Vol. 13 No. 1 (2024)
Original Research Article

Drivers of memorable wine tourism experiences – a netnography study

Ilinka Terziyska
Southwest University Neofit Rilski

Published 2024-04-09


  • wine tourism experiences,
  • 4Es,
  • family-owned winery,
  • netnography,
  • Bulgaria

How to Cite

Terziyska, I. (2024). Drivers of memorable wine tourism experiences – a netnography study. Wine Economics and Policy, 13(1), 17–31. https://doi.org/10.36253/wep-14433


This study serves a dual purpose: firstly, to identify the pivotal architectural components within wine tourism offerings that contribute to a lasting and memorable experience; and secondly, to explore their correlation with the four customer experience realms (4Es). The investigation operates at a micro level, focusing on a specific category of winery – small, family-owned establishments – in an emerging wine destination. Employing a netnography approach, the research design centers on a thematic analysis of visitor reviews sourced from TripAdvisor. The ensuing results are quantified to ascertain the significance of individual factors. A total of 137 reviews spanning the period from June 2013 to May 2022 were manually extracted and coded using MaxQDA. This study’s rationale rests upon two key premises: firstly, the scarcity of research within the specific context of emerging wine destinations from the post-Eastern bloc; and secondly, the limited exploration of the nexus between wine tourism drivers and consumer experiences. The most influential drivers shaping memorable wine tourism encounters that we identified are “people” and “wine”, predominantly associated with the escapist and aesthetic dimensions of experience. These findings diverge markedly from prior research, where the escapist dimension typically received minimal attention. Theoretically, our results enrich understanding by elucidating how the four dimensions of the wine tourist experience intersect with the attributes of the tourism offering, thereby serving as a potential model for future investigations. Moreover, wineries stand to gain valuable insights for product design aimed at enhancing the overall consumer experience.


  1. B. J. P. Pine and J. H. Gilmore, The Experience Economy, Revised edition. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business Review Press, 2019.
  2. D. L. Quadri-Felitti and A. M. Fiore, “Destination loyalty: Effects of wine tourists’ experiences, memories, and satisfaction on intentions,” Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 47–62, Jan. 2013, doi: 10.1177/1467358413510017.
  3. T. Fernandes and M. Cruz, “Dimensions and outcomes of experience quality in tourism: The case of Port wine cellars,” Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, vol. 31, pp. 371–379, Jul. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.jretconser.2016.05.002.
  4. A. Madeira, A. Correia, and J. A. Filipe, “Modelling wine tourism experiences,” Anatolia, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 513–529, Oct. 2019, doi: 10.1080/13032917.2019.1642922.
  5. J.-H. Kim, J. R. B. Ritchie, and V. W. S. Tung, “The Effect of Memorable Experience on Behavioral Intentions in Tourism: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach,” Tourism Analysis, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 637–648, Dec. 2010, doi: 10.3727/108354210X12904412049776.
  6. C. Massa and S. Bédé, “A consumer value approach to a holistic understanding of the winery experience,” Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 530–548, Jan. 2018, doi: 10.1108/QMR-01-2017-0031.
  7. G. D. Chiappa, J. C. Martin, and C. Román, “Developing wine tourism experiences. A discrete choice analysis using best-worst scaling data,” Wine Economics and Policy, vol. 11, no. 1, Art. no. 1, May 2022, doi: 10.36253/wep-9946.
  8. G. Papadopoulou and M. Alebaki, “Capturing core experiential aspects in winery visitors’ TripAdvisor reviews: Netnographic insights from Santorini and Crete,” in Routledge Handbook of Wine Tourism, Routledge, 2022.
  9. “World’s Best Vineyards,” IWC - The World’s Best Vineyards. Accessed: Dec. 29, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://www.worldsbestvineyards.com
  10. A. Y. K. Chua and S. Banerjee, “Customer knowledge management via social media: the case of Starbucks,” Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 237–249, Jan. 2013, doi: 10.1108/13673271311315196.
  11. V. Taecharungroj and B. Mathayomchan, “Analysing TripAdvisor reviews of tourist attractions in Phuket, Thailand,” Tourism Management, vol. 75, pp. 550–568, Dec. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2019.06.020.
  12. B. J. P. II and J. H. Gilmore, The Experience Economy: Work Is Theater & Every Business a Stage, 1st edition. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1999.
  13. Pine, Joseph B. and J. H. Gilmore, “Welcome to the Experience Economy,” Harvard Business Review, Jul. 01, 1998. Accessed: Dec. 26, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://hbr.org/1998/07/welcome-to-the-experience-economy
  14. F. Gouillart, “Experience Co-creation,” Harvard Business Review, Apr. 18, 2011. Accessed: Dec. 26, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://hbr.org/2011/04/experience-co-creation
  15. A. Helkkula, “Characterising the concept of service experience,” Journal of Service Management, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 367–389, Jan. 2011, doi: 10.1108/09564231111136872.
  16. H. Schallehn, S. Seuring, J. Strähle, and M. Freise, “Defining the antecedents of experience co-creation as applied to alternative consumption models,” Journal of Service Management, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 209–251, Jan. 2019, doi: 10.1108/JOSM-12-2017-0353.
  17. R. Verganti, “Design, Meanings, and Radical Innovation: A Metamodel and a Research Agenda*,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 436–456, 2008, doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5885.2008.00313.x.
  18. H. Kim and K. K. F. So, “Two decades of customer experience research in hospitality and tourism: A bibliometric analysis and thematic content analysis,” International Journal of Hospitality Management, vol. 100, p. 103082, Jan. 2022, doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2021.103082.
  19. A.-M. Lebrun, C.-J. Su, and P. Bouchet, “Domestic tourists’ experience in protected natural parks: A new trend in pandemic crisis?,” Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, vol. 35, p. 100398, Sep. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.jort.2021.100398.
  20. F. Ali, K. Hussain, and N. A. Ragavan, “Memorable Customer Experience: Examining the Effects of Customers Experience on Memories and Loyalty in Malaysian Resort Hotels,” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 144, pp. 273–279, Aug. 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.07.296.
  21. M. Mehmetoglu and M. Engen, “Pine and Gilmore’s Concept of Experience Economy and Its Dimensions: An Empirical Examination in Tourism,” Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 237–255, Oct. 2011, doi: 10.1080/1528008X.2011.541847.
  22. M. Mahdzar, I. Rahayu, and A. Abdul Gani, “Effects of Visitors Experience on Satisfaction and Intentions to Recommend in Malaysian Museum,” World Applied Sciences Journal, vol. 35, Dec. 2017, doi: 10.5829/idosi/wasj.seiht.2017.59.64.
  23. H. Oh, A. M. Fiore, and M. Jeoung, “Measuring Experience Economy Concepts: Tourism Applications,” Journal of Travel Research, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 119–132, Nov. 2007, doi: 10.1177/0047287507304039.
  24. R. Garibaldi and F. Sfodera, “TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENHANCING WINE TOURISM EXPERIENCE,” 2020, pp. 409–417.
  25. J. Bruwer and K. Alant, “The hedonic nature of wine tourism consumption: An experiential view,” International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 21, pp. 235–257, Aug. 2009, doi: 10.1108/17511060910985962.
  26. T. Danielmeier and J. N. Albrecht, “Architecture and Future Food and Wine Experiences,” in The Future of Food Tourism: Foodies, Experiences, Exclusivity, Visions and Political Capital, Channel View Publications, 2015, pp. 87–100. doi: 10.21832/9781845415396-010.
  27. J. Bruwer and E. Rueger-Muck, “Wine tourism and hedonic experience: A motivation-based experiential view,” Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 488–502, Oct. 2019, doi: 10.1177/1467358418781444.
  28. H. Kim and M. A. Bonn, “Authenticity: Do tourist perceptions of winery experiences affect behavioral intentions?,” International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 839–859, Jan. 2016, doi: 10.1108/IJCHM-05-2014-0212.
  29. S. Charters, J. Fountain, and N. Fish, “‘You Felt Like Lingering…’: Experiencing ‘Real’ Service at the Winery Tasting Room,” Journal of Travel Research, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 122–134, Aug. 2009, doi: 10.1177/0047287508326508.
  30. A. S. Kotur, “A bibliometric review of research in wine tourism experiences: insights and future research directions,” International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. ahead-of-print, no. ahead-of-print, Jan. 2023, doi: 10.1108/IJWBR-07-2022-0024.
  31. I. Leri and P. Theodoridis, “The effects of the winery visitor experience on emotions, satisfaction and on post-visit behaviour intentions,” Tourism Review, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 480–502, Jan. 2019, doi: 10.1108/TR-07-2018-0092.
  32. K. Lee, M. Madanoglu, and J.-Y. Ko, “Exploring key service quality dimensions at a winery from an emerging market’s perspective,” British Food Journal, vol. 118, no. 12, pp. 2981–2996, Jan. 2016, doi: 10.1108/BFJ-04-2016-0157.
  33. V. A. Quintal, B. Thomas, and I. Phau, “Incorporating the winescape into the theory of planned behaviour: Examining ‘new world’ wineries,” Tourism Management, vol. 46, no. C, pp. 596–609, 2015, Accessed: Feb. 03, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/touman/v46y2015icp596-609.html
  34. J. Bruwer and M. J. Gross, “A Multilayered Macro Approach to Conceptualizing the Winescape Construct for Wine Tourism,” Tourism Analysis, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 497–509, Nov. 2017, doi: 10.3727/108354217X15023805452059.
  35. I. Terziyska and R. Damyanova, “Winescape through the lens of organized travel – a netnography study,” International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 477–492, Jan. 2020, doi: 10.1108/IJWBR-09-2019-0050.
  36. V. R. Santos, P. Ramos, N. Almeida, and E. Santos-Pavón, “Wine and wine tourism experience: a theoretical and conceptual review,” Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 718–730, Jan. 2019, doi: 10.1108/WHATT-09-2019-0053.
  37. R. Capitello, L. Agnoli, and D. Begalli, “A NEW APPROACH TO THE ANALYSIS OF VISITOR PERCEPTIONS TOWARDS A TOURISM DESTINATION: THE ROLE OF FOOD AND WINE EXPERIENCES,” Scientific Papers Series Management , Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development, vol. 13, pp. 57–64, Jan. 2013.
  38. E. Cohen and L. Ben-Nun, “The Important Dimensions of Wine Tourism Experience from Potential Visitors’ Perception,” Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 20–31, Jan. 2009, doi: 10.1057/thr.2008.42.
  39. C. Hall and R. Mitchell, “The tourist terroir of New Zealand wine: The importance of region in the wine tourism experience,” Food and Environment: Geographies of Taste, pp. 69–91, Jan. 2002.
  40. A. Brochado, O. Stoleriu, and C. Lupu, “Wine tourism: a multisensory experience,” Current Issues in Tourism, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 597–615, Mar. 2021, doi: 10.1080/13683500.2019.1649373.
  41. A. Brochado, M. Troilo, H. Rodrigues, and F. Oliveira-Brochado, “Dimensions of wine hotel experiences shared online,” International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 59–77, Jan. 2019, doi: 10.1108/IJWBR-12-2018-0072.
  42. L. Roberts and B. Sparks, “Enhancing the wine tourism experience: the customers’ viewpoint.,” Global wine tourism: research, management and marketing, pp. 47–55, 2006, Accessed: Jan. 21, 2023. [Online]. Available: https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20063180785
  43. B. Pikkemaat, M. Peters, P. Boksberger, and M. Secco, “The Staging of Experiences in Wine Tourism,” Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, vol. 18, no. 2–3, pp. 237–253, Feb. 2009, doi: 10.1080/19368620802594110.
  44. T. Vo Thanh and V. Kirova, “Wine tourism experience: A netnography study,” Journal of Business Research, vol. 83, pp. 30–37, Feb. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.10.008.
  45. B. J. Pine, Joseph B. and J. H. Gilmore, The Experience Economy, Updated Edition, Updated edition. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business Review Press, 2011.
  46. D. Quadri-Felitti and A. M. Fiore, “Experience economy constructs as a framework for understanding wine tourism,” Journal of Vacation Marketing, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 3–15, Jan. 2012, doi: 10.1177/1356766711432222.
  47. R. Oldenburg, The Great Good Place: Cafes, Coffee Shops, Bookstores, Bars, Hair Salons, and Other Hangouts at the Heart of a Community, 3rd edition. New York : Berkeley, Calif.: Da Capo Press, 1999.
  48. C. Haller, I. Hess-Misslin, and J.-P. Mereaux, “Aesthetics and conviviality as key factors in a successful wine tourism experience,” International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 176–196, Jan. 2020, doi: 10.1108/IJWBR-12-2019-0063.
  49. M. Carvalho, E. Kastenholz, and M. J. Carneiro, “Interaction as a Central Element of Co-Creative Wine Tourism Experiences—Evidence from Bairrada, a Portuguese Wine-Producing Region,” Sustainability, vol. 13, no. 16, Art. no. 16, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.3390/su13169374.
  50. E. Kastenholz, D. Cunha, A. Eletxigerra, M. Carvalho, and I. Silva, “The Experience Economy in a Wine Destination—Analysing Visitor Reviews,” Sustainability, vol. 14, no. 15, Art. no. 15, Jan. 2022, doi: 10.3390/su14159308.
  51. D. Krech and R. S. Crutchfield, “Beliefs and attitudes of men,” in Theory and problems of social psychology, New York, NY, US: McGraw-Hill, 1948, pp. 149–174. doi: 10.1037/10024-005.
  52. R. J. Callan and L. Bowman, “Selecting a hotel and determining salient quality attributes: a preliminary study of mature british travellers,” International Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 97–118, 2000, doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1522-1970(200003/04)2:2<97::AID-JTR190>3.0.CO;2-1.
  53. I. P. Tussyadiah and F. Zach, “Identifying salient attributes of peer-to-peer accommodation experience,” Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 636–652, Jun. 2017, doi: 10.1080/10548408.2016.1209153.
  54. S. Pike, F. Kotsi, and V. Tossan, “Stopover destination image: A comparison of salient attributes elicited from French and Australian travellers,” Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, vol. 9, pp. 160–165, Sep. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.jdmm.2018.01.002.
  55. E. Barbierato, I. Bernetti, and I. Capecchi, “Analyzing TripAdvisor reviews of wine tours: an approach based on text mining and sentiment analysis,” International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 212–236, 2022, doi: 10.1108/IJWBR-04-2021-0025.
  56. T. Vo Thanh and V. Kirova, “Wine tourism experience: A netnography study,” Journal of Business Research, vol. 83, no. Complete, pp. 30–37, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.10.008.
  57. D. Burnham and O. Skilleas M., The Aesthetics of Wine. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. Accessed: Jan. 30, 2023. [Online]. Available: https://www.wiley.com/en-ie/The+Aesthetics+of+Wine-p-9781118323878
  58. A. Chua and S. Banerjee, “Reliability of Reviews on the Internet: The Case of TripAdvisor,” undefined, 2013, Accessed: Feb. 03, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Reliability-of-Reviews-on-the-Internet%3A-The-Case-of-Chua-Banerjee/8fc16a4a6c950f11e1a922545ac1f5b8c91a34cb
  59. V. Taecharungroj and B. Mathayomchan, “Analysing TripAdvisor reviews of tourist attractions in Phuket, Thailand,” Tourism Management, vol. 75, pp. 550–568, Dec. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2019.06.020.
  60. J. Bruwer, M. J. Gross, and H. C. Lee, “Tourism Destination Image (TDI) Perception Within a Regional Winescape Context,” Tourism Analysis, vol. 21, no. 2–3, pp. 173–187, May 2016, doi: 10.3727/108354216X14559233984692.
  61. S. A. S. Rachão, Z. Breda, C. Fernandes, and V. Joukes, “Food-and-wine experiences towards co-creation in tourism,” Tourism Review, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 1050–1066, Jan. 2020, doi: 10.1108/TR-01-2019-0026.
  62. A. C. Campos, J. Mendes, P. O. do Valle, and N. Scott, “Co-creation of tourist experiences: a literature review,” Current Issues in Tourism, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 369–400, Mar. 2018, doi: 10.1080/13683500.2015.1081158.
  63. D. Paulauskaite, R. Powell, J. A. Coca-Stefaniak, and A. M. Morrison, “Living like a local: Authentic tourism experiences and the sharing economy,” International Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 619–628, 2017, doi: 10.1002/jtr.2134.
  64. M. M. Amaral, V. R. Kuhn, S. J. G. dos Anjos, and L. C. da S. Flores, “Experiences in a wine tourism destination from the visitors’ perspective,” International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. ahead-of-print, no. ahead-of-print, Jan. 2023, doi: 10.1108/IJWBR-05-2023-0028.
  65. E. Cohen and S. Cohen, “Authentication: Hot and Cool,” Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 39, pp. 1295–1314, Jul. 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2012.03.004.
  66. S. Charters and S. Pettigrew, “Is wine consumption an aesthetic experience?,” Journal of Wine Research, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 121–136, Aug. 2005, doi: 10.1080/09571260500327663.