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Spatial distribution of organic farms and territorial context. An application to an Italian rural region
Andrea Bonfiglio, Andrea Arzeni
Centro di ricerca Politiche e Bio-economia, CREA – Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria
Accepted: 2020-07-06 | Published Online: 2020-07-07 |
Organic farming is increasingly promoted and supported at several levels for its capability of producing safe food and public goods. It can give an important contribution to attenuating the environmental pressure generated by conventional agriculture. This paper analyses possible determinants of the spatial distribution of organic farms in a rural region of Italy, characterised by several environmental issues. Towards this aim, a quasi-Poisson hierarchical generalised linear model with mixed effects is adopted. Results indicate that there is spatial correlation and that the distribution of organic farming is related to socio-economic, environmental and political factors. In particular, they show that public support could have favoured the spreading of organic farming where there are more problems of erosion but far from the areas where there is intensive agriculture.
Export propensity and intensity in the wine industry: A fractional econometric approach
Anthony Macedo, João Rebelo, Sofia Gouveia
Department of Economics, Sociology and Management (DESG), Centre for Transdisciplinary Development Studies (CETRAD), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), Quinta de Prados, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal.
Accepted: 2020-05-07 | Published Online: 2020-07-18 |
Using export market shares as a measure of international competitiveness, this paper studies wine exports in terms of propensity and intensity. Based on data for the period 1999-2014, a two-part fractional regression model is applied. The results suggest that for importing countries, GDP per capita, their own wine production, and EU membership have a positive effect on the probability of importing wine but tend to evolve inversely to market shares, as taste for variety becomes more important. Additionally, export propensity is positively affected by regional trade agreements, common language, similarity of religious culture, wine production in the exporting country, and the exporting country being from the Old World, while export intensity is boosted by common language and wine production in the exporting country. Bilateral distance has a negative effect on both margins of trade.
Small-holders perception of sustainability and chain coordination: Evidence from Arriba PDO Cocoa in Western Ecuador
Carlos Moreno-Mirandaa, Hipatia Palaciosb, Daniele Ramac
a Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands
b Technical University of Ambato, Ecuador
c Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Italy.
Accepted: 2020-07-07 | Published Online: 2020-07-18 |
Protected Denominations of Origin (PDO) refer to the adoption of producers’ voluntary standards to highlight the quality to consumers and improve the socio-economic sustainability of small-holders. Usually, in agricultural circuits, these focus on aspects of production systems and intrinsic features of agricultural raw materials. In agri-food clusters, PDO labels focus globally on market recognition of sensorial elements of farming and agroindustrial products. The study's objective was to analyze socio-economic and governance components to understand the PDO Cocoa Arriba (Theobroma cacao) chain and its sustainability to bring forward potential strategies in Ecuador. The information employed comes from the observation of two strings (Arriba PDO and CCN-51) by interviewing 450 respondents. Principal Components Analysis was introduced to contribute with relevant insights. The framework applied accounts with a revision of primary and support activities and coordination mechanisms identification. The study clustered pre-production, production, and post-production tiers. According to the results, Arriba PDO production systems represent a disadvantage for farmers because, from the production point of view, the premium price paid for product certification is debatable. Finally, the enhancement of national regulation to assist chain actors and the stimulus of young producers and associations empowerment is an urgent requirement.
Exploring Governance Mechanisms, Collaborative Processes and Main Challenges in Short Food Supply Chains: The Case of Turkey
Yaprak Kurstal, Emel Karakaya Ayalp, Davide Viaggi
University of Bologna, Italy
Accepted: 2020-05-27 | Published Online: 2020-07-20 |
There is a growing scientific interest and public debate on the potential contributions that Local Food Systems (LFS) and Short Food Supply Chains (SFSCs) can make towards overcoming sustainability challenges and creating societal impact. In the case of Turkey, where local agricultural systems are particularly vulnerable, lacking of resilience and innovative capacity, understanding the governance mechanisms of SFSCs would have strong implications for policy making. To this end, our aim in this study is to explore the mechanisms through which civil society driven SFSCs are governed in the city of Izmir (Turkey), referring to the actors involved in the process, institutional frameworks that are adopted and challenges experienced, that could inform policy discussions towards establishing more sustainable local food systems. In this direction, the questions we aim to answer are: (1) what are the mechanisms through which community level SFSCs are initiated and governed, (2) how collaboration takes place within these groups and through which processes, and finally (3) what the outcomes of these processes are, with respect to individual, community and local impacts experienced on the ground, and challenges associated with them. We use a descriptive case study methodology, to study seven SFSC initiatives (four food community networks, two farmers’ markets and a local shop) in the city of Izmir; and collect data through qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews (41 with producers, 32 with consumers, 11 with coordinators and 5 with experts). Our findings suggest that different mechanisms are at play within our cases, depending on aspects including their governing structures and their way and purpose of operation. While farmers had difficulties relying solely on their income from these initiatives for their livelihoods, organizational challenges experienced by food communities were mainly related to difficulties associated to managing tasks on a voluntary basis. Moreover, arriving at a shared understanding about mutual goals, in addition to finding a way to include stakeholders in the process, were among the most prevalent challenges of all initiatives.
Human Capital and Rural Development Policy: Evidence from European FADN Regions
Ornella Wanda Maiettaa, Biagia De Devitiisb, Sergio Destefanisc, Domenico Suppad
aUniversità di Napoli Federico II
bUniversità di Foggia
cUniversità di Salerno
dUniversità della Campania “L. Vanvitelli”
Accepted: 2020-07-09 | Published Online: 2020-07-20 |
This paper analyses the evolution and policy drivers of the productivity of farmers’ human capital in EU agriculture from 1986 to 2010. The empirical analysis employs farm data sourced from the Farm Accountancy Data Network Standard Results as well as Eurostat’s information on farm holders’ educational-attainment levels. Productivities of human capital are measured by the shadow prices for three levels of educational attainment of farm family labour, computed using Data Envelopment Analysis with variable returns to scale, and related to a Malmquist index of total factor productivity and to selected policy variables. The results indicate that productivities of farmers’ human capital trend upwards and are positively associated with rural development payments.
On the relevance of the Region-Of-Origin in consumers studies
Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano1; Lamonaca, Emilia1; Carlucci, Domenico2; De Devitiis, Biagia1; Seccia, Antonio1; Viscecchia, Rosaria1; Nardone, Gianluca1
1University of Foggia (Italy), 2University of Bari (Italy)
Accepted: 2020-07-24 | Published Online: 2020-07-29 |
The existing literature on the consumers’ attitude toward region-of-origin (RoO) provides numerous and varying evidence on the relative importance of this extrinsic attribute as compared to other product characteristics. The article aims at characterising the heterogeneity in the relative importance of RoO. We systematically review the literature on RoO and build an ad hoc indicator to measure the relative importance of RoO as compared to other attributes of agri-food products under investigation. We then explain, through a meta-analytical approach, how the relative importance of RoO varies according to factors related to publication process, methodological issues, and characteristics of articles. Findings reveal the limited influence of publication process and methodological issues on the relative importance of RoO. In contrast, we find a strong effect of characteristics of articles, with the relative importance of RoO being highly dependent on products and origins under investigation. The results also highlight that RoO is an effective differentiation instrument in the agri-food markets only if supported by geographical indication labels. Managerial implications are also provided.
Competitiveness of cattle breeding in Switzerland – the value of policies enabling informed decisions
Accepted: 2020-09-15 | Published Online: 2020-09-17 |
Using the case of of Swiss Brown Cattle breeding, this paper develops the hypothesis that a two-angle strategy of fostering competition and providing maximum access to information is promising for states to attain high competitiveness on a national level. Abandoning the monopoly on bull sperm while subsidising classifications of animals in order to provide a maximum base of knowledge helped to increase Switzerland’s self-sufficiency in Brown Cattle sperm from under 50 to almost 100 per cent.
The role of trust and perceived barriers on farmer’s intention to adopt risk management tools
Elisa Giampietria, Xiaohua Yub, Samuele Trestinic
a University of Padova
b Georg-August University of Goettingen
c University of Padova
Accepted: 2020-09-17 | Published Online: 2020-09-18 |
This paper adds to the ongoing debate about low farmers’ uptake of risk management (RM) tools subsidised by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In particular, the research pioneers the investigation of whether and how trust towards the relevant intermediaries and the perceived barriers to adopting may influence farmers’ intention to adopt the insurance and to participate in mutual funds (MF) and in the Income Stabilisation Tool (IST). In the light of the current CAP reform, as a novel contribution this paper also questions the efficiency of the new operating rules established by the Omnibus Regulation. The research proposes a conceptual framework to simultaneously assess these underinvestigated factors and several other determinants of the intention to adopt (e.g. risk attitude). Data were gleaned from direct interviews among 105 Italian farmers and analysed through structural equation modeling. The results confirm the positive role of trust in influencing the intention to adopt the insurance, which is notoriously affected by problems of information asymmetry. Similarly, trust is a key element in influencing the intention to participate in the IST, which is a collective instrument based on solidarity and mutuality indeed. Moreover, the higher the perceived barriers to adopting, the lower the intention to participate in a mutual fund, for which therefore further informative initiatives (e.g. on benefits from the adoption and the ease of use) are required. Interestingly, the results show a positive impact of the new CAP policy changes on the intention to both take out the insurance and participate in the IST, thus opening up to positive prospects for the EU risk management strategy post-2020. To conclude, this study paves the way for new research avenues in the field of farmers’ adoption of subsidised RM tools.
Assessing preferences for rural landscapes: An attribute based choice modelling approach
Cathal O’Donoghuea, Stephen Hynesa, Paul Kilgarriffb, Mary Ryanc, Andreas Tsakiridisc
a National University of Ireland, Galway
b Luxembourg Institute for Socio Economic Research
c Teagasc, the Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority
Accepted: 2020-09-22 | Published Online: 2020-09-22 |
This study adopts a choice modelling framework to disentangle individual preferences for rural landscape attributes based on the viewing of photographs of the Irish countryside. Using ordered logit and standard panel and pooled regression models, societal preferences are quantified for rural landscape attributes, grouped into natural, agricultural and human-built non-agricultural categories. The preferences of 430 individuals towards 50 rural landscape photographs are analysed. The results show positive preferences for landscapes with natural attributes such as cliffs, mountainous features, water and native trees, as well as preferences for neat/managed agricultural landscapes and traditional human-built features such as stone walls and planted hedgerows. The study shows negative preferences for features such as flooding, unmanaged landscapes, industrial turf cutting and mechanised features such as wind turbines. There is significant preference heterogeneity observed across the sample particularity across the urban-rural residency divide. It is argued that analysing preferences for specific attributes of landscapes rather than preferences for individual landscape photographs allows for further applications particularly in the area of simulation.