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Drinking Covid-19 away: wine consumption during the first lockdown in Italy

Gastaldello, Giulia; Mozzato, Daniele; Rossetto, Luca

University of Padova (Italy)

Accepted: 2021-07-13 | Published Online: 2021-07-14 |

DOI: 10.13128/bae-10044


In Italy, wine is an integral part of most people's habits and lifestyles. The advent of a traumatic event like the Covid pandemic brought profound changes to people's lives: economic instability and normality disruption led consumers to revise their priorities and modify their consumption and purchase behavior. This study analyses the impact of socio-demographic, psychological, and context-related modifications induced by the pandemic on wine consumption and purchase patterns. Participants completed an online, structured survey, and the sample is constituted by Italian wine consumers. Logistic regression and descriptive techniques are applied to analyze data. Results highlight that wine consumption is a deeply rooted habit among Italian consumers, which resisted the great context modifications that occurred with the pandemic. Changes in wine consumption, moreover, are connected to that of other alcoholic beverages. Significant short-term and potential long-term effects are discussed. Information collected is paramount to understanding wine consumers' reactions and behavioral changes induced by the pandemic and effectively plan marketing strategies during new infection peaks.


Estimating a global MAIDADS demand system considering demography, climate and norms

Wolfgang, Britz

Institute for Food and Resource Economics, University of Bonn, Germany

Accepted: 2021-07-19 | Published Online: 2021-07-20 |

DOI: 10.13128/bae-10488


Based on data mainly from the International Comparison Program for 156 countries, we conduct a global cross-sectional estimation of an extended rank-3 MAIDADS demand system for nineteen commodity groups including agri-food detail for integration in a Computable General Equilibrium model. We render both marginal budget shares and commitment terms depending on the implicit utility level and consider age shares on the population, the Gini-Coefficient, the share of Islamic population, a sea access indicator and mean temperatures as further explanatory variables. We find that especially demographic factors, the share of Islamic population and mean temperature considerably improve model selection statistics and the fit of commodity groups with a low fit in a variant where prices and income only are used. Graphics of the estimated Engel curves, with details for agro-food commodity groups, highlight income dynamics of budget shares.


The evolution of organic market between third-party certification and participatory guarantee systems

Iannucci, Gianluca1; Sacchi, Giovanna2

1 Department of Economics and Management, University of Florence, Firenze, Italy

2 Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Bolzano-Bozen, Italy

Accepted: 2021-08-27 | Published Online: 2021-09-22 |

DOI: 10.36253/bae-10470


Quality assurance is a dominant feature of organic production and, currently, third-party certification is recognized as the official authenticity assurance strategy by the majority of worldwide organic regulations. This model, however, is less accessible to smallholders because it is costly and its application time-consuming. Furthermore, this certification system has been accused on several fronts to be responsible for the standardization of the organic production process leading to a “conventionalization” of organic productions. Contextually, in several countries, groups of small producers have started to implement alternative quality assurance systems for their organic products, better known as Participatory Guarantee Systems. Research to date has not yet determined how these models can survive within a highly competitive market such as that of certification. In this framework, the paper aims to theoretically unveil and explain the alternative certification phenomenon and its coexistence with third-party certification by applying an evolutionary game (rationally bounded agents that adopt the more rewarding strategy). The results of simulations suggest that symbolic attributes such as localness, healthiness, quality, producers and consumers embeddedness can differentiate products guaranteed by alternative schemes, meeting consumers’ preference. The discussion of findings provides an assessment of the performance of both quality assurance systems, explain their coexistence within the organic market, identify critical aspects, and suggest some policy implications.


Understanding the bioeconomy: a new sustainability economy in British and European public discourse

Sotiropoulou, Irene1; Deutz, Pauline2

1 Independent Researcher, HU6 7RX, United Kingdom

2 Department of Geography, Geology & Environment, University of Hull, HU6 7RX, United Kingdom

Accepted: 2021-10-15 | Published Online: 2021-10-15 |

DOI: 10.36253/bae-9534


Over the past decade, the term bioeconomy has emerged in both policy and academic discourse.  Implying a technology-driven approach to wealth generation from organic materials, the term has taken hold with so far limited critical engagement. It is a contestable rather than contested term. Noting the rise of numerous other ‘economies’ (blue, green, circular) on a similar timeframe, this paper undertakes a critical discourse analysis of academic literature and UK/EU policy documents using the term ‘bioeconomy’ to produce a contextualized understanding of how it is used in both theoretical and practical contexts.  Our analysis shows that bioeconomy, as with the other ‘sustainability’ economies, which we term the ‘S-economies’, prioritises the economy and the markets as the solution brokers for the environmental and economic problems they seek to address. The apparent fragmentation of the theory and policy concerning the environmental sustainability of economic activity is expressed through the variability of terms that aspire to establish multiple economies functioning at the same time.  Limited empirical analysis of the existing ‘bioeconomy’ is symptomatic of the dissociation between theory and practice, emphasizing technological approaches favouring capital intensive approaches over local solutions. The S-economies, including the bioeconomy, are an attempt to bypass economic structural realities that otherwise would need to be addressed.


Sustainable water resources management under population growth and agricultural development in the Kheirabad river basin, Iran

Layani, Ghasem1; Bakhshoodeh, Mohammad1; Zibaei, Mansour1; Viaggi, Davide2

1Shiraz University (Iran), 2University of Bologna (Italy)

Accepted: 2021-10-15 | Published Online: 2021-10-15 |

DOI: 10.36253/bae-10465


In this study, an integrated system dynamics model was developed for scenario analysis in sub-sectors of the Kheirabad River Basin in southwestern Iran where managing water resources is seriously challenging due to population growth and periodic drought. Afterward, the variability of water demand and supply under baseline scenario and different water demand management policies, including water conservation and water pricing, was evaluated. Findings illustrated that with increasing population and cropland area if no further demand management policies were implemented, the total water demand and withdrawal of water resources increase by more than 0.75% annually. The annual surface water availability during 2018-2030 is expected to decrease by around -1.23%. Under these circumstances, the sustainability index of the water resources system is equal to 0.703, indicating that the water system would not be able to meet the total water demand in the near future. However, the water resource sustainability index increases significantly by improving irrigation efficiency and changing crop patterns at the basin. Also, the reduction in per capita water demand and domestic water pricing under the competition structure would help to improve the sustainability index to 0.963 and 0.749, respectively.


The Bioeconomy in economic literature: looking back, looking ahead

Viaggi, Davide1; Bartolini, Fabio2; Raggi, Meri3

1 University of Bologna, Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences

2 University of Ferrara, Department of Chemical, Pharmaceutical and Agricultural Sciences

3 University of Bologna, Department of Statistical Sciences

Accepted: 2021-10-27 | Published Online: 2021-11-02 |

DOI: 10.36253/bae-10881


The objective of this paper is to provide a review of recent economic literature related to the Bioeconomy, in particular aimed at identifying relevant pathways for future research in this field. The paper is organised in four main parts. First, we illustrate the economic role of the Bioeconomy and its key statistics in the EU. Second we review economic topics related to the Bioeconomy production in a mainly private (company, consumer, market) perspective. Then we extend our attention to the review of wider social and environmental aspects with a focus on ecosystem services. Finally, we discuss the interplay of the above topics and cross cutting issues in the attempt to identify the most promising pathways for further research. While the economic literature is growing fast in all the fields of the Bioeconomy, we highlight in particular the need of more economic research focusing on transitions and innovation. However, we also highlight the need to take a system perspective and accounting explicitly for the trade-offs among the many objectives that the Bioeconomy is expected to target and to better account of the costs and benefits affecting different stakeholder groups.


The distributors’ view on US wine consumer preferences. A discrete choice experiment

Lourenço-Gomes, Lina; Gonçalves, Tânia; Rebelo, João

University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (Portugal)

Accepted: 2021-11-08 | Published Online: 2021-11-11 |

DOI: 10.36253/bae-10801


This study explored the view distributors have towards consumers' most valued wine attributes in the US market by applying the discrete choice experiments technique. Furthermore, to explore the extent to which the distributors' perspective may reflect consumers' preferences, the results are analyzed considering previous evidence with consumers in the same market. The results from a scaled multinomial logit, mixed logit and generalized logit models reveal similarities with consumer studies' findings, especially for the influence of medals/awards, the origin of the wine, grape variety, and price, and it also identifies possible trends in the market. This evidence suggests that data collected using the knowledge and experience of wine distributors generates valuable information through a smaller sample at a lower cost than through applying consumer surveys, which is relevant in large markets with a higher number of consumers.


Italian Farms During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Main Problems and Future Perspectives. A direct analysis through the Italian FADN.

Cesaro, Luca; Giampaolo, Antonio; Giarè, Francesca; Sardone, Roberta; Scardera, Alfonso; Viganò, Laura


Accepted: 2021-11-12 | Published Online: 2021-11-26 |

DOI: 10.36253/bae-9552


The spread of the COVID-19 virus in Italy during the first phasis of the pandemic (February-May 2020) has caused a large-scale crisis, with an almost immediate decrease of industrial production and a consequent contraction in domestic consumption and external trade. However, the issue of food security was immediately recognized as one of the most sensitive, so that the Government has decreed the priority role of the food system, which has been included among those considered fundamental services and economically essential, allowing the related activities to be carried out during the lockdown. Agricultural production activities, transformation and commercialization remained fully operative during the lockdown, nevertheless, the sector has faced many difficulties related to the contraction of some of the marketing channels (restaurants, on farm sales, agrotourism, problems with the logistics and many other problems). To better understand the effects of the initial phasis of the pandemic on the Italian agricultural sector and provide useful information to the government and decision makers, a survey was carried out with a CAWI (Computer Assisted Web Interviewing) sent to over 10,000 farmers belonging to the sample of the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). The number of respondents has been of 733 farms, which represents around 7% of the Italian FADN sample. The results of the questionnaire have been matched with FADN data on the structure and the economic performance of farms, allowing a more precise evaluation of the condition and effects of the pandemic. The results highlight a relevant effect of the COVID-19 pandemic emergency on the agricultural sector: 37% of the interviewed farmers declare a significant liquidity crisis, while 60% predicted a contraction in turnover. These effects are more relevant for the wine, olives, and horticulture types of farming and more frequent in medium/large farms. A better situation has been found for farms which usually outsource processing and/or marketing/sale of the products.


The contribution of research to agricultural policy in Europe

Matthews, Alan

Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)

Accepted: 2021-11-19 | Published Online: 2021-11-26 |

DOI: 10.36253/bae-12322


This paper surveys some of the key themes in European agricultural policy research in recent decades. It identifies three main drivers of this research: a gradual broadening of the scope of the discipline in response to changing political priorities and values; an enlarged toolbox of policy instruments that has raised new questions and required the development of new modes of analysis; and the availability of new data sources, increased computing power, as well as the introduction of new methodological advances from economics, statistics and psychology that have opened the way to new and more powerful analytical tools. Particular attention is paid to direct payments and agri-environment-climate measures as examples of new policy instruments that have driven the research agenda. The paper concludes by identifying requirements to ensure that agricultural policy research remains vibrant and relevant in the future.