Vol. 10 No. 2 (2021)
Full Research Articles

A systematic review of attributes used in choice experiments for agri-environmental contracts

Nidhi Raina
University of Bologna
Matteo Zavalloni
University of Bologna
Stefano Targetti
University of Bologna
Riccardo D'Alberto
University of Bologna
Meri Raggi
University of Bologna
Davide Viaggi
University of Bologna

Published 2021-10-28


  • Choice experiment,
  • agri-environmental schemes,
  • willingness to accept,
  • contract attributes,
  • systematic literature review

How to Cite

Raina, N., Zavalloni, M., Targetti, S., D’Alberto, R., Raggi, M., & Viaggi, D. (2021). A systematic review of attributes used in choice experiments for agri-environmental contracts. Bio-Based and Applied Economics, 10(2), 137–152. https://doi.org/10.36253/bae-9678


Contract attributes are strong motivators for eliciting farmers’ preferences for a particular agri-environmental scheme. Our study aims to conduct a systematic literature review to highlight the attributes used in choice experiment studies of agri-environmental schemes using the PRISMA framework. We obtained 34 studies for an in-depth review, through which we extracted 32 attributes that were classified into five typologies: ‘monetary’ (7 attributes), ‘general’ (4 attributes), ‘flexibility’ (6 attributes), ‘prescription’ (12 attributes), and ‘purpose’ (3 attributes). Though monetary attributes should theoretically define farmers’ choices; general design and flexibility attributes are more critical for farmers’ participation and willingness to accept. The study also discusses the lesser-used attributes that could be potentially explored in future studies. Thus, our review can be used as a reference by future AES studies to select their bundle of choice attributes and test with a broader range of attributes in their choice experiments.


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