Author Guidelines

All authors are invited to read and comply with the following recommendations. The submission will not be considered unless all requirements are met. You can also download the Author Guidelines as a pdf file. 



All materials to be published shall be provided in digital format.

Every article must submit:

• a text file;

• a folder containing all the images.


General formatting guidelines

Every text file (.doc or .rtf) – one for each article – must include:

• a short and informative title, followed by the subtitle (if any), separated by a dot;

• Name and Surname of the author(s), Department/School, name of the institution/affiliation, country, e-mail address;

• the abstract/summary, both in Italian and English (maximum 1000 characters for each language). The abstract should be concise and at the same time provide a comprehensive information on the contents of the work;

• 4-5 key-words (both in Italian and English) that will be used for indexing and bibliographic subjecting;

• the full article (20.000-30.000 characters including spaces) with footnotes e bibliographical references;

• captions of the figures with credits (also if processed/made by the author) and/or sources for the illustrations.

The text (if necessary) may be subdivided into sections (no sub-sections). Please note that:

• bold and underlined letters within the text and notes should be avoided;

• capital letters or small capital letters should be avoided and might be used only when strictly necessary;

• always use the same font for the whole text, to be chosen amongst the most common (Arial, Times New Roman or Calibri, etc.). Text is to be single-spaced and justified;

• it is recommended to leave a white space between paragraphs (Enter | return). However, between the title of a section and the beginning of the body text no additional spacing should be left.

Words in Italics

The use of italics should be limited to:

• foreign words not in common usage and for ancient languages;

• titles (and sub-titles if any) of books, films, paintings, etc.


Endnotes should be kept to a minimum and have informative character, whereas bibliographical references are to be included directly within the body text, following the Harvard style (see par. 3 Citations and bibliographic references below). Endnotes numbering is to be continuous and numbering shall start over with each new article. No indents and/or bulleted or numbered lists shall be used in footnotes.

Endnote numbers are to be superscripted, without spacing and placed before the punctuation mark:

correct versions: text1. Text1, “quote”1.

wrong versions: text.1 Text,1 “quote”. 1


• Hyphen-minus (-), without spaces either before or after the punctuation mark, is used for number ranges as well as when joining two or more words (for example: the Italian-English dictionary; the Milan-Venice motorway) or a prefix with a word (for example: self-portrait).

• Dash (–) is used for parenthetic clauses and is preceded and followed by a space. Its use should be kept to a minimum, only when essential to make a sentence less ambiguous; otherwise commas are preferred.

Inverted Commas

Double inverted commas (“ ”)

They are used to quote in the work a short or subsidiary work/parts of texts taken from other works. They are always to be followed by the bibliographical reference: Author’s Surname, year of publication, p. x (see par. 3. Citations and bibliographic references).

Single inverted commas (‘ ’)

They are used to emphasise a single expression, or when words are used metaphorically. They are also used for quotations within another quotation (for example: “Why was the Twentieth Century called ‘the short century’?”).

Guillemets (« »)

They are used in the following cases:

• for titles of journals in the bibliography for titles of journals in the bibliography;

• to enclose direct speech


Lists must be dotted or numbered as follows:

dog       1. dog

• cat        2. cat


All statements, opinions, conclusions, etc. taken from the work of another author shall be acknowledged, whether the work has been quoted directly, paraphrased or summarised. The Harvard style does not use bibliographical references in footnotes or endnotes. In Harvard system, if reference is made to another work in-text citations shall contain, in accordance with the following guidelines, the author(s)’s or editor(s)’s surname, year of publication and page number(s) in parenthesis, while the full reference to the source is to be included only in the bibliography.

• When the idea of an author is quoted, in-text citation shall include both the author’s surname and the year of publication of the work in parenthesis.

Examples: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in the world (Cook, 1985), but its incidence varies greatly (Bassendine, 1987).

On the subject of “instrumentalism” already theorized in his first analyses of the mind-body problem (Dennett, 1991a), [...].

• When citing a source with several authors, reference shall be in the following form:

two authors: all surnames shall be stated

Example: Recent research (White and Brown, 2004) suggests that...

Three or more authors: the first author’s surname should be stated followed by ‘et al’

Example: Recent research (Doat et al., 1985) suggests that…

• When the name of the author is mentioned in the body text, in-text citation shall include only the year of publication of the work in parenthesis.

Examples: In a recent study, Lewis (1999) says that...

White and Brown (2004) state that…

White et al (2004) state that…

• If reference is made to multiple works not directly quoted in the text, in-text citations shall be listed in the normal way (author(s)’s surname, year of publication) with semicolons between different references.

Example: (Collins, 1998; Brown, 2001; Davies, 2008)

• When reference is made to a specific section of a work, the page number is to be included.

Example: (Cormack, 1994, pp. 32-33)

• In the case of multiple works by the same author released in the same year, works are to be allocated a letter (a, b, c, etc..) after the year, alphabetically according to the author’s surname and source title, to clearly identify the different works.

Examples: (Rossi, 1993a); Rossi (1993b, p. 35)

• Citing secondary sources (reference to a source discussed in another source). Referring in your own work to the summary of another author’s work in a source you are analyzing/reading is called secondary referencing.

Examples: Research recently carried out in the Greater Manchester area by Brown (1966, cited in Bassett, 1986, p.142) found that...

(Brown, 1966, cited in Bassett, 1986, p.142)

Direct quotation

If part of another author’s work is quoted directly (word-for-word), quotation shall be indicated according to the following guidelines:

If the quoted text is no longer than approximately 200 characters (including spaces) it shall be included in the body text enclosed in double inverted commas (regular font, not italics) and followed immediately by in-text citation (author’s surname, year, page/s). In-text citation shall be placed outside the inverted commas and before the period closing the sentence.

Examples: “quote” (Rossi, 1990, p. 14).

“Housing should also be the space of good life, which embodies material wellbeing but must also include […] a system of mutual assistance and solidarity, at the scale of the block of flats or of the city” (Edgar Morin, 2011, p. 197).

Quotations longer than 200 characters (block quote) shall be intended from the left text margin in a block format, with a font (regular) one or more size smaller. Quotation marks are not needed.

Example: New institutional studies of organisations in the 1970s and 1980s are largely characterised by an emphasis on diffusion, isomorphism and decoupling:

The new institutionalism in organisation theory and sociology comprises a rejection of rational-actor models, an interest in institutions as independent variables, a turn towards cognitive and cultural explanations, and an interest in properties of supra individual units of analysis that cannot be reduced to aggregations or direct consequences of individuals’ attributes or motives.

(DiMagio & Powell 1991, p. 8)

• In a quotation in running text that is already enclosed in double quotation marks, single quotation marks are to be used to enclose quoted material (text “quotation ‘quotation within the quotation’ quotation”).

• When quoting poetry, lines are to be separated by a forward slash ( / ) with a space on each side to separate them. In quoting four or more lines, the quotation is to begin on a new line indented 1 cm from the left margin, and each line of the poem has to be reproduced as it appears in the source. Quotation marks are not needed.

• If part of the text is omitted from a quote, this is to be indicated with an ellipsis [...].


Book entries

Book with 1 author

Surname N. year of publication, book title (italicised), publisher, place of publication. If necessary, the date of original publication may be included at the end of the reference list entry within square brackets. In the in-text citation the original publication year is to be included within square brackets.

Examples: Carnap R. 1976, Significato e necessità, La Nuova Italia, Firenze [First published 1947].

Text (Trollope [1866] 1977) text.

Book with 2 or more authors

Surname N., Surname N. year, book title (italicised), publisher, place of publication.

Example: Cheek J., Doskatsch I., Hill P., Walsh L. 1995, Finding Out: Information Literacy For the 21st century, MacMillan Education Australia,

South Melbourne.

For miscellaneous works (multiple authors or editors) avoid using the abbreviation “AA.VV.” (or similar) which has no bibliographical value and indicate the surname of the first author/editor (as listed in alphabetical order) followed by ‘et al.’.

Example: Andronico M. et al. (ed.) 1988, Capire Wittgenstein, Marietti, Genova.

Edited books

Surname N., Surname N. (eds) year, book title (italicised), publisher, place of publication.

Examples: Robinson W.F., Huxtable C.R. (eds) 1988, Clinicopathologic principles, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Andronico M. et al. (eds) 1988, Capire Wittgenstein, Marietti, Genova.

2 or multiple books published in the same year by the same author

Examples: Berkman R.I. 1994a, Capire Wittgenstein, Marietti, Genova.

Berkman R.I. 1994b, Find It Fast: How to Uncover Expert Information on Any Subject, HarperPerennial, New York.

Journal and newspaper/periodical/magazine articles

Surname N. year, article title (italicised), « Journal/newspaper/magazine title», volume, issue, page(s).

Examples: Huffman L.M. 1996, Processing whey protein for use, «Food Technology», vol. 50, n. 2, pp. 49-52.

Mondadori F. 1971, Wittgenstein sui fondamenti della necessità logica, «Rivista critica di storia della filosofia», n. 26, pp. 57-78.

Chapter in a book

Surname N. year, chapter title (italicised), in N. Surname (ed.), book title (italicised), publisher, place of publication, page(s).

Example: Bernstein D. 1995, Transportation planning, in W.F. Chen (ed.), The Civil Engineering, CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 34-48.

If the article’s author is also the book’s author:

Example: Dennett D.C. 1991, I sistemi intenzionali, in Id., Brainstorms, Adelphi, Milano [First published 1978], pp. 37-65.

Unpublished works (thesis and dissertations, works not published yet)

If the work is unpublished

Examples: Williams B. 2008, Guide to project management, in BD45001S Management, Anglia Ruskin University, unpublished.

Srinivasan S. 2006, Development, Discrimination and Survival. Daughter Elimination in Tamil Nadu, India. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Institute of Social Studies, The Hague.

Julian C. 2011, The relationship between industry structure, marketing capabilities, strategy and performance: the empirical link in export ventures, paper presented to The Clute Institute International Academic Conference, Las Vegas, 10-12 October, viewed 18 April 2012.

If the work has been accepted for publication but is not published yet, fill in (in Press) in the date field.

Examples: Pattison J. (in press), A new book that I have written, Vanity Press, London.

Web publications

References to online resources shall include the URL of the website (full resource details in angle brackets <URL>) and the date accessed (month/year). Online articles and books are to be referenced in the same way as articles and books from print resources, online details shall be included at the end of the reference.

Examples: Adorno F., Storia di parole e di concetti. metafisica, ontologia, estetica, in Enciclopedia Multimediale delle Scienze filosofiche,

<http://www. emsf. rai. it/interviste/interviste. asp?d=394> (01/08).

Ahlbäck P. M. 2007, The Reader! The Reader! The Mimetic Challenge of Addressivity and Response in Historical Writing, «Cromohs», n. 12, pp. 1-17, <URL: http://www. cromohs. unifi. it/12_2007/ahlback_reader. html> (01/08).

Calvo M., Ciotti F., Roncaglia G. (eds) 2003, Internet 2004, Laterza, Roma-Bari, <> (01/08).


Images shall be supplied as a high resolution, JPG or TIFF file (images must have a minimum resolution of 300 DPI for the size at which they’ll appear in the printed publication), EPS or PDF file. Each chapter should be provided with at least 2 images (minimum resolution 300 DPI) to be used at full format size. Tables should be submitted preferably as a Word file, or else in a file format to be agreed upon with the CommunicationLab. Images must not be embedded within the text file but supplied in the specific chapter folder as separate digital image files named with a progressive number.

Examples: Fig. 3 is the third figure

Tab. 2 is the second table

Reference to the figures in the text (if needed) must be indicated with a progressive number.

Examples: (Fig. 1), (Fig. 1, 2), (Fig. 1-3).

Image captions shall be listed at the end of each chapter/article and include a short description of the image, which might include place and country, and the author’s name and surname in parenthesis (if not credited in the colophon).

Examples: Fig. 1: Charlottesville, Virginia. Monticello. Front elevation (photo: Lucia Rossi, 2016).

It is preferable to credit photographers in the colophon and not in captions. Credit might include the list of page(s) where photos (if needed).


A.D. Anno Domini
anast. anastatic
art(s). article(s)
B.C. Before Christ
cf. compare
chap(s). chapter(s)
cit. cited
cl. class
cm, m, km centimetre, metre, kilometre (without full stops)
ed. edition
e.g. for example
etc. and fo forth, not preceded by a comma
f(s). folio(s)
Is(s). issue(s)
fig(s). figure(s)
No(s). number(s)
p., pp. page, pages
sect(s). section(s)
ch(s). chart(s)
tab(s). table(s)
Vol(s). volume(s)
yr(s). year(s)