Assessing the effects of “appeal to authority” in the evaluation of environmental goods. Evidences from an economic experiment in Mt Etna, Italy
Gioacchino Pappalardo, Sabrina Toscano, Biagio Pecorino
Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment (Di3A), University of Catania, Italy.
Accepted: 2020-06-26 | Published Online: 2020-07-03 |
In this study we aim to assess how public opinion perceives the value of dry-stone walls in the terraced vineyards of Mt Etna (Italy), recently named intangible cultural heritage of Humanity by UNESCO because they are an “example of human manufacture realized in perfect harmony with the environment”. We referred to the concept of “appeal to authority” that is a form of defeasible argument in which a claimed authority’s support is used as evidence for an argument’s conclusion. By a Contingent Valuation approach, we showed that the authoritative role of UNESCO affected people’s willingness to pay to preserve dry-stone walls in the terraced vineyards in Mt. Etna. The role of the Institutions dedicated to the protection of environmental goods appears relevant in promoting the preservation of environmental resources for future generations.
SPECIAL ISSUE - SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND CIRCULAR ECONOMY
A life cycle perspective for infrastructure management
Department of Architecture and Design, Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
Accepted: 2020-05-28 | Published Online: 2020-06-15 |
Circular Economy, founded on the self-generative economic system concept, can be traced back to the Life Cycle Thinking, that conceives the project as a process along its whole life cycle, at the different scales: material, component, system, building, urban district and territorial area, infrastructure. In Italy, as in the main part of European Countries, a great portion of infrastructures was built in reinforced concrete before 1960 and is approaching the end-of-life stage. Thus, aim of this article is to propose an operative modality for supporting the preventive maintenance investments planning in function of life cycle costs and benefits, assuming the presence of uncertainty over time. Firstly, a recalling of the Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) approach is presented. Secondly, the Life Cycle Cost Benefit Analysis (LCCBA) approach is proposed, as a tool for supporting long-term investments, management of public services and maintenance planning activities in the infrastructure sector . Thirdly, by integrating CBA and LCCBA, an operative modality is proposed. On the background, life cycle management, optimal maintenance planning and durability concepts are assumed.
Opportunity-spaces for self-regenerative processes: assessing the intrinsic value of complex peri-urban systems
Maria Cerreta, Maria Reitano
Department of Architecture (DiARC), University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
Accepted: 2020-06-28 | Published Online: 2020-07-05 |
The research aims at evaluating the ability of a peri-urban system to activate territorial self-regenerative processes, according to Circular Economy principles. The adopted methodology identifies opportunity-spaces, through indices of space heterogeneity and of the relational dynamics, established in collective spaces. Through a site-specific set of indicators, selected considering the United Nations SDGs, and related to the categories of social cooperation, resilience and vitality, it evaluates opportunity-spaces intrinsic value, adopting Analytic Network Process (ANP) as Multi-Criteria Decision Aid method (MCDA). As a result, five categories of opportunity-spaces are defined and spatialised, and the analysed peri-urban space, within hill area of Naples, in the South of Italy, is interpreted as a hybrid territory composed of different complex socio-spatial systems, where possible synergistic processes can be addressed, starting from collaborative mechanisms, in order to implement regenerative strategies, producing complex territorial values.
Climate change and urban well-being: a methodology based on Sen theory and imprecise probabilities
Iacopo Bernetti1, Elena Barbierato1, Irene Capecchi1, Claudio Saragosa2
1 Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), University of Florence, Italy.
2 Department of Architecture (DIDA), University of Florence, Italy.
Accepted: 2020-06-29 | Published Online: 2020-07-03 |
The phenomenon of urban heat waves are becoming a significant public health problem in the summer season. Global warming is therefore not only an environmental problem, but also an ethical and political issue of climate justice. The research was based on the capability approach developed by Amartya Sen.
The aim of the study is to (1) identify a set of indicators that allows to estimate the risk of decreased individual well-being; (2) implement these indicators in a probabilistic model that allows to explicitly consider the lack of certain knowledge on the effects of climate change; (3) provide high resolution urban mapping for climate change adaptation strategies.
The research focused on the vulnerable people (elderly people and children) in the city of Rosignano Solvay.
The combination of the results, obtained through the aggregation Dempster’s rule, allows to identify the most critical areas on which it is necessary to intervene or through mitigation or urban regeneration.
Towards sustainable and inclusive communities: an integrated approach to assess sustainability in rural areas
Mario Cozzi1, Carmelina Prete1, Mauro Viccaro1, Francesco Riccioli2, Claudio Fagarazzi3, Severino Romano1
1School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences (SAFE), University of Basilicata, Italy.
2 Department of Veterinary Science, University of Pisa, Italy.
3 Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), University of Florence, Italy.
Accepted: 2020-07-18 | Published Online: 2020-07-22 |
Sustainable development is a priority in EU rural development strategies. Due to the multidimensionality of the sustainability issue, this paper presents a Spatial Decision Support System to assess territorial sustainability and help decision-makers in rural planning process. Four globally valid sustainability dimensions were considered (long-term ecological sustainability, satisfaction of basic human needs, promotion of intragenerational and intergenerational equity), measured by a set of socio-cultural-political-environmental indicators by using the Mazziotta and Pareto method.
The results of the S-DSS, implemented and verified in Basilicata region (southern Italy), provide the maps of sustainability values for each dimension at municipalities level, showing the usefulness of the tool to identify and monitor rural areas that require priority interventions and resources, in order to foster sustainable rural development.