Assessing the effects of “appeal to authority” in the evaluation of environmental goods. Evidences from an economic experiment in Mt Etna, Italy
Gioacchino Pappalardo, Sabrina Toscano, Biagio Pecorino
Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment (Di3A), University of Catania, Italy.
Accepted: 2020-06-26 | Published Online: 2020-07-03 |
In this study we aim to assess how public opinion perceives the value of dry-stone walls in the terraced vineyards of Mt Etna (Italy), recently named intangible cultural heritage of Humanity by UNESCO because they are an “example of human manufacture realized in perfect harmony with the environment”. We referred to the concept of “appeal to authority” that is a form of defeasible argument in which a claimed authority’s support is used as evidence for an argument’s conclusion. By a Contingent Valuation approach, we showed that the authoritative role of UNESCO affected people’s willingness to pay to preserve dry-stone walls in the terraced vineyards in Mt. Etna. The role of the Institutions dedicated to the protection of environmental goods appears relevant in promoting the preservation of environmental resources for future generations.
Destination of the waste generated by a steelmaking plant: a case study in Latin America.
Miguel Afonso Sellitto, Fábio Kazuhiro Murakami
Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Brazil.
Accepted: 2020-07-31 | Published Online: 2020-08-21 |
The purpose of this article is to identify the destination given by a steelmaking plant located in Brazil to the waste it generates. The research method is a case study. The primary research techniques are interviews with practitioners and scholars, visits to the steel plant and applications, and analysis of internal documentation. The main contribution is a complete case in a large company that generates a significant amount of waste. For each ton of steel, an ordinary steel plant generates approximately 0.6 tons of waste, such as steelmaking slag, electric arc furnace dust, mill scale, and zinc sludge. The slag routes to the conservation of unpaved roads, the electric arc furnace dust routes to Zamak manufacturers and earthworks activities, the mill scale routes to the cement and machinery construction industries, and the zinc sludge helps to produce new zinc ingots. The main obstacles for more elaborate destinations are the lack of research, logistics cost, and the need for environmental licenses.
La monumentalità vegetale sotto la lente del legislatore.
Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), University of Florence, Italy.
Accepted: 2020-11-16 | Published Online: 2020-11-23 |
Is there any form of legal protection for plant monumentality? This work envisages an excursus on the interventions made by the Italian legislator on this subject, highlighting the close connection between nature and culture emerging from the regulatory framework, also stigmatising the critical elements contained in the legal provisions and proposing new solutions in order to overcome them.
The circular economy in transforming a died heritage site into a living ecosystem, to be managed as a complex adaptive organism.
Luigi Fusco Girard1,2
1 University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
2 Pegaso Online University, Rome, Italy.
Accepted: 2020-12-03 | Published Online: 2020-12-07 |
Climate change is a consequence of our difficulty to manage the currently conflicts and contradictions. It is configured as a process that makes human life on Earth increasingly uninhabitable, making the relationship between the Earth's ecosystem and humanity increasingly difficult. A fundamental cause of the climate change is the way in which economic wealth is produced and distributed. The current economy produces also ecological and social poverty. The adaptive reuse of cultural assets is proposed in the general framework of the Green New Deal of European Union, assuming the circular economy model for re-integrating economy into ecology. The aim of the paper is to identify how to transform a died heritage site into a living system, to be managed as a complex adaptive system, discussing the ways in which adaptive reuse can be implemented as the entry point for implementing the circular city. The circular city is the specific spatial/territorial aspect of the circular economy model.
PRACTICAL-EDUCATIONAL IN-DEPTH EXAMINATION
Ordinarietà: applicazione, implicazioni ed integrazioni
Department of Innovation in Biology, Agri-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Italy.
Accepted: 2020-09-07 | Published Online: 2020-12-28 |
Despite the long time since individuals have started to evaluate goods, as well as the first estimation treaties date back to the XVIII century, a shared epistemological framework of evaluation discipline have not yet been produced.
The growing demand of market values and the expansion of the estimates have greatly reduced the role of ordinariness principle. Scope of application, implementation mode, as well implications underlying its adoption, should be object of investigation in order to define what it is the currently context for its better use. At the same time, the evolution of the market and the socio-economic context call for its support with other principles. These have to be able to ensure appropriate and pro-active theoretical frameworks for answering at new types of value, both for new markets and also for not-market oriented evaluations.
SPECIAL ISSUE - SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND CIRCULAR ECONOMY
A life cycle perspective for infrastructure management
Department of Architecture and Design, Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
Accepted: 2020-05-28 | Published Online: 2020-06-15 |
Circular Economy, founded on the self-generative economic system concept, can be traced back to the Life Cycle Thinking, that conceives the project as a process along its whole life cycle, at the different scales: material, component, system, building, urban district and territorial area, infrastructure. In Italy, as in the main part of European Countries, a great portion of infrastructures was built in reinforced concrete before 1960 and is approaching the end-of-life stage. Thus, aim of this article is to propose an operative modality for supporting the preventive maintenance investments planning in function of life cycle costs and benefits, assuming the presence of uncertainty over time. Firstly, a recalling of the Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) approach is presented. Secondly, the Life Cycle Cost Benefit Analysis (LCCBA) approach is proposed, as a tool for supporting long-term investments, management of public services and maintenance planning activities in the infrastructure sector. Thirdly, by integrating CBA and LCCBA, an operative modality is proposed. On the background, life cycle management, optimal maintenance planning and durability concepts are assumed.
Opportunity-spaces for self-regenerative processes: assessing the intrinsic value of complex peri-urban systems
Maria Cerreta, Maria Reitano
Department of Architecture (DiARC), University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
Accepted: 2020-06-28 | Published Online: 2020-07-05 |
The research aims at evaluating the ability of a peri-urban system to activate territorial self-regenerative processes, according to Circular Economy principles. The adopted methodology identifies opportunity-spaces, through indices of space heterogeneity and of the relational dynamics, established in collective spaces. Through a site-specific set of indicators, selected considering the United Nations SDGs, and related to the categories of social cooperation, resilience and vitality, it evaluates opportunity-spaces intrinsic value, adopting Analytic Network Process (ANP) as Multi-Criteria Decision Aid method (MCDA). As a result, five categories of opportunity-spaces are defined and spatialised, and the analysed peri-urban space, within hill area of Naples, in the South of Italy, is interpreted as a hybrid territory composed of different complex socio-spatial systems, where possible synergistic processes can be addressed, starting from collaborative mechanisms, in order to implement regenerative strategies, producing complex territorial values.
Climate change and urban well-being: a methodology based on Sen theory and imprecise probabilities
Iacopo Bernetti1, Elena Barbierato1, Irene Capecchi1, Claudio Saragosa2
1 Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), University of Florence, Italy.
2 Department of Architecture (DIDA), University of Florence, Italy.
Accepted: 2020-06-29 | Published Online: 2020-07-03 |
The phenomenon of urban heat waves are becoming a significant public health problem in the summer season. Global warming is therefore not only an environmental problem, but also an ethical and political issue of climate justice. The research was based on the capability approach developed by Amartya Sen.
The aim of the study is to (1) identify a set of indicators that allows to estimate the risk of decreased individual well-being; (2) implement these indicators in a probabilistic model that allows to explicitly consider the lack of certain knowledge on the effects of climate change; (3) provide high resolution urban mapping for climate change adaptation strategies.
The research focused on the vulnerable people (elderly people and children) in the city of Rosignano Solvay.
The combination of the results, obtained through the aggregation Dempster’s rule, allows to identify the most critical areas on which it is necessary to intervene or through mitigation or urban regeneration.
Towards sustainable and inclusive communities: an integrated approach to assess sustainability in rural areas
Mario Cozzi1, Carmelina Prete1, Mauro Viccaro1, Francesco Riccioli2, Claudio Fagarazzi3, Severino Romano1
1School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences (SAFE), University of Basilicata, Italy.
2 Department of Veterinary Science, University of Pisa, Italy.
3 Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), University of Florence, Italy.
Accepted: 2020-07-18 | Published Online: 2020-07-22 |
Sustainable development is a priority in EU rural development strategies. Due to the multidimensionality of the sustainability issue, this paper presents a Spatial Decision Support System to assess territorial sustainability and help decision-makers in rural planning process. Four globally valid sustainability dimensions were considered (long-term ecological sustainability, satisfaction of basic human needs, promotion of intragenerational and intergenerational equity), measured by a set of socio-cultural-political-environmental indicators by using the Mazziotta and Pareto method.
The results of the S-DSS, implemented and verified in Basilicata region (southern Italy), provide the maps of sustainability values for each dimension at municipalities level, showing the usefulness of the tool to identify and monitor rural areas that require priority interventions and resources, in order to foster sustainable rural development.
Circular Economy and adaptive reuse of historical buildings: an analysis of the dynamics between real estate and accommodation facilities in the city of Naples (Italy)
Silvia Iodice1,3, Pasquale De Toro2,3, Martina Bosone3
1 Joint Research Centre, European Commission (JRC).
2 Department of Architecture (DiARC), University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
3 Institute for Research on Innovation and Services for Development, National Research Council of Italy (IRISS, CNR).
Accepted: 2020-08-10 | Published Online: 2020-08-27 |
The urban regeneration of historic centres is an extremely topical issue in the contemporary debate and is an essential prerequisite for the pursuit of Sustainable Development Goals. Adaptive reuse of the abandoned heritage represents an effective strategy to give new life to abandoned or underused portions of territory, hosting functions more suited to the needs of the contemporary city and its characterizing phenomena. This work is the result of an experimentation that has as object of investigation the historic centre of Naples where, according to some recent data, there has been a significant increase in Bed and Breakfasts, some often as result of cultural heritage reuse processes. After having spatially represented the market values of residential buildings through the elaboration of a Geographic Information System, it was possible to verify the existence of a relation between the dynamics of the real estate and the rise of new accommodation facilities, often located in historic buildings subjected to adaptive reuse processes.
The role of fiscal and monetary policy in financing and stimulating Circular Economy transition in Iraq
Safaa Ali Hussein1, Ahmed Abdulzahra Hamdan2
1 College Of Administration & Economics, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
2 College Of Administration & Economics, Mustansiriyah University, Iraq.
Accepted: 2020-07-30 | Published Online: 2020-09-05|
The issue of the Circular Economy is not a new issue to several countries, especially the developed ones. Here in Iraq it is considered newly introduced, despite the few attempts to establish projects that concern recycling most of them were doomed to fail, due to two main reasons: the first one is the financial and administrative corruption widespread in all departments of the country, the second one is the priorities of public spending. It is well known that Iraq was subjected to two major attacks, the ISIS entry attack in 2014 to Iraq. ISIS occupied about a third of Iraqi lands which resulted in a collapse in oil prices, as Iraq depends almost entirely on oil revenues in its budget which is the second attack. This made the Iraqi governments point public spending towards the priority of preserving national security and liberating Iraqi lands. Therefore, the circular economy project proposals were not considered a priority under these circumstances.
A survey was conducted for circular economy projects in Iraq as well as a review of some of the proposed projects in the circular economy by the Iraqi government. The results of the research were, first, Iraq has few projects within the circular economy and it does not meet the required standards. Second, the fiscal and monetary policy tools do not provide stimulus and financing for the transition to circular activity within the traditional functions.
Short-Term City Dynamics: effects and Proposals before the Covid-19 Pandemic
Maria Cerreta, Fernanda Della Mura, Laura Lieto, Giuliano Poli
Department of Architecture (DiARC), University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
Accepted: 2020-09-15 | Published Online: 2020-09-30|
Sharing platforms such as Airbnb changed urban balances and triggered processes of transformation of the historic city both from a structural, economic, and social point of view before Covid-19 Pandemic.
Airbnb influences the production of urban space, not only through physical impacts but also through the tendency to mystify places, appealing to authenticity and experiential tourism. New images of reality, mediated by the platform, constitute the symbolic production of the tourist palatability of the city, which is intertwined with new uses and the exasperation of the consumption of a part of the cultural heritage. In this context, the research aims to structure a hybrid methodological approach that combines investigation and assessment for identifying and understanding the impacts of touristification and over-tourism on the urban dimension and develop possible intervention strategies consistent with the Circular Economy perspective, able to activate virtuous processes of regeneration. Naples, in the South of Italy, is the case study, a context for reflection and experimentation.
Modelli Decisionali Multi Criterio per l’analisi della vulnerabilità sismica a scala territoriale: il caso studio della Garfagnana (Toscana)
Carlotta Sergiacomi, Claudio Fagarazzi
Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), University of Florence, Italy.
Accepted: 2020-09-28 | Published Online: 2020-10-02|
Italy is one of the countries with the greatest historic heritage in the world, but also one of the most seismic. In this context an earthquake can cause significant damage. Usually, the vulnerability of a building is verified with in-depth and expensive structural assessment, without considering spatial relations and local context.
In this study a method is proposed for the assessment of Territorial Seismic Vulnerability, based not only on building characteristics but also on morphological and spatial parameters. It is an urban-scale approach that allows an objective classification of buildings using an economic procedure.
The method, based on the development of a geographical Multiple Criteria Decision Making model and on the participatory approach of the Analytic Hierarchy Process, has been tested in the study area of Garfagnana (Tuscany). The model can be a useful support tool for urban planning, allowing the optimization of public resources in the most vulnerable areas.
Transitioning agri-food systems into circular economy trajectories
Luigi Cembalo1*, Massimiliano Borrello1, Anna Irene De Luca2, Giacomo Giannoccaro3, Mario D'Amico4
1Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
2Department of Agriculture (AGRARIA), University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
3Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science (DiSAAT), University of Bari Aldo Moro, Italy.
4Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment (Di3A), University of Catania, Italy.
Accepted: 2020-12-29 | Published Online: 2021-01-03|
Circular Economy (CE) might be the paradigm to re-conceptualize future agri-food industries and recreate a balanced co-existence of ecological and economic systems. Research is then called to find solutions for transitioning into CE. The current paper will apply the theory of socio-technical transitions as a framework to build a step by step procedure to analyze and manage agri-food circular economy transitions and support stakeholders involved. The agro-ecological (cultivation and harvesting), agro-industrial (food processing) and consumption (food purchase) subsystems of agri-food supply chains are analysed to address the main challenges for the transition into CE. The current paper final goal is to generate an analytical framework, for practitioners and policy makers, to identify suitable technological, market, coordination and regulative solutions to orient future CE trajectories.