The benefits of country-specific non-tariff measures in world wine trade
- Global trade,
During the last decades, significant changes in trade regulations are modifying the global trade of wine. The number of non-tariff measures (NTMs) implemented in the wine sector is relevant: a large number of country-specific NTMs, set in the occasion of trade agreements, have been adopted. The impact of these policy instruments on trade is not always clear, nor quantified at global scale. We investigate the effects that country-specific NTMs are showing on global imports of wine. In particular, we estimate a gravity model to explain how and to what extent country-specific NTMs influence wine trade, and we disentangle these effects for different segments of the international market of wine.
Our results suggest that country-specific NTMs tend to favour imports of wine. Differences emerge across market segments and types of regulations. In particular, the Technical Barriers to Trade favour (friction) bottled (bulk) wine; pre-shipment inspections enhance imports of bottled wine; the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards and the export-related measures are the most trade-enhancing NTMs, regardless of the market segment.