The directional testes asymmetry increases with temperature in seven plateau brown frog (Rana kukunoris) populations
- Environmental factor,
- testes asymmetry,
- body condition,
- the brown frog
Copyright (c) 2022 Hai Ying Li, Man Jun Shang, Jie Guo, Bo Jun Chen, Peng Zhen Chen, Tong Lei Yu
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Environmental stress is generally regarded as an important evolutionary force for promoting the differentiation of shape, structure and function of animal organs closely related to survival and reproduction. Geographical variation of temperature and corresponding change in intensity of male-male competition might drive inter-population differences in directional testes asymmetry (DTA). Here, we investigated inter-population variation in DTA of the brown frog (Rana kukunoris) at seven different altitudes on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. We found that the size of right testes increased with temperature, but not left testes. We also found that male age, body mass or body condition, and testis mass had not effect on DTA, suggesting that heavier or older R. kukunoris males or those with larger testes had not stronger DTA. The operational sex ratio did not affect DTA, but there was a positive correlation between DTA and temperature, suggesting that differences in the length of activity period and resources availability across locations may affect the energy budget of this frog, resulting in a gradual change in reproduction energy parallel to increasing temperature.
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