In vitro activity of some essential oils against Penicillium digitatum
Natural plant essential oils (EOs) can be used instead of synthetic fungicides because of human health concerns and environmental protection. In this study, the in vitro activity of some plants EOs against Penicillium digitatum, the cause of citrus green mold was evaluated during 8 days of incubation at 25°C. The EOs extracted from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and sour orange (Citrus aurantium) fruit peel (500, 1000 and 2000 µl l-1 concentrations), cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) bark and summer savory (Satureja hortensis) aerial parts (400, 500 and 600 µl l-1 concentrations) were used on Penicillium digitatum mycelium. None of the EOs extracted from tested citrus in this study could inhibit mycelial growth completely even at concentration of 2000 µl l-1. The best results were obtained with cinnamon and summer savory EOs at concentration of 500 and 600 µl l-1. So, based on the results, cinnamon and summer savory EOs can be ideal candidates to replace the synthetic fungicides to control postharvest green mold of citrus fruit. GC-MS analysis showed that the most abundant of all constituents in EO extracts were carvacrol and γ-terpinene in summer savory and (E)-cinnamaldehyde in cinnamon.