Just Accepted Manuscripts

This is not US: measuring polarization in multiparty systems. A quasi-replication study

Luana Russo
Maastricht University
Emma Turkenburg
University of Leuven
Eelco Harteveld
University of Amsterdam
Anna Heckhausen
Maastricht University

Published 2023-10-31


  • Affective Polarization,
  • Measurement,
  • Methodology,
  • Political Behaviour

How to Cite

Russo, L., Turkenburg, E., Harteveld, E., & Heckhausen, A. (2023). This is not US: measuring polarization in multiparty systems. A quasi-replication study. Italian Journal of Electoral Studies (IJES). https://doi.org/10.36253/qoe-14034


In the last decade, affective polarization (AP) has become an increasingly salient topic in both public discourse and political science. Several different measurement instruments have been developed to empirically capture this phenomenon. With the rising interest that affective polarization is now also enjoying in Europe, it has become of the utmost importance to assess what these different measures capture, and to what extent their application travels to different contexts. In this study we test several AP measures on a student population with various European nationalities. We assess their overlap and effectiveness in mapping AP, to help future research working towards greater empirical clarity, and making informed choices on which kind of measures to include in questionnaires and data collections. The results indicate that, while different items usually produce different point estimates and sometimes different answer patterns, the measurement of affective polarization appears relatively indifferent to the choice of items.


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