaces in contemporary metropolis, encouraging the performance upgrade of buildings and introducing new functions. This leads to the growth of innovative social and collective models. At present, the process is compromised by a lack of consideration of the contextual frame and the ‘genius loci’, due to the absence of a regulation able to relate the quality of interventions to a landscape scale. This means missing an opportunity for rethinking urban regeneration.</span></p> Oscar Bellini Martino Mocchi Copyright (c) 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 264 277 10.13128/Techne-24021 Density - intensity. Material and immaterial elements in assessing urban quality <p>The objective of this research is to produce a critical scientific analysis of some aspects related to urban resilience to offer planners and decision-makers a deft intervention tool to mitigate high temperatures in urban areas. Densification, morphology, and materials are used to suggest strategies aimed at improving the quality of life in cities. This point of view analyses climate change and its connection to humans, urban density and its energy value, the evolution of materials, and the management of environmental comfort, considering the horizontal/vertical relationship as one of the morphological parameters capable of determining the connections between density, the form of the spaces, and the urban heat island.</p> Maria Federica Ottone Roberta Cocci Grifoni Graziano Enzo Marchesani Dajla Riera Copyright (c) 2019-01-18 2019-01-18 278 288 10.13128/Techne-24022 The culture of innovation for the transformation of reality Alessandro Claudi de Saint Mihiel Copyright (c) 2019-02-19 2019-02-19 308 311 10.13128/Techne-24777 Reviews Francesca Giglio Copyright (c) 2019-02-19 2019-02-19 300 301 10.13128/Techne-24773 Jan Gehl, Città per le persone Serena Viola Copyright (c) 2019-02-19 2019-02-19 302 303 10.13128/Techne-24776 Matteo Moscatelli, L’edificio alto residenziale nell’architettura europea. 11 casi contemporanei Laura Calcagnini Copyright (c) 2019-02-19 2019-02-19 304 305 10.13128/Techne-24774 Carlo Ratti, Mattew Claudel, La città di domani Domenico D’Olimpio Copyright (c) 2019-02-19 2019-02-19 306 307 10.13128/Techne-24775 Horizontality/verticality. A Dialogue between Azzurra Muzzonigro and Stefano Boeri Copyright (c) 2019-03-27 2019-03-27 298 299 10.13128/Techne-25067