Vol. 34 No. 1 (2020): Advances in Horticultural Science

Indirect shoot organogenesis and in vitro root formation of Antirrhinum majus L. by using of sodium nitroprusside

M.S. Rezaei Zafarghandi
Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Science, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Tehran-Pakdasht,
M. Rahmati-Joneidabad
Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani
Published April 1, 2020
  • callus,
  • nitric oxide,
  • plant growth regulator,
  • Snapdragon
How to Cite
Rezaei Zafarghandi, M. S., & Rahmati-Joneidabad, M. (2020). Indirect shoot organogenesis and in vitro root formation of Antirrhinum majus L. by using of sodium nitroprusside. Advances in Horticultural Science, 34(1), 105-111. https://doi.org/10.13128/ahsc-8406


The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on in vitro shoot organogenesis from hypocotyl explant derived from in vitro grown seedling as well as root formation of Antirrhinum majus L. (Snapdragon). In the first experiment, different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (0, 2.26, 4.52, and 6.79 μM) were used for callus formation. The highest callus fresh weight (1.86 g) as well as callogenesis frequency (93.34%) were observed in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 4.52 μM 2,4-D. In the later experiments, various concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 μM) of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were applied for shoot regeneration from callus that derived from hypocotyl segments. Based on our results, MS medium supplemented with 4.44 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) plus 0.49 μM 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA) along with 30 μM SNP had the highest shoot organogenesis frequency (93.34%) and shoot number (6.33) from callus. In root induction experiment, different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 μM) of SNP were applied and MS medium containing 60 μM SNP was the best treatment for root induction. The survival rate of plantlets was more than 95% in acclimatization stage. The present study describes an efficient regeneration system for Snapdragon.


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