Vol. 83 (2023)
Special Issue - Visions of the future in real estate appraisal

Discounted Cash Flow Analysis and Prudential Value DCFA Formula

Maurizio d'Amato
Department of Civil, Environmental, Land, Construction and Chemistry (DICATECh), Polytechnic University of Bari
Giampiero Bambagioni
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (DICA), University of Perugia

Published 2024-04-22


  • Discounted Cash Flow Analysis (DCFA),
  • IVS,
  • Prudential Value,
  • Property Valuation,
  • Simonotti DCFA Model,
  • Long-Term Sustainable Value,
  • Loan-to-Value (LTV) ratio,
  • Agricultural value
  • ...More


According to IVS 2023 the terminal value of a DCFA can be calculated in respect of the three fundamental appraisal approach: market, income and cost. Specifically, “Where the asset is expected to continue beyond the explicit forecast period, valuers must estimate the value of the asset at the end of that period. The terminal value is then discounted back to the valuation date, normally using the same discount rate as applied to the forecast cash flow” (IVS 105 Valuation Approaches and Methods, para 50.20). Although academic and professional normally refer to direct capitalization to calculate the exit value (scrap value, going out value) different approaches are possible. In particular it is possible to calculate the exit value using the market approach. The present work starts from an original model of Discounted Cash Flow Analysis proposed by Simonotti (2006) to propose possible alternative to the original formula. The model proposed, as defined for the paper “Prudential Value DCFA Formula (PVF)” provides methodological alternatives to the original model in order to apply the method in different property market conditions allowing the appraiser to represent even property market in recovery or falling market phase, or prudential assessment of worth and opinion of value. In particular the proposed model replace the compound growth of the property value included in the traditional Simonotti’s model, with a linear growth or even a combination of both. The paper emphasize how property valuation standards can not be considered as immutable but they may be considered in constant evolution. In delivering an opinion of value for mortgage lending purposes the approach of professional academician and real estate analyst need to be able to respond to change of external conditions, in consideration of the sustainability of the cash flows in the long term, for the entire duration of the loan (and therefore for the purpose of identifying the long-term sustainable value of the asset). The approach is functional, inter alia, for the purpose of identifying the “prudential value” as defined by the innovative banking regulation (Basel 3) according to the definition of loan-to-value (LTV) ratio for loan origination and monitoring.


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