Just Accepted

In response to feedback from the research community, BAE is now making articles available online after the acceptance. 

As a free service, making the accepted manuscript available has a number of benefits for our authors, including;

This version of the manuscript will not be language-edited or typeset and will be provided as a flat PDF.

We will continue to work with authors on the production of their article, and the final version of record will replace the accepted manuscript version once this has been completed. 


Exploring Governance Mechanisms, Collaborative Processes and Main Challenges in Short Food Supply Chains: The Case of Turkey

Yaprak Kurstal, Emel Karakaya Ayalp, Davide Viaggi

University of Bologna, Italy

Accepted: 2020-05-27 | Published Online: 2020-07-20 |

DOI: 10.13128/bae-8242


There is a growing scientific interest and public debate on the potential contributions that Local Food Systems (LFS) and Short Food Supply Chains (SFSCs) can make towards overcoming sustainability challenges and creating societal impact. In the case of Turkey, where local agricultural systems are particularly vulnerable, lacking of resilience and innovative capacity, understanding the governance mechanisms of SFSCs would have strong implications for policy making. To this end, our aim in this study is to explore the mechanisms through which civil society driven SFSCs are governed in the city of Izmir (Turkey), referring to the actors involved in the process, institutional frameworks that are adopted and challenges experienced, that could inform policy discussions towards establishing more sustainable local food systems. In this direction, the questions we aim to answer are: (1) what are the mechanisms through which community level SFSCs are initiated and governed, (2) how collaboration takes place within these groups and through which processes, and finally (3) what the outcomes of these processes are, with respect to individual, community and local impacts experienced on the ground, and challenges associated with them. We use a descriptive case study methodology, to study seven SFSC initiatives (four food community networks, two farmers’ markets and a local shop) in the city of Izmir; and collect data through qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews (41 with producers, 32 with consumers, 11 with coordinators and 5 with experts). Our findings suggest that different mechanisms are at play within our cases, depending on aspects including their governing structures and their way and purpose of operation. While farmers had difficulties relying solely on their income from these initiatives for their livelihoods, organizational challenges experienced by food communities were mainly related to difficulties associated to managing tasks on a voluntary basis. Moreover, arriving at a shared understanding about mutual goals, in addition to finding a way to include stakeholders in the process, were among the most prevalent challenges of all initiatives.


On the relevance of the Region-Of-Origin in consumers studies

Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano1; Lamonaca, Emilia1; Carlucci, Domenico2; De Devitiis, Biagia1; Seccia, Antonio1; Viscecchia, Rosaria1; Nardone, Gianluca1

1University of Foggia (Italy), 2University of Bari (Italy)

Accepted: 2020-07-24 | Published Online: 2020-07-29 |

DOI: 10.13128/bae-8337


The existing literature on the consumers’ attitude toward region-of-origin (RoO) provides numerous and varying evidence on the relative importance of this extrinsic attribute as compared to other product characteristics. The article aims at characterising the heterogeneity in the relative importance of RoO. We systematically review the literature on RoO and build an ad hoc indicator to measure the relative importance of RoO as compared to other attributes of agri-food products under investigation. We then explain, through a meta-analytical approach, how the relative importance of RoO varies according to factors related to publication process, methodological issues, and characteristics of articles. Findings reveal the limited influence of publication process and methodological issues on the relative importance of RoO. In contrast, we find a strong effect of characteristics of articles, with the relative importance of RoO being highly dependent on products and origins under investigation. The results also highlight that RoO is an effective differentiation instrument in the agri-food markets only if supported by geographical indication labels. Managerial implications are also provided.


The role of trust and perceived barriers on farmer’s intention to adopt risk management tools

Elisa Giampietria, Xiaohua Yub, Samuele Trestinic

a University of Padova

b Georg-August University of Goettingen

c University of Padova

Accepted: 2020-09-17 | Published Online: 2020-09-18 |

DOI: 10.13128/bae-8416


This paper adds to the ongoing debate about low farmers’ uptake of risk management (RM) tools subsidised by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In particular, the research pioneers the investigation of whether and how trust towards the relevant intermediaries and the perceived barriers to adopting may influence farmers’ intention to adopt the insurance and to participate in mutual funds (MF) and in the Income Stabilisation Tool (IST). In the light of the current CAP reform, as a novel contribution this paper also questions the efficiency of the new operating rules established by the Omnibus Regulation. The research proposes a conceptual framework to simultaneously assess these underinvestigated factors and several other determinants of the intention to adopt (e.g. risk attitude). Data were gleaned from direct interviews among 105 Italian farmers and analysed through structural equation modeling. The results confirm the positive role of trust in influencing the intention to adopt the insurance, which is notoriously affected by problems of information asymmetry. Similarly, trust is a key element in influencing the intention to participate in the IST, which is a collective instrument based on solidarity and mutuality indeed. Moreover, the higher the perceived barriers to adopting, the lower the intention to participate in a mutual fund, for which therefore further informative initiatives (e.g. on benefits from the adoption and the ease of use) are required. Interestingly, the results show a positive impact of the new CAP policy changes on the intention to both take out the insurance and participate in the IST, thus opening up to positive prospects for the EU risk management strategy post-2020. To conclude, this study paves the way for new research avenues in the field of farmers’ adoption of subsidised RM tools.


Assessing preferences for rural landscapes: An attribute based choice modelling approach

Cathal O’Donoghuea, Stephen Hynesa, Paul Kilgarriffb, Mary Ryanc, Andreas Tsakiridisc

a National University of Ireland, Galway

b Luxembourg Institute for Socio Economic Research

c Teagasc, the Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority

Accepted: 2020-09-22 | Published Online: 2020-09-22 |

DOI: 10.13128/bae-8416


This study adopts a choice modelling framework to disentangle individual preferences for rural landscape attributes based on the viewing of photographs of the Irish countryside. Using ordered logit and standard panel and pooled regression models, societal preferences are quantified for rural landscape attributes, grouped into natural, agricultural and human-built non-agricultural categories. The preferences of 430 individuals towards 50 rural landscape photographs are analysed. The results show positive preferences for landscapes with natural attributes such as cliffs, mountainous features, water and native trees, as well as preferences for neat/managed agricultural landscapes and traditional human-built features such as stone walls and planted hedgerows. The study shows negative preferences for features such as flooding, unmanaged landscapes, industrial turf cutting and mechanised features such as wind turbines. There is significant preference heterogeneity observed across the sample particularity across the urban-rural residency divide. It is argued that analysing preferences for specific attributes of landscapes rather than preferences for individual landscape photographs allows for further applications particularly in the area of simulation.


Benefits for the local society attached to rural landscape: An analysis of residents’ perception of ecosystem services.

Stefano Targetti, Meri Raggi, Davide Viaggi

University of Bologna, Italy

Accepted: 2020-10-02 | Published Online: 2020-10-04 |

DOI: 10.13128/bae-8340


Ecosystem services are the benefits for society deriving from ecosystems. The perception of ecosystem services by local residents is relevant to understand the extent to which such services contribute to society and regional development. The objective of this study is to assess the perception of ecosystem services associated to rural landscape by local residents and to use them to respond to two main questions: Are residents able to attribute flows of services from specific landscape elements to the different socioeconomic sectors? Are such perceptions affected by the different landscape features of the area of residency (e.g. rural vs. urban dwellers)? The analysis is carried out using data from a survey (n=295) in a rural area located in North Italy (Po Delta lowlands, Province of Ferrara). The results show that the urban population has a rather generic and positive consideration of ecosystem services associated to rural landscape elements and that perception is largely related to their recreational experience. The rural population has a more complex understanding of services and is more prone to acknowledge disservices associated to specific elements and/or specific socioeconomic sectors. Such differences are likely connected to a more direct experience and to the different spatial scales that affect the perception of ecosystem services. The results indicate that cultural services such as recreation and actions linked to the promotion of the territory are commonly acknowledged. On the other hand, initiatives to enhance the awareness of less visible services (e.g. regulation services) would be useful for improving the valorization of specific landscape elements.


Multi-country stated preferences choice analysis for fresh tomatoes

Maria De Salvo(a)*, Riccardo Scarpa(b)(c)(d), Roberta Capitello(b), Diego Begalli(b)

(a) University of Catania, Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Italy

(b) University of Verona, Department of Business Administration, Italy

(c) Durham University, Business School, United Kingdom

(d) University of Waikato, Waikato Management School, New Zealand

Accepted: 2020-10-02 | Published Online: 2020-10-05 |

DOI: 10.13128/bae-7928


In this study we investigate consumers’ preferences for fresh tomato attributes in four European countries by assessing and comparing Marginal Willingness-To-Pay (MWTP) estimates from panel Mixed Logit (MXL) models with utility specifications in the WTP-space. We performed an in-depth post-estimation inference to identify what attributes are the main determinants of fresh tomato purchases in each domestic market. We also assess the choice probabilities for tomatoes of various origins and types to illustrate how these post-estimation inference can be used to inform strategies designed to increase the market shares of Italian fresh tomato exports in new markets and to consolidate positions in markets where Italian fresh tomatoes are already appreciated by local consumers.


Investigating determinants of choice and predicting market shares of renewable-based heating systems under alternative policy scenarios

Cristiano Franceschinis, Mara Thiene

University of Padova, Italy

Accepted: 2020-10-02 | Published Online: 2020-10-07 |

DOI: 10.13128/bae-7768


Fostering the uptake of heating technologies based on renewable resources is an important part of the EU energy policy. Yet, despite efforts to promote their diffusion, heating systems based on fossil fuels are still predominant. In order to better tailor energy policies to citizens preferences, it is crucial to collect accurate information on their determinants of heating choices. At this purpose, we adopted a choice experiment and a latent class model to analyze preferences of householders in the Veneto region (North-East Italy) for different heating systems and their key features. We focused on three devices based on biomass and three on fossil fuels, and accounted for technical, economic and environmental characteristics of such systems. Model estimates highlight the presence of substantial preference heterogeneity among the population, which can be partially explained by citizens socio-demographics. We also use model outputs to simulate market shares for heating systems under alternative policy scenarios. Results provide interesting suggestions to inform the design of policies aimed at fostering the adoption of biomass-based heating systems.


Step-by-step development of a model simulating returns on farm from investments: the example of hazelnut plantation in Italy

Alisa Spiegela, Simone Severinib, Wolfgang Britzc, Attilio Colettab

aWageningen University & Research

bUniversità degli Studi della Tuscia

cBonn University

Accepted: 2020-10-13 | Published Online: 2020-10-14 |

DOI: 10.13128/bae-7961


Recent literature reviews of empirical models optimizing long-term investments in agriculture see gaps with regard to (i) separating investment and financing decisions, (ii) considering explicitly risk and temporal flexibility, and (iii) accounting for farm-level resource endowments and other constraints. Inspired by real options approaches, this paper therefore step-wise develops a model extending a simple net present value calculation to a farm-scale simulation model based on mathematical programming, which considers time flexibility, different financing options and downside risk aversion. We empirically assess the different model variants by analysing investments into hazelnut orchards in Italy outside of traditional producing regions. The variants suggest quite different optimal results with respect to scale and timing of the investment, its financing and the expected NPV. The step-wise approach reveals which aspects drive these differences and underlines that considering temporal flexibility, different of financing options and riskiness can considerably improve traditional NPV analysis.


Drivers and barriers of process innovation in the EU manufacturing food processing industry: exploring the role of energy policies

Federica DeMaria, Annalisa Zezza

Council for Agricultural Research and Economics – Research Centre for Agricultural Policies and Bioeconomy, via Po, 14 - 00198 Roma, Italy

Accepted: 2020-10-15 | Published Online: 2020-10-15 |

DOI: 10.13128/bae-9936


This paper investigates the driving forces that can promote or impede process innovation adoption in the European food manufacturing industry. The study uses a logit model applied to Community Innovation Survey (CIS) data that contains information on innovation at the industry level for 15 EU Member States. Results suggest the relevance of many factors, internal and external to the enterprise, such as size and organization of business practices on one hand, and networking activities and cooperation agreements within the supply chain on the other hand. We also focus on energy policy variables as process innovation determinants. Energy policies implementation, energy price and the availability of public funds, show a significant impact on process innovation adoption in the European food processing industry.


The role of group-time treatment effect heterogeneity in long standing European agricultural policies. An application to the European geographical indication policy.

Leonardo Cei1; Gianluca Stefani2; Edi Defrancesco1

1University of Padova (Italy), 2University of Florence (Italy)

Accepted: 2020-10-19 | Published Online: 2020-10-19 |

DOI: 10.13128/bae-8464


In recent years, the European Union is stressing the importance of monitoring and evaluating its policies, among which the common agricultural policy plays an important role. Policy evaluation, in order to provide reliable results on which to take important legislative decisions, should rely on robust methodological tools. A recent strand of literature casts some doubts about the reliability of the two-way fixed effect estimator when the effect of a treatment is heterogeneous across groups of units or over time. This estimator is widely used in agricultural economics to estimate the effect of policies where effect heterogeneity may be at stake. Using the European geographical indication (GI) policy, we compared the two-way fixed effects estimators with a novel non-parametric estimator that accounts for the issues created by effect heterogeneity. The results show that the two estimators, consistently with the concerns expressed by the technical literature, may lead to different estimates of the policy effect. This suggests that treatment effect heterogeneity is likely a concern when assessing the impact of GI-type policies. Therefore, the use of the standard estimator may lead to misleading conclusions and, as a result, to inappropriate policy actions.


The use of latent variable models in policy: A road fraught with peril?

Danny Campbell and Erlend Dancke Sandorf

University of Stirling, Stirling Management School, Economics Division

Accepted: 2020-10-15 | Published Online: 2020-10-24 |

DOI: 10.13128/bae-8087


This paper explores the potential usefulness and possible pitfalls of using integrated choice and latent variable models (hybrid choice models) on stated choice data to inform policy. Using a series of Monte-Carlo simulations, we consider how model selection depends on the strength of relationship between the latent variable and preferences and the strength of relationship between the latent variable and the indicator. Our findings show that integrated choice and latent variable models are difficult to estimate, even when the data generating process is known. Ultimately, we show that their use should be driven by the analyst’s belief about the strength of correlations between preferences, the latent variable and indicator. We discuss the implications of our results for policy.


The Impact of Food Price Shocks on Poverty and Vulnerability of Urban Households in Iran

Ghasem Layani1, Mohammad Bakhshoodeh1, Mona Aghabeygi2*, Yaprak Kurstal3, Davide Viaggi3

1University of Shiraz (Iran), 2University of Parma (Italy), 3University of Bologna (Italy)

Accepted: 2020-10-23 | Published Online: 2020-10-29 |

DOI: 10.13128/bae-8892


The aim of this paper is to assess the welfare effects of food price changes on urban households' poverty and vulnerability. This is achieved using Hicksian price Compensating Variation (CV) and compensated price elasticities, based on Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QAIDS), it includes in total eight food groups (cereals, meats, dairy, cooking oil, sugar, fruits, vegetables, and tea and coffee) and encompasses 18852 urban households. The results showed that the welfare index for food groups was 20 USD (2.52% of the monthly average income of urban households). After increasing food prices, based on the poverty line, 41% of urban households were observed to be below the poverty line and the number of poor households increases by 10.63%. To enable food security and to execute food safety goals, the Iranian government should compensate for the welfare losses by supportive policies such as direct subsidy payments to vulnerable households.


Economics of culture and food in evolving agri-food systems and rural areas

Severino Romano1; Francesco Vanni2; Davide Viaggi3

1University of Basilicata (Italy), 2CREA (Italy), 3University of Bologna (Italy)

Accepted: 2020-11-07 | Published Online: 2020-11-07 |

DOI: 10.13128/bae-9959


The role of culture in connection with the development of food and bioeconomy issues has gained growing importance in recent years. In this editorial we provide background information on the three key topics addressed by the papers published in this special issue: cultural ecosystem services, cultural issues in the organisation of food chains, culture and food characteristics. In a way, the common denominator of these papers is the link between culture, food and territory, taken from different angles. More research and methodological advances are needed for a better consideration of culture in economic research accounting for the current needs of more systemic and holistic vision of the topic.


The capitalisation of decoupled payments in farmland rents among EU regions

Gianni Guastellaa,b, Daniele Moroa, Paolo Sckokaia, Mario Venezianic

aUniversità Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Italy), bFondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (Italy), cUniversità degli studi di Parma (Italy)

Accepted: 2020-11-13 | Published Online: 2020-11-19 |

DOI: 10.13128/bae-10034


We study the capitalisation of subsidies in the European Union (EU) regions in the years 2006-2008, the first years after the introduction of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 2003 reform that decoupled subsidies from production and attached them to land. For this purpose, we use regional aggregated data and estimate the capitalisation rate upon the entire sample and, in a second stage, splitting the sample according to the implementation regime applied by the different EU Member States (MSs), following the three options introduced by the CAP regulations (historical, regional and hybrid model). We find that between 28 and 52 cents per Euro of additional subsidy capitalise into land prices in MSs that adopted the hybrid and the regional model, respectively. We find as well that subsidies do not capitalise in farmland prices in MSs that adopted the historical model.